Chris Grundy

Chris Grundy
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | LSHTM · Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology

About

74
Publications
13,402
Reads
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3,291
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2016 - October 2016
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Position
  • Lecturer
January 1993 - present
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Position
  • Lecturer in Geographical Information Systems

Publications

Publications (74)
Article
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Background: Bubaque is the most populous island of the Bijagos archipelago, a group of malaria-endemic islands situated off the coast of Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Malaria vector control on Bubaque relies almost exclusively on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, there is little information on local vector bionomics and ins...
Article
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Aims Research from high-income countries has implicated travel distance to mental health services as an important factor influencing treatment-seeking for mental disorders. This study aimed to test the extent to which travel distance to the nearest depression treatment provider is associated with treatment-seeking for depression in rural India. Me...
Article
SETTING: Thirteen districts in Eastern Cape (EC), KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and Western Cape (WC) Provinces, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To pilot a methodology for describing and visualising healthcare journeys among drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) patients using routine laboratory records. DESIGN: Laboratory records were obtained for 195 patients with...
Article
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Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin is a cornerstone of the trachoma elimination strategy. Although the global prevalence of active trachoma has declined considerably, prevalence persists or even increases in some communities and districts. To increase understanding of MDA impact, we investigated the prevalence of active t...
Article
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Background Information on the size of populations is crucial for planning of service and resource allocation to communities in need of health interventions. In resource limited settings, reliable census data are often not available. Using publicly available Google Earth Pro and available local household survey data from fishing communities (FC) on...
Article
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The role of the neighbourhood environment in influencing health behaviours continues to be an important topic in public health research and policy. Foot-based street audits, virtual street audits and secondary data sources are widespread data collection methods used to objectively measure the built environment in environment-health association stud...
Article
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Background Tanzania achieved the Millennium Development Goal for child survival, yet made insufficient progress for maternal and neonatal survival and stillbirths, due to low coverage and quality of services for care at birth, with rural women left behind. Our study aimed to evaluate Tanzania’s subnational (regional-level) variations for rural care...
Article
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Background Evaluating health systems and policy (HSP) change and implementation is critical in understanding reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) progress within and across countries. Whilst data for health outcomes, coverage and equity have advanced in the last decade, comparable analyses of HSP changes are lacking. We present...
Article
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Facility delivery is an important aspect of the strategy to reduce maternal and newborn mortality. Geographic access to care is a strong determinant of facility delivery, but few studies have simultaneously considered the influence of facility quality, with inconsistent findings. In rural Brong Ahafo region in Ghana, we combined surveillance data o...
Article
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Identifying and tackling the social determinants of infectious diseases has become a public health priority following the recognition that individuals with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by infectious diseases. In many parts of the world, epidemiologically and genotypically defined community-associated (CA) methicillin-r...
Article
What if we could use existing technologies to improve our ability to respond to emergencies and outbreaks? Geographical Information Specialist, Chris Grundy explains how you can use simple mobile technologies to collect a constant supply of data that will allow us to map disease outbreaks or populations, improve response times and prevent the sprea...
Article
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A growing body of literature explores the relationship between the built environment and health, and the methodological challenges of understanding these complex interactions across the lifecourse. The impact of the neighbourhood environment on health and behaviour amongst older adults has received less attention, despite this age group being poten...
Article
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Some local authorities have reduced street lighting at night to save energy, but little is known about impacts on public health or about public concerns about impacts on well-being. Aim To evaluate the effect of reduced street lighting on crime and road traffic injuries. Design A mixed-methods study comprising a rapid appraisal, a controlled inte...
Article
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OPEN ACCESS version here: http://jech.bmj.com/content/early/2015/07/08/jech-2015-206012 Background Many local authorities in England and Wales have reduced street lighting at night to save money and reduce carbon emissions. There is no evidence to date on whether these reductions impact on public health. We quantified the effect of 4 street lighti...
Article
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Background Access to skilled attendance at childbirth is crucial to reduce maternal and newborn mortality. Several different measures of geographic access are used concurrently in public health research, with the assumption that sophisticated methods are generally better. Most of the evidence for this assumption comes from methodological comparison...
Article
This paper presents a new decision-support methodology and software tool for sustainable management of urban pollution. A number of different methods and tools are integrated within the same platform, including GIS, LCA, fate and transport modelling, health impact assessment and multi-criteria decision analysis. The application of the framework is...
Article
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Background Both road safety campaigns and epidemiological research into social differences in road traffic injury risk often assume that road traffic injuries occur close to home. While previous work has examined distance from home to site of collision for child pedestrians in local areas, less is known about the geographic distribution of road tra...
Article
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Background: Estimating the size of forcibly displaced populations is key to documenting their plight and allocating sufficient resources to their assistance, but is often not done, particularly during the acute phase of displacement, due to methodological challenges and inaccessibility. In this study, we explored the potential use of very high res...
Data
Full-text available
Site descriptions, detailed literature search strategy and the complete list of documents found in the search.
Article
Evidence suggests that 20 mph zones are an effective intervention to reduce casualties from road traffic crashes in urban areas. This analysis compares the costs of construction of the 20 mph zone intervention in high and low casualty areas in London to the value of casualties avoided over 5 and 10 year time horizons. Probabilistic sensitivity anal...
Article
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Objective: To model the possible air pollution-related health impact of the 2005 oil depot fire at Buncefield, near London, UK, under alternative meteorological conditions to those experienced at the time. Design: Atmospheric dispersion modelling of the smoke plume was conducted under the range of meteorological conditions occurring throughout 200...
Article
Road traffic casualties show some of the widest socioeconomic differentials of any cause of morbidity or mortality, and as yet there is little evidence on what works to reduce them. This study quantified the current and potential future impact of the introduction of 20 mph zones on socioeconomic inequalities in road casualties in London. An observa...
Article
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While socio-economic inequalities in road casualty risk are well documented, there is little evidence available on what works to reduce them. As there is good evidence that reducing the speed and volume of traffic reduces casualty rates, some have suggested that implementing traffic calming, and doing so particularly in areas where there are high r...
Article
There is a substantial literature on socio-economic inequalities in injury rates, but less on ethnic differences. Using police records of road injuries to examine the relationships between pedestrian injury, area deprivation and ethnicity we found that, in London, children categorised as ‘Black’ had higher injury rates than those categorised as ‘Wh...
Article
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To quantify the effect of the introduction of 20 mph (32 km an hour) traffic speed zones on road collisions, injuries, and fatalities in London. Observational study based on analysis of geographically coded police data on road casualties, 1986-2006. Analyses were made of longitudinal changes in counts of road injuries within each of 119 029 road se...
Article
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Physical activity has been positively associated with a range of objectively measured environmental variables. We explored the relationship of walking and other categories of physical activity with objectively measured activity specific environmental variables in a U.K. population. We used a geographical information system (GIS) and gender specific...
Article
The role of vegetation in mitigating the effects of PM(10) pollution has been highlighted as one potential benefit of urban greenspace. An integrated modelling approach is presented which utilises air dispersion (ADMS-Urban) and particulate interception (UFORE) to predict the PM(10) concentrations both before and after greenspace establishment, usi...
Chapter
Waterborne disease resulting from contaminated drinking and recreational waters is preventable. Since 2000 there has been a significant reduction in cryptosporidiosis in the first half of the year in England and Wales, but not in the second. This probably resulted from implementation of new drinking water regulations and substantial investment in w...
Article
Quantitative analysis of the physical and demographic parameters of access to Thames Chase Community Forest (TCCF), and how these have changed between 1990 and 2003; and qualitative exploration of our understanding of the links between health and the natural environment (TCCF), with a focus on the issue of 'access' to green space. Multimethod desig...
Article
This paper explores perceptions of health, the environment, and the relationships between them, in a programme of community forestry. Drawing on qualitative data generated within a multi-disciplinary project, the paper discusses the difficulties of conceptualising the key variables utilised in research on the links between green space and health. H...
Article
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Infectious intestinal disease (IID) surveillance data are an under-utilised information source on illness geography. This paper uses a case study of cryptosporidiosis in England and Wales to demonstrate how these data can be converted into area-based rates and the factors underlying illness geography investigated. Ascertainment bias is common in su...
Article
To examine the variation in serious injuries in children by the level of deprivation in an area and by types of settlement. Hospital admission rates for serious injury to children aged 0-15 years in census lower super output areas in England during the 5-year period 1 April 1999 to 31 March 2004 were analysed. Rates of serious injury in children we...
Article
In urban areas, road traffic is a major source of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), thus any changes in traffic patterns are expected to affect PAH concentrations in ambient air. Exposure to PAH and other traffic-related air pollutants has often been quantified in a deterministic manner that disregards the various sources of unce...
Article
To describe young people's knowledge and use of contraceptive services over initial stages of England's Teenage Pregnancy Strategy, and to investigate factors associated with use of different services. A random location sample of young people aged 13-21 years (n = 8879) was interviewed in 12 waves over 2000-2004. Individual data were analysed to in...
Article
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We report on the first case-control study to investigate the role of wider environmental and socioeconomic factors upon human cryptosporidiosis. Using GIS the detailed locations of 3368 laboratory-confirmed cases were compared to the locations of an equal number of controls. All cases were genotyped enabling Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporid...
Article
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Environmental pollution as a cause of congenital anomalies is sometimes suspected because of clustering of anomalies in areas of higher exposure. This highlights questions around spatial heterogeneity (clustering) in congenital anomaly rates. If spatial variation is endemic, then any one specific cluster is less remarkable, though the presence of u...
Conference Paper
The PUrE (Pollutants in the Urban Environment) research consortium is developing anew decision-support framework for the integrated assessment of options for moresustainable management of urban pollution. This framework involves three steps: (i)mapping the flow of pollutants associated with human activities; (ii) modelling the fateand transport of...
Article
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The aim of this study was to quantify the change in the number of conceptions and abortions among women younger than 18 years in England in relation to the government's national teenage pregnancy strategy. We undertook geographic analysis of data for 148 top-tier local authority areas. The main outcomes were changes in under-18 conceptions, abortio...
Article
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There is a shortage of research studies that assess how selected characteristics of neighbourhood and personal social circumstances contribute towards health-related quality of life (QoL) among older people. Analysis of baseline data for 5581 people aged > or =75 years and over from the Trial of Assessment and Management of Older People in the Comm...
Technical Report
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The Teenage Pregnancy Strategy in England, published in June 1999, is a multifaceted strategy that includes action to both halve the under 18 conception rate by 2010 and provide support to teenage parents to reduce the long term risk of social exclusion by increasing the proportion in education, training and employment. The Strategy has four major...
Article
Full-text available
The Teenage Pregnancy Strategy in England, published in June 1999, is a multifaceted strategy that includes action to both halve the under 18 conception rate by 2010 and provide support to teenage parents to reduce the long term risk of social exclusion by increasing the proportion in education, training and employment. The Strategy has four major...
Article
Full-text available
Aim To model the inequalities in availability of National Health Service general dental practitioners in England and Wales in relation to key socio-demographic factors.Methods Current estimates of the numbers of NHS general dental practitioners for each health authority were related to data from the 1991 census using Poisson regression models, and...
Article
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To model the inequalities in availability of National Health Service general dental practitioners in England and Wales in relation to key socio-demographic factors. Current estimates of the numbers of NHS general dental practitioners for each health authority were related to data from the 1991 census using Poisson regression models, and generalised...
Article
Evidence for an association between road traffic pollution and asthma is inconclusive. We report a case-control study of hospital admissions for asthma and respiratory illness among children aged 5-14 in relation to proxy markers of traffic related pollution. The study was based on routine hospital admissions data in 1992/3 and 1993/4 for North Tha...
Article
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BACKGROUND Evidence for an association between road traffic pollution and asthma is inconclusive. We report a case-control study of hospital admissions for asthma and respiratory illness among children aged 5–14 in relation to proxy markers of traffic related pollution.METHODS The study was based on routine hospital admissions data in 1992/3 and 19...
Article
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To examine the incidence of lymphohaematopoietic malignancy around industrial complexes that include major oil refineries in Great Britain after recent public and scientific concern of possible carcinogenic hazards of emissions from the petrochemical industry. Small area study of the incidence of lymphohaematopoietic malignancies, 1974-91, within 7...
Article
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To investigate whether residents near cokeworks have a higher standardised mortality than those further away, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory causes, which may be associated with pollution from cokeworks. Cross sectional small area study with routinely collected postcoded mortality data and small area census statistics. Populations...
Article
Although the international and regional variability of perinatal mortality rates have been widely studied, less is known about the variability at the small-area level. The geographical distribution of perinatal mortality in the former North-West Thames Health Region, England, during 1981-90, and its association with small-area socio-economic factor...
Article
This multilevel study of spatial variability in, and determinants of, birthweight was conducted using individual and ecological data in a geographically defined prospective birth cohort for 1986 in northern Finland. The study area comprises three large areas defined by latitude: Northern Lapland (NL), Southern Lapland (SL) and Oulu province (OP), c...
Article
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To examine the incidence and mortality of cancer near the Pan Britannica Industries factory, Waltham Abbey, after reports of a possible cluster of all cancers and brain cancer in the vicinity. Small area study of cancer incidence 1977-89, and mortality 1981-92, within a 7.5 km radius of the factory site. Postcoded cancer registrations and deaths in...
Article
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A small area study of cancer incidence in 1974-1986 was carried out to investigate an unconfirmed report of a "cluster" of leukemias and lymphomas near the Sutton Coldfield television (TV) and frequency modulation (FM) radio transmitter in the West Midlands, England. The study used a national database of postcoded cancer registrations, and populati...