Chris Englert

Chris Englert
Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main · Institute of Sports Sciences

Professor

About

100
Publications
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1,506
Citations

Publications

Publications (100)
Article
Full-text available
There is an ongoing debate about how to test and operationalize self-control. This limited understanding is in large part due to a variety of different tests and measures used to assess self-control, as well as the lack of empirical studies examining the temporal dynamics during the exertion of self-control. In order to track changes that occur ove...
Article
Full-text available
Self-control is a highly adaptive human capacity and research on self-control is booming. To further facilitate self-control research, especially in conditions where time-constraints might render the use of multi-item measures of self-control problematic, a validated time-efficient single item measure would be an asset. However, such a measure has...
Article
Perceived sport injury-related growth (SIRG) describes the possibility for athletes to benefit psychologically from an injury. The present, pre-registered online study examined an international sample of 335 athletes (16 countries; 34 sports) with pronounced athletic biographies who sustained a severe sports-related injury. Expanding the extant lit...
Article
Introduction Soccer is a complex game in which athletes perform in a dynamic 360°-environment. The results of numerous studies highlight the importance of perceptual-cognitive functions for soccer performance. Moreover, in recent years, the idea of improving sports performance through systematic perceptual-cognitive training has been increasingly i...
Article
Introduction An important requirement for soccer players is the accurate and rapid processing of dynamic and complex visual scenes. Therefore, in high-level youth soccer the players’ perceptual-cognitive skills are highly relevant from a scientific and practical point of view. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in perceptua...
Article
Full-text available
If-then planning (implementation intentions) describes a self-regulatory strategy that helps people to attain their goals across a variety of domains, such as achieving physical activity goals. Based on such beneficial effects, if-then plans are anecdotally discussed as a strategy to enhance sports-related performance as well. However, this discuss...
Article
Of the many people who make New Year’s resolutions, only very few achieve them persistently (Statistic Brain, 2017). This so-called intention-behavior gap extends well beyond the realm of New Year’s resolutions (Sheeran & Webb, 2016) and exemplifies the necessity to not only focus on the processes of goal setting (i.e., motivation) but also on the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Of the many people who make New Year’s resolutions, only very few achieve them persistently (Statistic Brain, 2017). This so-called intention-behavior gap extends well beyond the realm of New Year’s resolutions (Sheeran & Webb, 2016) and exemplifies the necessity to not only focus on the processes of goal setting (i.e., motivation) but also on the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Self-control is a highly adaptive human capacity and research on self-control is booming. To further facilitate self-control research, especially in conditions where time-constraints might render the use of multi-item measures of self-control problematic, a validated time-efficient single item measure would be an asset. However, such a measure has...
Chapter
Full-text available
magine yourself walking to the gym in the rain after a long hard day at work. Picture yourself lifting heavy weights, even though you would prefer sitting on the sofa watching your favorite baseball team win a playoff match. This is just one sports-related example during which self-control processes enable us to keep striving for a desirable goalan...
Book
Effective motivation and self-regulation are two complementary prerequisites for successful engagement in sport and exercise contexts. An athlete or exerciser who is optimally motivated and possesses the necessary self-regulatory resources and skills is not only more likely to persistently strive towards goal achievement, but they are also likely t...
Article
Full-text available
In order to perform at the highest level, elite shooters have to remain focused during the whole course of a tournament, which regularly lasts multiple hours. Investing self-control over extended time periods is often associated with lower levels of perceived self-control strength (i.e., the subjective estimation of how much mental effort one is ca...
Article
Full-text available
In their recently published multi-site project, Vohs and colleagues (in press) made an attempt to assess the size and robustness of the ego depletion effect. For this reason, the authors adopted the sequential two-task paradigm in a study with more than 3,500 participants from 36 laboratories. The laboratories had the choice between applying the e-...
Article
Introduction In team sports, the ability to visually track the movements of teammates and opponents simultaneously is a critical aspect for success. In sports psychology, this ability can be examined with the help of the multiple object tracking paradigm. The current study investigated the relationship between task performance in a novel 360°-multi...
Article
Full-text available
The present study tested the assumption that the momentary level of self-control strength affects the accuracy rates in a sports-related judgement and decision-making task. A total of N = 27 participants rated the veracity of 28 video-taped statements of soccer players who were interviewed by a non-visible referee after a critical game-related situ...
Article
Full-text available
The strength model of self-control proposes that all acts of self-control are energized by one global limited resource that becomes temporarily depleted by a primary self-control task, leading to impaired self-control performance in secondary self-control tasks. However, failed replications have cast doubt on the existence of this so-called ego dep...
Article
During professional shooting tournaments, which typically last multiple hours, athletes must stay focused at all times in order to perform at their highest levels. Sustaining attention over extended periods of time relies on self-control. Crucially, perceived state self-control strength appears to wane as a function of task duration, which ultimate...
Preprint
Full-text available
Imagine yourself walking to the gym in the rain after a long hard day at work. Picture yourself lifting heavy weights, even though you would prefer sitting on the sofa watching your favorite baseball team win a playoff match. Envision a marathon runner who keeps pushing herself during the final miles of a run, trying to override her thoughts of qui...
Article
Full-text available
During professional shooting tournaments, which typically last multiple hours, athletes must stay focused at all times in order to perform at their highest levels. Sustaining attention over extended periods of time relies on self-control. Crucially, perceived state self-control strength appears to wane as a function of task duration, which ultimate...
Preprint
Full-text available
If-then planning (implementation intentions) describes a self-regulatory strategy that helps people to attain their goals across a variety of domains, such as achieving physical activity goals. Based on such beneficial effects, if-then plans are anecdotally discussed as a strategy to enhance sports-related performance as well. However, this discuss...
Article
In this case study, our aim was to apply the tenets of the strength model of self-control (Baumeister et al., 1998) with two Israeli competitive archers over the 2019-2020 season. According to this model, the ability to control the self is based on a finite resource which can become temporarily depleted. Under ego depletion, subsequent self-control...
Article
Full-text available
Considering the convincing evidence that executive functions predict academic achievement significantly, strategies to foster executive functions in the early school years are highly requested. Besides traditional cognitive training, combined physical and cognitive interventions are intended to be a feasible way of enhancing both children’s daily p...
Article
In the present paper, we introduce a new theoretical model of self-regulation of physical activity. In particular, our model focusses on the explanation and identification of predictors of physical activity adoption and maintenance (PAAM model). Based on dual-process theories of self-regulation we postulate explicit (i.e., reflective, deliberate) a...
Preprint
Full-text available
During professional shooting tournaments, which typically last multiple hours, athletes must stay focused at all times in order to perform at their highest levels. Sustaining attention over extended periods of time relies on self-control. Crucially, perceived state self-control strength appears to wane as a function of task duration, which ultimate...
Article
Full-text available
In the present paper, we tested the ability of individuals to judge correctly whether athletes are lying or telling the truth. For this purpose, we first generated 28 videos as stimulus material: in half of the videos, soccer players were telling the truth, while in the other half, the same soccer players were lying. Next, we tested the validity of...
Article
In the present paper, we introduce a new theoretical model of self-regulation of physical activity. In particular, our model focusses on the explanation and identification of predictors of physical activity adoption and maintenance (PAAM model). Based on dual-process theories of self-regulation we postulate explicit (i.e., reflective, deliberate) a...
Article
Full-text available
Subjective vitality is a positive feeling of aliveness and energy, and it is a crucial aspect of well-being. The Subjective Vitality Scales (SVS) have been developed to measure subjective vitality both at the individual difference level and the state level in English-speaking samples. We translated the SVS into German (the SVS-G) and examined their...
Article
The literature on self-control in sport and exercise can be roughly categorized into areas that investigate state self-control or the effects of episodic variations in exercise performance that occur when people are ego depleted and trait self-control or the dispositional tendencies displayed by people who report to have higher or lower self-contro...
Article
Previous research has repeatedly shown that anxiety can impair academic as well as sports-related performance. Most research in this field has been conducted under artificial laboratory conditions, which is why the aim of the present study was to test the assumption that higher levels of anxiety would impair subsequent sports performance in a real...
Article
A large body of research has shown that self-regulation is an important aspect underlying athletes’ well-being and performance. However, self-regulation skills are equally important for post-performance situations, particularly with regard to the recovery process. This review highlights relevant self-regulation skills and provides a brief overview...
Chapter
Regelmäßige körperliche Aktivität, gesunde Ernährung oder das rechtzeitige Lernen für eine Abschlussklausur sind erstrebenswerte Verhaltensweisen, die jedoch von vielen Menschen nicht (dauerhaft) umgesetzt werden. Neben der Motivation spielt für die persistente Umsetzung von Zielintentionen die Volition eine entscheidende Rolle. „Volition“ dient in...
Article
Full-text available
Is depleted self-control capacity detectable from thin slices of behavior? In four video-conditions (early-depleted; early-non-depleted; late-depleted; late-non-depleted) untrained observers rated target persons' available self-control capacity in Experiments 1 and 2 (without sound) and in terms of fatigue and negative affect (Experiment 3). Videos...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has reliably found that self-control strength moderates the anxiety-performance relationship for cognitive and perceptual-motor tasks that involve executive functioning. In the present preregistered experiment (N = 200; https://aspredicted.org/a775h.pdf), we investigated whether the interaction of anxiety and self-control also pre...
Article
Regular physical activity is an empirically well-documented health behavior. Despite the fact that many individuals intend to exercise, they often fail to implement this intention into behavior. Planning is an effective technique for translating physical activity intentions into actions. The present study aimed to examine relevant mediators and mod...
Poster
In sport and exercise contexts, it is highly important to control one’s impulses and behavioural tendencies to meet specific goals. However, such self-control acts do not always work successfully. An explanation for self-control lapses derives from the process model of self-control (Inzlicht, Schmeichel, & Macrae, 2014), which posits motivation, em...
Poster
Full-text available
In sport and exercise contexts, it is highly important to control one’s impulses and behavioural tendencies to meet specific goals. However, such self-control acts do not always work successfully. An explanation for self-control lapses derives from the process model of self-control (Inzlicht, Schmeichel, & Macrae, 2014), which posits motivation, em...
Article
The process model of self-control posits motivation, emotion, and attention as psychological mediators in the relationship between cognitive and physical self-control. However, this model has never been tested in a sport context. Participants (N = 69) completed two isometric biceps endurance trials (physical self-control task; T1 and T2), separated...
Article
Persistent cognitive or physical performance over extended periods of time is highly important in daily life, but cannot always be achieved. For instance, why do students fail to study for an upcoming exam, despite their best intentions to do so? Why is it so difficult for individuals to continuously follow their intended workout schedules? The mos...
Preprint
Subjective vitality is a positive feeling of aliveness and energy, and it is a crucial aspect of well-being. The Subjective Vitality Scales (SVS) have been developed to measure subjective vitality both at the individual difference level and the state level in English-speaking samples. We translated the SVS into German (the SVS-G) and examined their...
Article
Objectives: Physical activity intentions do not automatically lead to physical activity behavior, indicating that there are other (psychological) factors involved. In the present study, we tested the assumption that self-control strength is required to bridge the intention-behavior gap in terms of initial and weekly intentions. Design: A total of...
Data
Study protocol. dx.doi.org/10.17504/protocols.io.uj3euqn. (PDF)
Data
Descriptive statistics: Means and Standard Deviations for condition by type of standardization of the transcription task. (PDF)
Preprint
Full-text available
*Draft version 01/11/19 submitted for peer review.* Abstract: The strength model of self-control proposes that all acts of self-control are energized by one global limited resource that becomes temporarily depleted by a primary self-control task, leading to impaired self-control performance in secondary self-control tasks. However, failed replicat...
Article
Full-text available
The attention control video has been frequently applied to test the ego depletion effect. However, its validity has never been tested, a shortcoming we address in this preregistered study. In the first task, self-control strength was temporarily depleted in the depletion condition (n = 56) but remained intact in the control condition (n = 56). The...
Article
We tested the assumption, that individuals would perform worse in a cycling endurance task and would invest less effort under ego depletion than with temporarily available self-control strength. Participants’ self-control strength was experimentally manipulated (non-depletion vs ego depletion, order counterbalanced) in a within-subjects design (two...
Article
Full-text available
The present study tested the effectiveness of a four-week, school-based, universal cognitive-behavioural stress prevention programme. The prevention programme included short daily exercises which were adopted from two well-validated anti stress trainings. The daily exercises took approximately 10−15 minutes on average and were performed during regu...
Article
In sport and exercise contexts, self-control is highly important to achieve top-level performance or to maintain a healthy lifestyle. In this review article, we present results of self-control failure in sport contexts and discuss them with resource and process models of self-control. We argue that mindfulness-based trainings are possible strategie...
Data
Full data set. https://figshare.com/articles/Survey_sav/5759520. (SAV)
Data
Flow chart of the search strategy. (PNG)
Data
Study protocol. https://www.protocols.io/view/s2-file-full-protocol-mf9c3r6. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
The strength model of self-control is one of the most influential and well-established models of self-regulation in social psychology. However, recent attempts to replicate the ego depletion effect have sometimes failed. The goal of this study is to investigate self-reported replication rates and the frequency of a set of questionable research prac...
Presentation
Full-text available
Im leistungs-und im gesundheitsorientierten Sport ist es wichtig, die eigenen Impulse und Verhaltenstendenzen zu kontrollieren, um langfristige Ziele zu erreichen. Beispielsweise wird Selbstkontrolle benötigt, um über einen längeren Zeitraum einen anstrengenden Trainingsplan zu verfolgen (Adhärenz), ohne sich von Störreizen (z.B. Stress) oder attra...
Article
To meet specific goals, athletes frequently have to deal with several demands which may deplete their limited self-control resources which may in turn negatively affect their subsequent performance in a wide variety of sports-related tasks (e.g., coordinative, psychological and physical tasks). Mindfulness meditation may be beneficial for mechanism...
Article
Im leistungs- und im gesundheitsorientierten Sport ist Selbstkontrolle von hoher Relevanz, u.a. um optimale Leistung zu erzielen und Gesundheit durch Bewegung aufrechtzuerhalten. Im vorliegenden Überblicksartikel stellen wir Befunde zu Selbstkontrollbeeinträchtigungen im Sportkontext vor und diskutieren diese anhand von Ressourcen- und Prozessmodel...
Article
In the media coverage, the potential to facilitate aggressiveness was attributed to Thai boxing. However, in a recently published qualitative study, kickboxers described themselves as refusing and avoiding violence. While the cognitive-neoassociation theory postulates a negative relationship between martial arts and aggression, the catharsis-hypoth...
Article
Full-text available
In order to perform at the highest level in educational settings (e.g., students in testing situations), individuals often have to control their impulses or desires (e.g., to study for an upcoming test or to prepare a course instead of spending time with the peer group). Previous research suggests that the ability to exert self-control is an import...
Poster
Full-text available
In sport and exercise contexts, it is highly important to control one’s impulses and behavioural tendencies to meet specific goals. Athletes frequently have to deal with several demands which may deplete their limited self-control resources which may in turn negatively affect their subsequent performance in a wide variety of sports-related tasks (e...
Article
In the present study, we tested the assumption that performance in a knowledge retrieval test would be lower in secondary school students with temporarily depleted self(control strength (n = 53) compared to secondary school students with temporarily available self-control strength (n = 56). After manipulating self-control strength, students were in...
Article
Athletes are constantly confronted with self-control demands, but previous research has delivered sound empirical evidence that athletes are not always capable of dealing with these demands. According to the strength model of self-control, individuals have a limited amount of self-control strength, which can become temporarily depleted following se...
Article
Objectives: We investigated the impact of state and trait self-control strength on exercise execution. We hypothesized that state self-control strength is reduced on days that are perceived as stressful and that reductions in self-control strength result in a lower likelihood to work out. Additionally, trait self-control strength may affect the exe...
Article
Full-text available
Background Deception can distort psychological tests on socially sensitive topics. Understanding the cerebral processes that are involved in such faking can be useful in detection and prevention of deception. Previous research shows that faking a brief implicit association test (BIAT) evokes a characteristic ERP response. It is not yet known whethe...
Article
Full-text available
We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control...
Article
Full-text available
The strength model of self-control assumes that all acts of self-control (e.g., emotion regulation, persistence) are empowered by a single global metaphorical strength that has limited capacity. This strength can become temporarily depleted after a primary self-control act, which, in turn, can impair performance in subsequent acts of self-control....
Article
Full-text available
The detrimental effects of anxiety on cognitive performance have been explained by the activation of worry, which detracts attention away from the task at hand. However, recent research showed that anxiety is related to performance only when self-control capacity is low (i.e., ego depletion). The present work extends these findings by showing that...
Article
Full-text available
In Leistungssituationen sind Athletinnen und Athleten nicht immer dazu in der Lage, ihr Leistungsoptimum abzurufen. Auch wenn die Befundlage zum Angst-Leistungszusammenhang äußerst heterogen ist, so geht höheres Angsterleben häufig mit Leistungsbeeinträchtigungen einher. In dem vorliegenden Manuskript wird ein Überblick über verschiedene theoretisc...
Article
Full-text available
In high-pressure contexts, athletes are not always capable of displaying their optimal level of performance. Although studies' have yielded mixed results on the anxiety-performance relationship, higher anxiety levels are often associated with impaired performance. In this manuscript several theoretical models trying to explain the anxiety-performan...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroenhancement (NE), the use of substances as a means to enhance performance, has garnered considerable scientific attention of late. While ethical and epidemiological publications on the topic accumulate, there is a lack of theory-driven psychological research that aims at understanding psychological drivers of NE. In this perspective article we...
Article
Full-text available
We tested the assumption that active relaxation following an ego-depletion task counteracts the negative effects of ego depletion on subsequent performance under evaluative pressure. N = 39 experienced basketball players were randomly assigned to a relaxation condition or to a control condition, and then performed a series of free-throws at two poi...
Article
Full-text available
We tested the assumption that ego depletion would affect the sprint start in a sample of N = 38 athletes without track and field experience in an experiment by applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. non-depletion) within- (T1: before manipulation of ego depletion vs. T2: after manipulation of ego depletion) subjects design. We assumed that ego de...
Article
Full-text available
In the present article, we argue that it may be fruitful to incorporate the ideas of the strength model of self-control into the core assumptions of the well-established attentional control theory (ACT). In ACT, it is assumed that anxiety automatically leads to attention disruption and increased distractibility, which may impair subsequent cognitiv...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study we investigated whether ego depletion negatively affects attention regulation under pressure in sports by assessing participants’ dart throwing performance and accompanying gaze behavior. According to the strength model of self-control the most important aspect of self-control is attention regulation. As higher levels of state...
Article
Full-text available
We tested the assumption that persistent performance in an exhausting indoor cycling task would depend on momentarily available self-control strength (N = 20 active participants). In a within-subjects design (two points of measurement, exactly seven days apart), participants’ self-control strength was experimentally manipulated (depletion: yes vs....
Article
Full-text available
It has been repeatedly demonstrated that athletes in a state of ego depletion do not perform up to their capabilities. We assume that autonomous self-control exertion, in contrast to forced self-control exertion, can serve as a buffer against ego depletion effects and can help individuals to show superior performance. In the present study, we appli...
Article
Full-text available
In the current study, we consider that optimal sprint start performance requires the self-control of responses. Therefore, start performance should depend on athletes' self-control strength. We assumed that momentary depletion of self-control strength (ego depletion) would either speed up or slow down the initiation of a sprint start, where an init...