Chris Bullen

Chris Bullen
University of Auckland · National Institute for Health Innovation

MB, ChB, MPH, PhD

About

286
Publications
65,835
Reads
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13,916
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2013 - September 2013
Queen Mary, University of London
Position
  • Visiting academic
Description
  • Sabbatical spent here
January 2011 - December 2015
University of Malaya
Position
  • Visiting academic
January 1997 - present
University of Auckland

Publications

Publications (286)
Article
Background:Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a common form of developmental disability but may be poorly understood by professionals working with people with FASD. The aim of the research is to understand the FASD knowledge, attitudes, awareness, and practices among people employed by the education sector in Aotearoa New Zealand and identif...
Conference Paper
Speech-based automatic smoker identification (also known as smoker/non-smoker classification) aims to identify speakers’ smoking status from their speech. In the COVID-19 pandemic, speech-based automatic smoker identification approaches have received more attention in smoking cessation research due to low cost and contactless sample collection. Thi...
Article
Objective: To examine the association between vaping and health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, sleep, cigarette use, alcohol consumption) and mental health among college students. Methods: Socio-demographic characteristics, vaping, health behaviors, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms of undergraduates enrolled...
Preprint
Background Tobacco smoking rates in alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment settings is much higher than in the general Australian population. As a result, people seeking treatment for AOD use experience a greater tobacco-related burden of illness. Attempts to reduce smoking rates in AOD treatment consumers have failed to identify smoking cessation...
Article
To identify subpopulations of dual users of combustible and electronic cigarettes using current smoking and vaping behaviors. Secondary analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial testing a smoking cessation intervention for dual users. Finite mixture modeling of frequency, quantity, and dependence on combustible and electronic cig...
Article
Background Parenting programs are well established as an effective strategy for enhancing both parenting skills and the well-being of the child. However, recruitment for family programs in clinical and nonclinical settings remains low. Objective This study aims to describe the recruitment and retention methods used in a text messaging program (MyT...
Article
Introduction Tobacco harm reduction has potential to improve individual and population health. However, little research exists on low-intensity interventions, such as encouraging longer-term NRT or e-cigarette use. We aimed to determine whether: 1) encouraging use of nicotine products as long-term tobacco substitutes is more effective for smoking a...
Article
Introduction The extent to which use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) for smoking reduction leads to cigarette abstinence in smokers with no plans to quit smoking is unclear. This exploratory analysis examined the effects of ENDS delivering different amounts of nicotine on cigarette abstinence up to 24-week follow-up, in comparison to...
Preprint
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought the discipline of public health, infectious disease, and policy modeling squarely into the spotlight. Never before have decisions regarding public health measures and their impacts been such a topic of international deliberation from the level of individuals and communities through to global leaders. And nor previo...
Article
Background: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are handheld electronic vaping devices which produce an aerosol formed by heating an e-liquid. Some people who smoke use ECs to stop or reduce smoking, but some organizations, advocacy groups and policymakers have discouraged this, citing lack of evidence of efficacy and safety. People who smoke, healthcare...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Many people experiencing harms and problems from gambling do not seek treatment from gambling treatment services due to numerous personal and resource barriers. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions are widely used across a diverse range of health care areas and by various population groups, but there are few in the gambling harm field,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Many people experiencing harms and problems from gambling do not seek treatment from gambling treatment services due to numerous personal and resource barriers. mHealth interventions are widely used across a diverse range of health care areas and by various population groups. However, there are few in the gambling harm field, despite t...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Tobacco causes more than 8 million deaths each year. Behavioral interventions such as group therapy, which provides counselling for smoking cessation, can be delivered in group form and smokers who receive cessation counselling are more likely to quit smoking compared to no assistance. We review the evidence of group-based counsellin...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cannabis use is common, especially among young people, and is associated with risks for various health harms. Some jurisdictions have recently moved to legalization/regulation pursuing public health goals. Evidence-based ‘Lower Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines’ (LRCUG) and recommendations were previously developed to reduce modifiable risk f...
Article
Full-text available
New Zealand has a strategy of eliminating SARS-CoV-2 that has resulted in a low incidence of reported coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to describe the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in New Zealand via a nationwide serosurvey of blood donors. Samples ( n = 9806) were collected over a month-long period (3 December 2020–6 January 202...
Article
Full-text available
Most countries have implemented restrictions on mobility to prevent the spread of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), entailing considerable societal costs but, at least initially, based on limited evidence of effectiveness. We asked whether mobility restrictions were associated with changes in the occurrence of COVID-19 in 34 OECD countries plus Si...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although many smokers use electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to quit smoking, most continue to smoke while vaping. This dual use might delay cessation and increase toxicant exposure. We aimed to test the efficacy of a self-help intervention designed to help dual users to quit smoking. Methods In this three-arm randomised controlled tr...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for the absorption, disposition, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine in pregnant women (p-PBPK) are rare. The aim of this short research report is to present a p-PBPK model and its simulations for nicotine and cotinine clearance. Methods: The...
Article
Full-text available
We sought to gain insights into the impacts of COVID-19 and associated control measures on health and health care of patients from low- and middle-income countries with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and mental health conditions, using an online survey during the COVID-19 pandemic. The most common concern for the 1487 patients who took part was...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction: The extent to which use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) for smoking reduction leads to cigarette abstinence in smokers with no plans to quit smoking is unclear. This exploratory analysis examined the effects of ENDS delivering different amounts of nicotine on cigarette abstinence up to 24-week follow-up, in comparison t...
Preprint
Full-text available
In smoking cessation clinical research and practice, objective validation of self-reported smoking status is crucial for ensuring the reliability of the primary outcome, that is, smoking abstinence. Speech signals convey important information about a speaker, such as age, gender, body size, emotional state, and health state. We investigated (1) if...
Article
Full-text available
Background The global COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare worldwide. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where people may have limited access to affordable quality care, the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to have a particularly adverse impact on the health and healthcare of individuals with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). A Wo...
Article
Full-text available
The Lancet COVID-19 Commission Task Force for Public Health Measures to Suppress the Pandemic was launched to identify critical points for consideration by governments on public health interventions to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Drawing on our review of published studies of data analytics and modelling, evidence synthesis and cont...
Article
Background: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are handheld electronic vaping devices which produce an aerosol formed by heating an e-liquid. Some people who smoke use ECs to stop or reduce smoking, but some organizations, advocacy groups and policymakers have discouraged this, citing lack of evidence of efficacy and safety. People who smoke, healthcare...
Article
Full-text available
By a synthesis and contextualisation, and behavioural science evidence and theory on public health interventions from a range of sources, we outline evidence for a range of institutional measures and behaviour-change measures. We cite examples of measures adopted by a range of countries, but especially jurisdictions that have, thus far, achieved lo...
Preprint
Full-text available
A large-scale SARS-CoV-2 serosurvey of New Zealand blood donors (n=9806) was conducted at the end of 2020. Seroprevalence, after adjusting for test sensitivity and specificity, was very low (0.1%). This finding is consistent with limited community transmission and provides robust evidence to support New Zealand's successful elimination strategy for...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Despite decades of global tobacco control efforts, tobacco smoking remains a leading cause of preventable disease, death and inequality. Smoking is particularly common in people with mental health conditions. Smartphone apps have been developed as an accessible and affordable tool to support smokers with mental health conditions to quit...
Article
Background Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDSs) are used by some smokers to reduce cigarette consumption, but their effectiveness is uncertain. We aimed to examine the extent to which ENDSs or a non-nicotine cigarette substitute influence tobacco-related toxicant exposure and cigarette consumption in smokers interested in smoking reduction....
Article
Introduction Health authorities are advising smokers to quit to reduce their COVID-related risk. The types of messages that may be effective in alerting smokers to this risk and encouraging a quit attempt are unknown. The aim of this study was to test a series of messages to identify potentially effective communication approaches. Methods An onlin...
Article
Full-text available
Aim To determine whether cytisine was at least as effective as varenicline in supporting smoking abstinence for ≥ 6 months in New Zealand indigenous Māori or whānau (extended‐family) of Māori, given the high smoking prevalence in this population. Design Pragmatic, open‐label, randomised, community‐based non‐inferiority trial. Setting Bay of Plent...
Article
Full-text available
Most users of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) report initiating use to quit combustible cigarettes. Nevertheless, high levels of dual use (i.e., using both combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes) occur among adults. Using formative data from in-depth interviews and employing learner verification, we adapted an existing, validated self-help sm...
Article
Full-text available
Background Mobile devices provide new opportunities for the prevention of overweight and obesity in children. We aimed to co-create and test an app that offered comprehensible feedback to parents on their child’s growth and delivered a suite of age-specific information about nutrition and activity. Methods A two-phased approach was used to co-crea...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Compression is the mainstay of treatment for venous leg ulcers (VLUs) and there are few effective adjuvant treatments. There is only observational evidence supporting the use of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) as a topical wound solution on VLU and some limited randomised evidence for the effect of a prescribed regimen of exercise. Methods a...
Article
Background and objective: In smoking cessation clinical research and practice, objective validation of self-reported smoking status is crucial for ensuring the reliability of the primary outcome, that is, smoking abstinence. Speech signals convey important information about a speaker, such as age, gender, body size, emotional state, and health sta...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives To determine the impact of restrictions on mobility on reducing transmission of COVID-19. Design Daily incidence rates lagged by 14 days were regressed on mobility changes using LOESS regression and logit regression between the day of the 100th case in each country to August 31, 2020. Setting 34 OECD countries plus Singapore and Taiwan...
Article
Previous studies documented the health disparities in smoking among sexual minority populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM). However, smoking behaviors have never been examined among Malaysian MSM, a sexual minority group in a predominantly Muslim country. A total of 622 Malaysian MSM completed an anonymous online survey in 2017. Dat...
Article
Background: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are handheld electronic vaping devices which produce an aerosol formed by heating an e-liquid. People who smoke report using ECs to stop or reduce smoking, but some organisations, advocacy groups and policymakers have discouraged this, citing lack of evidence of efficacy and safety. People who smoke, healthc...
Article
Full-text available
Cannabis use is common, especially among young people, and associated with risks for acute and chronic adverse health and social outcomes. New Zealand features overall high cannabis use levels, yet may soon follow other jurisdictions and implement legalization of non-medical cannabis use and supply towards public health objectives. While existing c...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Around 2 million Chinese people, mostly men, die annually from tobacco-related diseases; yet, fewer than 8% of Chinese smokers ever receive any smoking cessation support. Objective: This study aimed to test the preliminary effectiveness and feasibility for a mobile social network (WeChat)-based smoking cessation intervention (SCAMPI pro...
Article
Objective: To identify how best to provide smoking cessation advice and support during the Covid-19 pandemic. Preferences were assessed in relation to: (i) specific forms of tobacco cessation support (eg, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and various counseling formats); (ii) information sources (eg, government officials, doctors); and (iii) chan...
Article
INTRODUCTIONThe prevalence of cancer in the community is likely to be increasing due to an ageing population, implementation of cancer screening programmes and advances in cancer treatment. AIMTo determine the prevalence of primary invasive cancers in a large general practice patient population in New Zealand and to characterise the health-care sta...
Article
Objectives Characterisation of trends in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) outcomes are critical to informing clinical practice and quality improvement, but there are few recent population studies for ACS. We reviewed the recent trends in the outcomes of ACS in New Zealand (NZ). Methods All patients with ACS admitted to NZ public hospitals in 2006–201...
Article
Objectives To examine the association of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and tobacco advertising with unassisted smoking cessation among Chinese male smokers. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 6500 male adult smokers from six cities in China selected in a cross-sectional multistage sampling design. The survey collected self-reported d...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To determine the effect of a keratin dressing for treating slow-to-heal venous leg ulcers (VLU) on VLU healing. Design Pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting Community-dwelling participants. Participants People aged 18 or more years with VLU (either present for more than 26 weeks or ulcer area larger than 5 cm ²...
Article
Background: Traditional combustible cigarette (TCC) smoking remains a major cause of preventable cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Modified risk products (MRP) such as electronic vaping cigarettes (EVC) and heat-not-burn cigarettes (HNBC) may be safer than TCC but may still have detrimental oxidative, platelet and vascular effects of particu...
Article
Background: In the Asia-Pacific region, betel quid and areca nut chewing is a public health concern that requires immediate attention. There is a need to improve knowledge about the harmful effects of betel quid and areca nut chewing and train health care professionals to provide preventive interventions. Objectives: To introduce and evaluate the P...
Article
Background: Betel nut chewing is a public health concern in the Asia-Pacific region and is an emerging issue in Vanuatu. Despite the significant health risks associated with betel nut chewing, few interventions have been undertaken to reduce its harm. Objectives: To investigate betel nut use in Vanuatu and to identify opportunities to reduce its ha...
Article
Background International guidelines recommend early discharge for uncomplicated acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients within 3days, however there is a paucity of contemporary literature regarding the safety of this strategy. We aimed to describe the trends in the proportion of ACS hospitalisations discharged within 3 days and their outcomes in New...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The low utilisation of current treatment services by people with gambling problems highlights the need to explore new modalities of delivering treatment interventions. This protocol presents the design of a pragmatic randomized control trial aimed at assessing the effectiveness and acceptability of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) de...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Around 2 million Chinese people die annually from tobacco-related diseases, mostly men; yet fewer than 8% of Chinese smokers receive any smoking cessation advice or support. We develop a social network-based WeChat gamified smoking cessation intervention (“SCAMPI”) to help Chinese male smokers in China to quit smoking. OBJECTIVE The pri...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Approximately 2 million Chinese people die annually from tobacco-related diseases, mostly men; yet, fewer than 8% of Chinese smokers ever receive any smoking cessation advice or support. A social network-based gamified smoking cessation intervention (SCAMPI: Smoking Cessation App for Chinese Male: Pilot Intervention) is designed to hel...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Media reports of a vaping epidemic among youth have raised concerns about the creation of a new generation of nicotine-dependent individuals who could graduate to cigarette smoking. We investigated the use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes in the youth of New Zealand from 2014 to 2019, with focus on daily use of these products as an indic...
Article
Full-text available
Both housing structure and occupant use of homes influence health outcomes and carbon emissions. However, it remains unclear how these elements interact. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 technical experts in the New Zealand housing and health sectors. We applied the general inductive method for qualitative data analysis and generated...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Parenting programs are well established as an effective strategy for enhancing both parenting skills and child well-being. However, recruitment for family programs in clinical and non-clinical settings remains low. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study is to describe the recruitment and retention methods used in a text messaging program (MyTee...
Article
New Zealand may be the next national jurisdiction where non-medical cannabis use and supply will be legalized. While the current New Zealand government's plans for possible cannabis legalization were rather unclear for some time, initial details on proposed key parameters (for example, age limits, production and supply modes, use restrictions) of a...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Around 2 million Chinese people die annually from tobacco-related diseases, mostly men; yet fewer than 8% of Chinese smokers ever receive any smoking cessation advice or support. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to test the preliminary effectiveness and feasibility for a social network platform (WeChat)-based smoking cessation intervention in...
Article
Full-text available
Background Around 2 million Chinese people, mostly men, die annually from tobacco-related diseases; yet, fewer than 8% of Chinese smokers ever receive any smoking cessation support. Objective This study aimed to test the preliminary effectiveness and feasibility for a mobile social network (WeChat)–based smoking cessation intervention (SCAMPI prog...