Chris Harwood

Chris Harwood
Loughborough University | Lough · School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

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130
Publications
130,141
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Publications

Publications (130)
Article
Full-text available
There remains limited research into the role that parents play to support their child’s psychosocial development within elite youth sport contexts. The present study was conducted in an English professional youth football (soccer) academy that has intentionally integrated the 5Cs framework (Harwood; commitment, communication, concentration, control...
Article
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Research exploring the processes and effects of parent-child social interaction in youth sport has been limited by an overreliance on retrospective questionnaire and interview-based designs. The purpose of the current study was to examine the naturally occurring parent-child interactions which unfold during the pre-competition car journey within Br...
Article
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There is considerable attention devoted to athlete mental health in high-performance sport. The International Society of Sport Psychology seeks to extend this discourse by expanding the discussion through a lens of occupational health and safety (OHS). Drawing upon knowledge from OHS, the authors have considered existing mental health challenges as...
Chapter
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Studies have highlighted the stressful nature of youth sport for parents and young athletes and the negative impact this can have on their experiences and involvement. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that stressful and adverse events have the potential to facilitate long-term growth. In this chapter, we explore the individual and shar...
Article
The relationship athletes develop with their coaches is instrumental for improved sport performances and wellbeing (Jowett & Shanmugam, 2016). Sport psychologists have been encouraged to facilitate the development of effective coach-athlete relationships and may also play a vital part in dealing with disruptions, such as interpersonal conflict. Wit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to examine the naturally occurring parent-child interactions which occur before, during, and after tennis competitions. Background: Although considerable academic attention has focused on parent-child interactions before, during, and after competitions in youth sport (see Harwood et al., 2019), there...
Article
This research developed a scale to assess the following life skills in higher education students: teamwork, goal setting, time management, emotional skills, interpersonal communication, social skills, leadership, and problem solving and decision making. Study 1 adapted an existing scale for the purposes of this research and provided evidence for th...
Article
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The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive narrative review of extant scientific knowledge on the effectiveness of performance-enhancement based interventions within youth sport settings. Specifically, we explore the effects of psychological interventions on the sport performance of young athletes (18 years of age or under). Drawing upon o...
Article
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The current study investigated psychological stress among parents of competitive British tennis players. Adopting a multipart concurrent mixed method design, 135 British tennis parents completed a cross sectional online questionnaire to examine their primary appraisals, emotions, and coping strategies associated with self-disclosed stressors. Hiera...
Article
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The purpose of this article is to review and critique the literature in youth sport that specifically relates to parental influence on the experiences and psychosocial development of young athletes. First, we consider the literature examining the extent to which parental involvement in organised youth sport has been associated with psychosocial out...
Article
In a self-modelling intervention, the content of the video is edited to show only the subject’s adaptive behaviour and can be delivered as a feed-forward (FF) or as a feedback method, known as positive self-review (PSR; Dowrick, 1999). In this study, a PSR video intervention – based on self-modelling theory (Bandura, 1986, 1997) – was delivered to...
Chapter
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Chapter
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Article
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This paper presents a series of studies that progress the development and validation of the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate in Individual Sport Competition Questionnaire (MCISCQ-Parent). Study 1 examined the face and content validity of an initial pool of 26 items based on the principles of achievement goal theory and prior research. In study...
Article
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This study investigated coach−athlete conflict and focused on conflict management approaches used to minimize dysfunctional and maximize functional outcomes of interpersonal conflict. A qualitative approach to data collection enabled the researchers to explore various conflict management strategies used by the participants. Within the scope of the...
Article
Within applied sport psychology, the process of gaining entry, specifically the employment interview, has received little attention relative to other stages of practice. This study, guided by an interpretative phenomenological approach, aimed to understand the experiences of gatekeepers to practice within United Kingdom elite sport who have been di...
Article
Objectives: To situate the current status of accreditation in four key international societies, ASPASP, FEPSAC, AASP, and ISSP, in a historical backdrop and then to draw on these approaches to propose future directions and developments relating to practical standards. Design: A review of the origins and current status of accreditation in four inter...
Article
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to, (a) understand the role of the social support network in facilitating adolescent athletes' dual careers in sport and education, and; (b) gain insights into the factors that may optimize the provision of such support. Design: A two-stage qualitative study. Method: In stage one, four different sport a...
Article
The sport psychology consultant’s (SPC) first impression and rapport building with potential clients is vital to “gaining entry” – the precursor to subsequent service provision. Understanding those characteristics of the consultant that influence the clients’ preference and likelihood to seek psychological services contributes to the development of...
Article
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Despite research illustrating the socially constructed and subjective nature of talent identification in football, little research has explored how players make sense of ‘being talented’ and how this shapes their identity experiences. Five football academy players aged 11 years participated in five focus group interviews. Thematic and interactional...
Article
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This study evaluated the effectiveness of a novel online education program for British tennis parents and their experiences of engaging in the program. Using a convergent parallel mixed- methods design, 13 parents completed pre- and post-program online questionnaires, while a subset of 9 participants also shared their experiences via an asynchronou...
Article
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Conflict is a part of coach-athlete relationships and should be carefully considered as it can have effects on the quality of coaching and the level of performance. Despite its practical relevance, there is a dearth of research around coach-athlete conflict. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore the characteristics and topics of conflict, a...
Article
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In the present study we add to the literature by exploring the degree to which UK practitioner psychologists perceive themselves able to support sport coaches, and how professional training prepares psychologists for coach work across performance domains. Ten participants comprising seven sport and exercise psychologists with Health Care Profession...
Article
This study explored UK female football players' perceptions of their talent development environments using the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. Participants were 137 UK-based female football players (Mage = 16.06, SD = 1.90) from Football Association Girls' Centres of Excellence and Football Association Women's Super League Development...
Article
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Objectives With practitioners needing to be ‘more things to more people’, it is essential to understand third-party consumer perceptions of the role and benefits of sport psychology consultants (SPC), and the characteristics that may influence such services being sought. Design A qualitative thematic analysis approach was used in Study 1 and a cro...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate how an athlete's Eastern-Western cultural affiliation and personality are related to their perception of sport psychology and attitude toward consultation with a sport psychology practitioner. Two hundred and nineteen athletes from Western and Eastern cultures completed the Sport Psychology Attitudes-Rev...
Conference Paper
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Despite academic interest in sport parenting, there is a lack of published intervention research with this population (Harwood & Knight, 2015). Researchers in the UK (Thrower et al. 2016) and US (e.g. Dorsch et al. 2016) have recently engaged sport parent education programmes. Although initial findings have been encouraging, these studies highlight...
Article
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This study examined the effectiveness of an evidence-based sport parent education programme designed to meet the stage-specific needs of British tennis parents. Using an organisational action research framework, six workshops were run over a 12-week period for tennis parents with children between the ages of 5 and 10 years. Workshops took place in...
Article
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Objectives: To provide a critical systematic review of recent research into psychosocial factors associated with talent development in football. Design: Systematic review informed by the PRISMA guidelines. Method: Literature was sourced from Science Direct, Sport Discus, Psycharticles and Psychinfo. This was followed by a detailed screening and sif...
Article
This paper provides a brief summary and commentary on the growing literature on parenting in sport, with a particular emphasis on literature from the last 2-3 years. Following a brief introduction overviewing the topic area, we firstly focus on the influence of parental involvement on children. Specifically, we examine the range of factors that inf...
Article
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The purpose of this two-part study was to examine the role of psychological factors within the delivery of video feedback in elite youth football. Interviews were conducted with 11 coaches and 12 players. A thematic content analysis yielded data relating to three general dimensions: (a) the psychological responses engaged during delivery; (b) the i...
Article
Although social and personal relationships are vital for productivity, health and wellbeing, conflict is inevitable and is likely to cause upset and hurt feelings as well as anxiety and distrust. Despite the potentially central role of interpersonal conflict in sport, researchers have yet to pay concerted attention to exploring the nature of confli...
Chapter
In this chapter, by drawing upon personal experience, service-based case examples and research initiatives, I present three critical reflections of working as a psychologist in these roles. As a collective, these reflections champion the importance of the scientist-practitioner model [Frank, G. (1984). The Boulder Model: history, rationale, and cri...
Poster
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Purpose: Despite its significant role in everyday coaching, the underlying processes and correlates of conflict in coach-athlete relations are largely under-researched. The current study aimed to investigate experiences of conflict between coaches and athletes. Design: Considering the novelty of the research inquiry, a qualitative approach was util...
Article
The last decade of research in sport psychology has reflected a growing interest in parental involvement in sport. Researchers have taken child- and coach-centric perspectives to investigate both the antecedents and consequences of parental involvement. What emerges from such research are insights into the positive and negative effects of parental...
Article
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Youth sport parenting research, in psychology, has methodologically prioritised individual level analysis of the behaviours, perceptions or needs of parents and young athletes. While this has contributed greatly to understanding the role of parents in sport, children’s parenting preferences and the challenges of parenting in this unique setting, an...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to identify British tennis parents’ education and support needs across contexts and developmental stages. Data were collected in 2 high-performance tennis centers and consisted of 6 months of fieldwork and interviews with parents, coaches, and ex-youth players (n = 29). Using a grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Str...
Article
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The growing use of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in performance contexts (e.g., business, sport) has highlighted the absence of a contextually valid and reliable measure of irrational beliefs. This paper reports the development and initial validation of the Irrational Performance Beliefs Inventory (iPBI). The iPBI was developed to provid...
Article
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This is an early draft of the final chapter
Article
This study examined the effectiveness of a longitudinal 5C coaching intervention (Harwood, 2008), focused on promoting behavioral responses associated with commitment, communication, concentration, control, and confidence in youth soccer players. Five players, their parents and a youth academy soccer coach participated in a single-case multiple-bas...
Article
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The aim of this study was to examine elite youth athletes' views on parental involvement in training, competition, and at home. Eight canoeists were interviewed up to four times and completed written diaries over a 6-week period. Results indicated that parents were generally deemed to have a positive influence through domain specific and cross-doma...
Article
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Video is increasingly recognised and utilised within elite sport settings as an appropriate medium for capturing and analysing information about performance. However, research to date has focused more attention on the technology and techniques associated with analysis, and limited research exists which has explored the day-to-day realities of using...
Conference Paper
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There currently exists an in-­‐depth empirical understanding of parental involvement in junior tennis. Despite this, published intervention studies are conspicuous by their absence in the literature (Harwood & Knight, 2012). This has led to recent calls to encourage applied researchers, practitioners and sports organizations to use this body of lit...
Article
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to systematically review and appraise the achievement goal literature (1990-2014) with a view to identifying the intra-individual correlates of motivational climate perceptions, and to identify research gaps and avenues in need for further development. Design: Systematic review. Method: Four databases were...
Article
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine career experiences of UK-based female youth soccer players from a holistic perspective with a view to producing a grounded theory of factors contributing to career/talent development and transitions in UK youth female soccer. Methodology: A Grounded Theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008) was...
Article
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As a preliminary investigation, we examined elite youth football academy players' perceptions of the quality of their development environment, at a crucial stage in their progression to the professional level. With institutional ethics approval, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire (TDEQ) [1] was used to survey 50 elite players aged 16-...
Article
Understanding the practitioner attributes that influence consumers' preferences is of vital importance to licensing organizations and individual practitioners in the field of sport psychology (Hamberger & Iso-Ahola, 2006; Van Raalte, Brewer, Matheson & Brewer, 1996). This study examined consumer preferences toward three professional titles (sport p...
Conference Paper
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The parent-related research in youth sport has provided numerous recommendations of how parents could benefit from education and support. However, although these recommendations have offered guidance for potential interventions, no studies have specifically set out to identify parents’ educational and support needs within a specific sport organizat...
Article
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Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of parents of elite specializing stage youth footballers. Method A descriptive phenomenological approach guided the study design. Data from interviews with five mothers and five fathers of youth players registered to English football academies were analysed using descriptive pheno...
Conference Paper
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This presentation focuses on an educational process for tennis parents during players’ early adolescence (age 10-14 years). The educational process is taken from a study which identified British tennis parents’ education and support needs across contexts and developmental stages.This study used a grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008)...
Article
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This study examined the factors perceived by successful coaches to underpin optimal development environments within elite English soccer academies. A semistructured interview guide was developed to interview 10 expert coaches about the environments they create for players at a key stage in their development. The interviews were transcribed verbatim...
Article
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To advance the literature on talent development within elite female athletes, this study investigated the developmental experiences of elite youth female soccer players. We adopted an interpretive approach where four players (M age = 16.75) were initially interviewed to gain a retrospective understanding of their development as soccer players. Subs...
Article
Objectives In line with the aims of this special issue, the purpose of this paper is to forward a position on the concept of sport parenting expertise through the presentation of six key postulates. Design Literature review and position statement. Method By adopting methods associated with an academic position paper, a statement is presented that...
Article
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Objectives This study examined the construction of the motivational climate surrounding elite sports performers by investigating the behaviours of coaches, peers and parents that were perceived to be motivationally relevant by elite athletes. Design Qualitative – inductive. Method Twenty-eight national, international and world-class athletes (15–...
Article
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This study represents a qualitative synthesis of research examining the socio-environmental influences of coaches, parents and peers on athlete motivation, across the athletic career-span. Using a critical-realist perspective, meta-interpretation methodology was deployed to search and analyse the literature. On-going, iterative analysis generated n...
Article
The purpose of this study was to gain a more cohesive understanding of the assets considered necessary to develop in young swimmers to ensure both individual and sport-specific development. This two-stage study involved (a) a content analysis of key papers to develop a list of both psychosocial skills for performance enhancement and assets associat...
Article
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Working with teams and training groups is a common and major challenge for applied sport psychologists. This document is a position statement on the rationales, methods, and procedures of team-focused approaches in the practice of sport psychology. Furthermore, practice recommendations and research desiderata are discussed. To develop the paper, a...
Article
The aim of the current study was to facilitate systematic reflection and action to improve the performance environment of a soccer team during a competitive season. Using the Performance Environment Survey (PES; Pain & Harwood, 2007) as a diagnostic instrument, the researcher worked with the coach to collaboratively identify areas in which team pre...
Article
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Abstract Based on the developmental theory presented by Gagné (2009), we examined the factors perceived to influence the development of elite youth football players at a critical stage in their progression to the professional level. Transcribed interviews with ten expert development coaches were inductively and deductively content analysed. Concept...
Article
From personal experiences of working with coaches toward the modification of behaviors and psychological constructs that include motivation, enjoyment and self-confidence, this commentary highlights how the integration of single case designs can enhance the services of sport psychology practitioners. Interventions within golf, soccer, and tennis ar...
Technical Report
The purpose of this document is to accompany FEPSAC Position Statement #10 and is designed to assist practitioners in considering whether or not they engage in ethical practice. The checklist contains a number of questions under the heading of each ethical principle, each of which is followed by supplementary information to aid practitioners in avo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on psychosocial factors associated with talent development in soccer. An extensive literature search was conducted using infotrac, science direct, informaworld, swetswise, SportDiscus and Psycinfo between October 2008 and February 2009. This was followed by a detailed sifting and scr...
Article
This article describes an intervention ontable the precompetition routines of soccer players during a 19-week phase of a competitive season. Specifically, we worked with players to develop an enhanced understanding of the effectiveness of personalized preperformance music and imagery scripts in facilitating flow states and performance. Five male pl...
Article
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This chapter is intended to provide a comprehensive review of the various theories of social and environmental factors that influence athletes' motivation in sport. In order to achieve this, a short historical review is conducted of the various ways in which motivation has been studied over the past 100 years, culminating in the =social-cognitive'...
Conference Paper
Objective: This study identified elite British junior slalom canoeists’ perceptions of positive and negative parental behaviours in 3 contexts (home, training and competition) and the perceived impact such behaviours had on canoeists’ thoughts, feelings and behaviours. Design: Qualitative methodology was utilised to gain in-depth, personal accounts...
Article
This article discusses issues surrounding the potential violation of sexual boundaries in sport psychology consultancy and critically evaluates the current state of knowledge in the field. Limited discussion and research relating to this ethical issue exists within sport psychology; the discussion that has occurred has mainly focused on erotic tran...
Article
This study examined the extent to which 2 x 2 achievement goal constructs (Elliot, 1999) were associated with key relational perceptions (i.e., relationship commitment, relationship satisfaction) for members of athlete-athlete dyads. Both members from 82 regional-level partnerships (mean age = 22.72, SD = 3.83) were recruited from a variety of dyad...
Article
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In order to improve our understanding of parental experiences in elite youth sport, the present study investigated parental stressors within the context of professional football (i.e. soccer) academies in Great Britain. Focusing upon the specialising stage of athlete development, a total of 41 parents attended six focus groups exploring their exper...
Article
Positive affect is linked to enhanced motivation, commitment, and performance among youth sport performers; yet, few psychological interventions have specifically attempted to enhance positive affect among these athletes. To address this circumstance, we implemented a single-subject multiple-baseline design to examine the effects of a goal-setting...
Article
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This study qualitatively examined the motivationally relevant behaviors of key social agents in specializing sport participants. Seventy-nine participants (9–18 years old) from 26 sports participated in semi-structured focus groups investigating how coaches, parents, and peers may influence motivation. Using a critical-realist perspective, an induc...
Chapter
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The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the role that achievement motivation plays in our understanding of coping responses and strategies in sport. First, we outline the tenets of achievement goal theory by focusing on the original approaches championed by Nicholls (1984) and Dweck (1986), as well as the role of motivational climate (Ames, 1992)...
Article
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In order to explore the stressors that tennis coaches' associate with parents and examine how such stressors may differ depending upon a player's developmental stage of participation, seventeen focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 70 coaches; 28 coaches of sampling stage players, 24 coaches of specializing stage players, and 18 coa...