Chris Easton

Chris Easton
University of the West of Scotland | UWS · Institute for Clinical Exercise and Health Science (ICEHS)

BSc, PhD, FHEA

About

118
Publications
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Publications

Publications (118)
Article
Full-text available
Increasing nitric oxide bioavailability via supplementation with nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) has been shown to attenuate the negative impact of hypoxia on peripheral oxygen saturation and exercise tolerance. We investigated the effects of a single dose of concentrated BR on the physiological responses to submaximal exercise and time trial (TT)...
Article
Previous investigations have reported that accelerometer counts plateau during running at increasingly faster speeds. To assess whether biomechanical and/or device limitations cause this phenomenon and the feasibility of generating oxygen uptake (.VO2) prediction equations from the combined use of accelerometry and heart rate during walking and run...
Article
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There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted...
Article
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Physical activity and exercise are potent lifestyle interventions for the reduction of several psycho-somatic risks, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and mild-to-moderate depression. The current review describes the studies which have utilised a metabolomics/ metabolite profiling approach in combination with exercise in the period between...
Preprint
Purpose: This study explored the validity and reliability of the physiological and perceptual responses elicited during a novel treadmill-based Soccer Referee Simulation (SRS). Methods: Following the collection of baseline measures and habituation procedures, eight sub-elite soccer referees completed a single trial of the SRS whereby measures of he...
Article
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This study sought to: (1) document the multifaceted training practices of soccer officials in relation to their role and officiating category; and (2) explore the association between the officials' training practices and perceptions of the attributes pertinent to optimal performance. Field referees and assistant referees at officiating categories 1...
Article
Background: Nitric oxide is a key signalling molecule that elicits a range of biological functions to maintain vascular homeostasis. A reduced availability of nitric oxide is implicated in the progression of cardiovascular diseases and increases the risk of pathogenic events. Aims: To compare the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites in heal...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Dietary inorganic nitrate is a popular nutritional supplement, which increases nitric oxide bioavailability and may improve exercise performance. Despite over a decade of research into the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation during exercise there is currently no expert consensus on how, when and for whom this compound could be r...
Article
The human microbiome comprises ∼10¹³–10¹⁴ microbial cells which form a symbiotic relationship with the host and play a critical role in the regulation of human metabolism. In the oral cavity, several species of bacteria are capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite; a key precursor of the signaling molecule nitric oxide. Nitric oxide has myriad physio...
Article
Background Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disorder which irreversibly damages axons within brain matter. Blood lactate concentration could be a biomarker of MS onset and progression, but no systematic review has yet sought to confirm or dispute the elevation and biomarker potential of blood lactate in people with MS (PwMS) or to consolidate u...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Just-in-time-adaptive-interventions (JITAIs) provide real-time ‘in the moment’ behaviour change support to people when they need it most. JITAIs could be a viable way to provide personalised physical activity support to older adults in the community. However, it is unclear how feasible it is to remotely deliver a physical activity interv...
Article
Background: Just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) provide real time in-the-moment behavior change support to people when they need it most. JITAIs could be a viable way to provide personalized physical activity (PA) support to older adults in the community. However, it is unclear how feasible it is to remotely deliver a PA intervention thro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: Simulation protocols that mimic match play are often utilised to circumvent the challenges of conducting research in the actual performance setting (1). In addition to negating the contextual variables and large levels of variability that confound match play data (2), simulation protocols enable physiological responses to be monitored...
Article
Modern smartphones such as the iPhone contain an integrated accelerometer, which can be used to measure body movement and estimate the volume and intensity of physical activity. Objectives : The primary objective was to assess the validity of the iPhone to measure step count and energy expenditure during laboratory-based physical activities. A furt...
Article
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Background Dietary inorganic nitrate (NO 3 ⁻ ) is a polyatomic ion, which is present in large quantities in green leafy vegetables and beetroot, and has attracted considerable attention in recent years as a potential health-promoting dietary compound. Numerous small, well-controlled laboratory studies have reported beneficial health effects of inor...
Article
Full-text available
The study of physical activity in older adults is becoming more and more relevant. For evaluation of physical activity recommendations, intensity-specific accelerometer cut-points are utilized. However, research on accelerometer cut-points for older adults is still scarce. The aim of the study was to generate placement-specific cut-points of ActiGr...
Article
Full-text available
There have been recent calls for strategies to improve oral health in athletes. High carbohydrate diets, exercise induced dehydration and transient perturbations to immune function combine to increase oral disease risk in this group. We tested whether a single dose of nitrate (NO3-) would offset the reduction in salivary pH following carbohydrate i...
Conference Paper
Introduction Elderly people are characterized by muscle weakness due to an overall loss of skeletal muscle tissue, an impairment of excitation-contraction coupling and an intramuscular reduced sensitivity to Ca2+ signaling. Moreover, aging seems to negatively affects plasma nitrate concentration [NO3-]. Potential benefits of dietary NO3- supplemen...
Article
Gibson, N, Easton, C, Williams, M, McCunn, R, Gibson, NV. Reliability and validity of a 6-minute Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test Level 2 in subelite part time male soccer players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and relationship to maximal intermittent running performance of the 6-minut...
Article
To develop and assess the validity of the Referee Training Activity Questionnaire (RTAQ), a systematic process was employed: 1) item generation; 2) assessments of content and face validity; and 3) assessments of criterion validity. In stage 1, items were generated following semi-structured interviews with an expert panel (n = 8). Following content...
Article
New findings: What is the central question of this study? The role of cerebral hemodynamic response to either normobaric or hypobaric hypoxia in people susceptible to acute mountain sickness (AMS) is still under debate. Prefrontal cortex NIRS-derived parameters were monitored in normobaric hypoxia at rest and during moderate intensity exercise in...
Article
Background To maintain vascular tone and blood flow when tissue oxygenation is reduced, nitrite anions are reduced to nitric oxide (NO). From a practical perspective, it is unclear how the application of a tourniquet during blood collection might influence measurement of NO metabolites. Accordingly, this study evaluated the effect of venous occlusi...
Article
Objectives To explore athletes’ past and current experiences and perceptions of the menstrual cycle in relation to its impact on sporting performance. Methods 15 international female rugby players participated in individual semi-structured interviews (age: 24.5±6.2 years). All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim , resulting in 37 376...
Article
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Following a single blind, cross-over and non-randomized design we investigated the effect of 7-day use of chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash on the salivary microbiome as well as several saliva and plasma biomarkers in 36 healthy individuals. They rinsed their mouth (for 1 min) twice a day for seven days with a placebo mouthwash and then repeated this p...
Article
Vegetarian diets are commonly associated with lower blood pressure levels. This has been related to greater consumption of inorganic nitrate, since vegetables are the main source of this anion. Dietary nitrate is reduced to nitrite by commensal bacteria in the mouth, which in turn leads to increased circulatory nitrite availability. Nitrite can for...
Conference Paper
Background Nitrate (NO3⁻) contained in food and beverages can transiently increase nitric oxide (NO) availability following bacterial reduction to nitrite (NO2⁻) in the oral cavity. Increased levels of NO have been consistently shown to reduce blood pressure and elicit other favourable cardiovascular and metabolic effects. We have previously report...
Article
Nitrate (NO 3⁻ ) contained in food and beverages can transiently increase nitric oxide (NO) availability following a stepwise reduction to nitrite (NO 2⁻ ) by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity. We tested the hypothesis that regular ingestion of dietary NO 3⁻ would influence the oral microbiome, the capacity to reduce NO 3⁻ to NO 2⁻ in saliva, a...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Dietary nitrate (NO3−) has repeatedly been shown to improve endurance and intermittent, high-intensity events in temperate conditions. However, the ergogenic effects of dietary NO3− on intermittent exercise performance in hot conditions have yet to be investigated. Methods: In a randomised, counterbalanced, double-blind crossover study, 12...
Article
The role of the oral microbiome in maintaining health is becoming increasingly apparent (1). Oral nitrate-reducing commensal bacteria reduce nitrate to nitrite, which is then reduced to nitric oxide in the acidic environment of the stomach via the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. Nitric oxide has a key role in maintaining gastric mucosal blood...
Article
Objectives: Dietary nitrate (NO3-) supplementation and ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) can independently improve exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to explore whether NO3- supplementation, ingested prior to an IPC protocol, could synergistically enhance parameters of exercise. Design: Double-blind randomized crossover trial. Me...
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Background: This study examined the impact of a 4-week school-based sprint interval training program on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), daily physical activity (PA) behavior, and cardiometabolic risk (CMR) outcomes in adolescents. Methods: A total of 56 adolescents (22 females) were allocated to either an intervention (n = 22; 17.0 [0.3] y) or...
Article
There is conflicting evidence on whether dietary nitrate supplementation can improve exercise performance. This may arise from the complex nature of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism which causes substantial inter-individual variability, within-person biological variation (CVB), and analytical imprecision (CVA) in experimental endpoints. However, no stu...
Article
Bryson, A, Arthur, R, and Easton, C. Prior knowledge of the grading criteria increases Functional Movement Screen scores in youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-We sought to determine whether familiarity with the grading criteria of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) impacted the outcome score in elite youth soccer playe...
Article
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Purpose: The present study investigated different doses of ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light on plasma nitric oxide metabolites and cardiorespiratory variables. Methods: Ten healthy male participants completed three experimental conditions, 7 days apart. Participants were exposed to no light (CON); 10 J cm2(15 min) of UV-A light (UVA10) and 20 J cm2(30...
Article
Full-text available
Williams, MJ, Gibson, N, Sorbie, GG, Ugbolue, UC, Brouner, J, and Easton, C. Activation of the gluteus maximus during performance of the back squat, split squat, and barbell hip thrust and the relationship with maximal sprinting. J Strength Cond Res 35(1): 16-24, 2021-The purpose of this research was to compare muscle activation of the gluteus maxi...
Article
This study: 1) compared the physiological responses and performance during a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session incorporating externally-regulated (ER) and self-selected (SS) recovery periods; and 2) examined the psychophysiological cues underpinning self-selected recovery durations. Following an incremental maximal exercise test to de...
Article
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Electromyography systems are widely used within the field of scientific and clinical practices. The reliability of these systems are paramount when conducting research. The reliability of Myon 320 Surface Electromyography System is yet to be determined. This study aims to determine the intra-session and inter-day reliability of the Myon 320 Surface...
Article
Nitric oxide (NO) can be generated endogenously via NO synthases or via the diet following the action of symbiotic nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity. Given the important role of NO in smooth muscle control there is an intriguing suggestion that cardiovascular homeostasis may be intertwined with the presence of these bacteria. Here, we me...
Article
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BACKGROUND: We sought to describe the patterns of injury and to establish the injury incidence rates associated with Zumba®. METHODS: Zumba® dancers were invited to complete an anonymous web-based survey containing 13 demographic background and 14 (1 yr retrospective) injury history questions. Inclusion criteria stated that the respondents had to b...
Article
Purpose: This study evaluated the change (Δ) in plasma volume (PV), nitrate [NO3-], and nitrite [NO2-] concentration following changes in posture in the presence and absence of elevated plasma [NO3-] and [NO2-] METHODS: Fourteen healthy participants completed two trials that were preceded by either supplementation with NO3--rich beetroot juice (BR...
Article
This study establishes tri-axial activity count (AC) cut-points for the GT3X+ accelerometer to classify physical activity intensity in overweight and obese adults. Further, we examined the accuracy of established and novel energy expenditure (EE) prediction equations based on AC and other metrics. Part 1: Twenty overweight or obese adults completed...
Article
Dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate (NO3⁻) has been shown to induce a multitude of advantageous cardiovascular and metabolic responses during rest and exercise. While there is some suggestion that pharmacokinetics may differ depending on the NO3⁻ source ingested, to the best of our knowledge this has yet to be determined experimentally....
Article
Despite technological advances in thermal sensory equipment, few core temperature (TCORE) measurement techniques have met the established validity criteria in exercise science. Additionally, there is debate as to what method serves as the most practically viable, yet upholds the proposed measurement accuracy. This study assessed the accuracy of cur...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to gain a holistic understanding of the efficacy of Zumba® fitness in a community-recruited cohort of overweight and physically inactive women by evaluating (i) its physiological effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory biomarkers and (ii) its mental health-enhancing effects on factors of health-related...
Article
During the transition from school to higher education, young adults experience a substantial amount of change where they progress from the highly controlled setting of school to the autonomous and self-motivated environment of university. Time spent at university is considered a critical period during which young adults establish a clear sense of i...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Research interest in both partnered Latin dance and non-partnered Latin-themed aerobic dance has increased in recent years, likely a result of the gaining popularity of these types of instructor-led group classes among the mainstream dance and fitness audiences; however, the efficacy of these activities for the purposes of health promot...
Article
Objectives: Dietary nitrate can improve repeated high-intensity and supramaximal exercise performance, although the effect on adaptations to training has received limited attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary nitrate on the response to 3-weeks of sprint interval training (SIT). Design: Randomized control...
Article
Full-text available
Ten physically active subjects underwent two cycling exercise trials. In the first, aerobic capacity (VO2max) was determined and the second was a 45 min submaximal exercise test. Urine samples were collected separately the day before (day 1) , the day of (day 2), and the day after (day 3) the submaximal exercise test (12 samples per subject). Metab...
Conference Paper
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of open and limited distance feedback in comparison to no distance feedback on pacing strategies and running performance during a 5km treadmill time-trial. METHODS: 8 trained endurance runners (35.8 ± 10.9 years, 171.8 ± 7.2 cm, 65.60 ± 9.57 kgs) completed 3 self-paced 5km treadmill time-trials with a minimum of 5 d...
Conference Paper
Dietary nitrate (NIT) supplementation has been shown to increase nitric oxide (NO) metabolites and enhance exercise performance. Sprint interval training (SIT) has been shown to improve aerobic fitness following 2-4 weeks of training. Considering NIT has been shown to enhance intermittent high intensity exercise the addition of NIT prior to SIT may...