Chris Carbone

Chris Carbone
Zoological Society of London | IoZ · Institute of Zoology

D. Phil.

About

144
Publications
74,929
Reads
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11,277
Citations
Introduction
Chris Carbone currently works at the Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London. Chris does research in Ecology and conservation but with particular interest in carnivores and vertebrate predators'.
Additional affiliations
January 2006 - present
Zoological Society of London
Position
  • Head Biodiversity & Macroecology, Senior Research Fellow

Publications

Publications (144)
Article
Full-text available
Travel speed (average speed of travel while active) and day range (average speed over the daily activity cycle) are behavioural metrics that influence processes including energy use, foraging success, disease transmission and human-wildlife interactions, and which can therefore be applied to a range of questions in ecology and conservation. These m...
Article
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Predator–prey relationships are vital to ecosystem function and there is a need for greater predic-tive understanding of these interactions. We develop a geometric foraging model predicting mini-mum prey size scaling in marine and terrestrial vertebrate predators taking into account habitat dimensionality and biological traits. Our model predicts p...
Article
Aim This study investigates how founder size may affect local genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure of the invasive American eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in European areas. It also examines whether dispersal pro- pensity and invasion rate may be related to founder size, genetic diversity and structure. Location Piedmont, I...
Article
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Space used by animals increases with increasing body size. Energy requirements alone can explain how population density decreases, but not the steep rate at which home range area increases. We present a general mechanistic model that predicts the frequency of interaction, spatial overlap, and loss of resources to neighbors. Extensive empirical evid...
Article
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Population density in plants and animals is thought to scale with size as a result of mass-related energy requirements. Variation in resources, however, naturally limits population density and may alter expected scaling patterns. We develop and test a general model for variation within and between species in population density across the order Carn...
Article
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As elasmobranchs are becoming increasingly threatened, efficient methods for monitoring the distribution and diversity of elasmobranch populations are required. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding is a progressively applied technique that enables mass identification of entire communities and is an effective method for the detection of rare and e...
Article
As elasmobranchs are becoming increasingly threatened, efficient methods for monitoring the distribution and diversity of elasmobranch populations are required. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding is a progressively applied technique that enables mass identification of entire communities and is an effective method for the detection of rare and e...
Article
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Anthropogenic pressure has well‐documented effects on the spatial distribution of biodiversity but it can also have more subtle effects on wildlife, influencing the time of the day and for how long animals are active. These temporal effects have not received much attention from the scientific and conservation community, despite activity being intri...
Preprint
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Context: There has been limited research identifying large-scale functional connectivity of wildlife populations across sub-Saharan Africa, despite the increased focus on transboundary conservation networks. Objectives: This study set out to assess the functional connectivity of a highly mobile predator of conservation concern across the Kavango-Za...
Article
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Link to PDF: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1bj9-_9CgRSfa Assessing protected area (PA) effectiveness is key to ensure the objectives of habitat protection are being achieved. There is strong evidence that legal protection reduces loss of natural vegetation, but biodiversity loss can still happen without significant changes in vegetation cover. He...
Article
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We report the first mitochondrial genome sequences for the gray reef shark, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos. Two specimens from the British Indian Ocean Territory were sequenced independently using two different next generation sequencing methods, namely short read sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq and long read sequencing on the Oxford Nanopore Technolo...
Article
Reduced gene exchange between animal populations may be an indicator of the effects of anthropogenic fragmentation or it may reflect natural gradients in the landscape that can also result in population fragmentation. It can be difficult, therefore, to disentangle the role of local ecology from anthropogenic factors, creating a risk of attributing...
Article
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Activity range ‐ the amount of time spent active per day ‐ is a fundamental aspect contributing to the optimization process by which animals achieve energetic balance. Based on their size and the nature of their diet, theoretical expectations are that larger carnivores need more time active to fulfil their energetic needs than do smaller ones and a...
Chapter
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Camera traps are a vital tool for ecologists to enable them to monitor wildlife over large areas in order to determine population changes, habitat, and behaviour. As a result, camera-trap datasets are rapidly growing in size. Recent advancements in Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have emerged in image recognition and detection tasks which are now...
Article
While habitat loss is a primary driver of biodiversity declines worldwide, the role of habitat fragmentation per se is inconclusive, but likely depends on the amount of habitat left in a landscape. Here we aimed to tease apart the effects of habitat amount (percentage of native cover) and a fragmentation metric (number of fragments) on species rich...
Article
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The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) include economic, social and environmental dimensions of human development and make explicit commitments to all of life on Earth. Evidence of continuing global biodiversity loss has, at the same time, led to a succession of internationally agreed conservation targets. With multiple targets (even within on...
Article
Some wild felines have a diverse range of coat colors while others do not. Jaguars and leopards, for instance, come in spotted and melanistic forms but tigers are always striped and lions always beige. Smaller cats like clouded leopards, marbled cats, and ocelots are almost always patterned in the same way while jaguarundis, oncillas, and golden ca...
Article
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Aim There is a dearth of evidence that determines the genetic diversity of populations contained within present‐day protected areas compared with their historical state prior to large‐scale species declines, making inferences about a species’ conservation genetic status difficult to assess. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the use of histor...
Article
Humans are implicated as a major driver of species extinctions from the Late Pleistocene to the present. However, our predictive understanding of human‐caused extinction remains poor due to the restricted temporal and spatial scales at which this process is typically assessed, and the risks of bias due to “extinction filters” resulting from a poor...
Article
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We address two fundamental ecological questions: what are the limits to animal population density and what determines those limits? We develop simple alternative models to predict population limits in relation to body mass. A model assuming that within‐species area use increases with the square of daily travel distance broadly predicts the scaling...
Article
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Carnivores have long been used as model organisms to examine mechanisms that allow coexistence among ecologically similar species. Interactions between carnivores, including competition and predation, comprise important processes regulating local community structure and diversity. We use data from an intensive camera-trapping monitoring program acr...
Data
Model selection analysis for occupancy (Ψ) and detection probability (p) used to evaluate the effect of time (sampling period) and study site on the habitat use of three sympatric felids, the jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor) and ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in Neotropical forests. (DOCX)
Data
Prey species list and relative abundance index (images/100 ctdays) of small (< 15 Kg) and large prey (> 15Kg) of carnivores in our eight Neotropical study sites. (DOCX)
Data
Spearman’s rank correlation to test for collinearity among continuous covariates (ρ> 0.70). (DOCX)
Data
Coefficient of overlap (Δ1) with confidence intervals (CI lower/CI upper) and Watson’s two-sample test (two-sample U2) performed on pairwise comparisons between study sites. (DOCX)
Data
Single-species detection models used to evaluate the effects of covariates on the detection probability (p) of three sympatric felids, the jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor) and ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in Neotropical forests. Detection probability was modelled as a function of elevation, NDVI, study site (site), large prey availabilit...
Data
Single-species occupancy models used to evaluate the effects of elevation (Elev.), distance to nearest water source (water), NDVI (ndvi), small prey’s availability (small) and large prey’s availability (large) on the habitat use of jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor) and ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in Neotropical forests. (DOCX)
Data
Coefficient of overlap (Δ) with confidence intervals (CI lower/CI upper) and Watson’s two-sample test (two-sample U2) performed on pairwise comparisons between cat species per site. (DOCX)
Data
Single-species occupancy models used to evaluate best habitat factors and species interactions. Occupancy probability was modelled as a function of elevation (Elev.), distance to water (water), NDVI (ndvi), small prey’s availability (small), large prey’s availability (large) and occupancy estimates of each cat species (jaguar, puma and ocelot). (DO...
Data
Differences in the daily activity level (i. e., proportion of hours per day that an animal is active), standard errors (SE), Wald test (W) of Neotropical cats across the eight study sites (*Significant difference <0.05). (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Snake venom is well known for its ability to incapacitate and kill prey. Yet, potency and the amount of venom available varies greatly across species, ranging from the seemingly harmless to those capable of killing vast numbers of potential prey. This variation is poorly understood, with comparative approaches confounded by the use of atypical prey...
Article
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In the face of rapid tropical agricultural expansion, preservation of tropical forest remnants is crucially important. Forest remnants often about the edges of new or established plantations, so landscape-level conservation requires an understanding of the balance between ecosystem services and disservices provided by forest, including potential cr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim There is a dearth of evidence that determines the genetic diversity of populations contained within present-day protected areas compared with their historic state prior to large-scale species declines, making inferences about a species’ conservation genetic status difficult to assess. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the use of historic...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding temporal change and long-term persistence of species and communities is vital if we are to accurately assess the relative values of human-modified habitats for biodiversity. Despite a large literature and emerging consensus demonstrating a high conservation value of selectively logged tropical rainforests, few studies have taken a lon...
Article
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1.The assembly of species communities at local scales is thought to be driven by environmental filtering, species interactions, and spatial processes such as dispersal limitation. Little is known about how the relative balance of these drivers of community assembly changes along environmental gradients, especially man‐made environmental gradients a...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Although the effects of life history traits on population density have been investigated widely, how spatial environmental variation influences population density for a large range of organisms and at a broad spatial scale is poorly known. Filling this knowledge gap is crucial for global species management and conservation planning and to under...
Article
Carnivore kill frequency is a fundamental part of predator–prey interactions, which are important shapers of ecosystems. Current field kill frequency data are rare and existing models are insufficiently adapted to carnivore functional groups. We developed a kill frequency model accounting for carnivore mass, prey mass, pack size, partial consumptio...
Article
Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) are a critically endangered carnivore restricted to the island of Sumatra, and like many other large mammals on the Indonesian archipelago, they are threatened by high levels of poaching and widespread habitat degradation. Here, we conduct the first range-wide assessment of Sumatran tiger genetics using sc...
Article
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The proportion of time an animal spends actively foraging in a day determines its long-term fitness. Here, we derive a general mathematical model for the scaling of this activity time with body size in consumers. We show that this scaling can change from positive (increasing with size) to negative (decreasing with size) if the detectability and ava...
Article
Recent work in the tropics has advanced our understanding of the local impacts of land-use change on species richness. However, we still have a limited ability to make predictions about species abundances, especially in heterogeneous landscapes. Species abundances directly affect the functioning of an ecosystem and its conservation value. We applie...
Article
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Debate about the conservation value of secondary habitats has tended to focus on tropical forests, increasingly recognizing the role of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation. However, there remains a lack of information about the conservation value of secondary savannas. Here, we conducted a camera trap survey to assess the effect of seco...
Article
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Freshwater protected areas are rarely designed specifically for this purpose and consequently their conservation benefit cannot be guaranteed. Using Lake Tanganyika as a test case we investigated the benefits of terrestrial-focussed protected areas on the alpha and beta taxonomic and functional diversity of the diverse endemic rocky-shore cichlid f...
Article
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Countries committed to implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2011–2020 strategic plan need effective tools to monitor global trends in biodiversity. Remote cameras are a rapidly growing technology that has great potential to transform global monitoring for terrestrial biodiversity and can be an important contributor to the call for...
Article
Camera trap data are increasingly being used to characterise relationships between the spatiotemporal activity patterns of sympatric mammal species, often with a view to inferring inter-specific interactions. In this context, we attempted to characterise the kleptoparasitic and predatory tendencies of spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta and lions Panth...
Article
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AimClarifying whether multiple introductions of a species remain relatively isolated or merge and interbreed is essential for understanding the dynamics of invasion processes. Multiple introductions from different sources can result in a mixture of genetically distinct populations, increasing the total genetic diversity. This mixing can resolve the...
Article
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The use of short-term indicators for understanding patterns and processes of biodiversity loss can mask longer-term faunal responses to human pressures. We use an extensive database of approximately 18 700 mammalian zooarchaeological records for the last 11 700 years across Europe to reconstruct spatio-temporal dynamics of Holocene range change for...
Article
Full-text available
The reconstruction of invasion history is the goal or foundation of many investigations of biological invasions. This study applies DNA profiling to investigate the sources and vectors of new propagules, to detect illegal human-mediated translocations and to improve the management of invasions by identifying invasion pathways that can be targeted f...
Article
Full-text available
Diversity responses to land-use change are poorly understood at local scales, hindering our ability to make forecasts and management recommendations at scales which are of practical relevance. A key barrier in this has been the underappreciation of graindependent diversity responses and the role that β-diversity (variation in community composition...
Research
Full-text available
The reconstruction of invasion history is the goal or foundation of many investigations of biological invasions. This study applies DNA profiling to investigate the sources and vectors of new propagules, to detect illegal human-mediated translocations and to improve the management of invasions, by identifying invasion pathways that can be targeted...
Poster
Mammals respond to environmental changes in a variety of ways, including changes in morphology, geographic range, and diet. These responses are evident in species present during the fluctuating environmental conditions of the Pleistocene. The spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) is an ideal species in which to study responses to Pleistocene environment...
Article
Full-text available
The movement rates of sharks are intrinsically linked to foraging ecology, pred- ator–prey dynamics and wider ecosystem functioning in marine systems. During ram ventilation, however, shark movement rates are linked not only to ecological parameters, but also to physiology, as minimum speeds are required to provide sufficient water flow across the...
Article
1.Understanding the drivers of population abundance across species and sites is crucial for effective conservation management. At present, we lack a framework for predicting which sites are likely to support abundant butterfly communities.2.We address this problem by exploring the determinants of abundance among 1111 populations of butterflies in t...