Chris Bishop

Chris Bishop
Middlesex University, UK · London Sport Institute

PhD || SFHEA || ASCC

About

190
Publications
455,317
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2,790
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Introduction
Programme Leader MSc Strength and Conditioning (Middlesex University); Director of Postgraduate Programmes in Sport (Middlesex University).

Publications

Publications (190)
Article
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The prevalence of inter-limb asymmetries has been reported in numerous studies across a wide range of sports and physical qualities; however, few have analysed their effects on physical and sports performance. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using the Medline and SPORT Discus databases, with all articles required to meet a spec...
Article
Researchers and practitioners have highlighted the necessity to monitor jump strategy metrics as well as the commonly reported outcome measures during the countermovement (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) tests. However, there is a risk of confusion for practitioners, given the vast range of metrics that now seem to be on offer via analysis software when co...
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Typically, a coach may follow a process in which they first identify the key performance indicators of their sport, determine the physical attributes that map back to them, and then distribute the development of those capacities over the allocated timeframe. Furthermore, effective training plans are based on a theoretical or biological basis for ho...
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Background Reactive strength index (RSI) is used frequently in the testing and monitoring of athletes. Associations with sports performance measures may vary dependent on the task but a literature synthesis has not been performed. Objectives The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine associations between RSI measured during rebound jumping tasks...
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Inter-limb asymmetries have been recently investigated in athletic populations. However, the effects of training interventions on inter-limb asymmetries have been scarcely examined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of training interventions on changes in inter-limb asymmetries from pre-to post-training. Furthermore, to...
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The aim of this study was to compare the peak-force (PF), peak-power (PP), and peak velocity (PV) outputs produced during half-squat (HS) and jump-squat (JS) exercises executed at 20, 40, 60, and 80% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) in the HS (HS 1RM); and to compute and compare the strength deficit (SDef) achieved in these exercises across these lo...
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We assessed the changes in sprint, jump, and power parameters across the annual training cycle and tested the longitudinal correlations among these variables in top-level sprinters. Thirteen sprinters training with four different Olympic sprint coaches were sequentially assessed over 14 months, consecutive training camps. Performance tests were con...
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The aim of this brief narrative review is to summarize the present evidence, provide recommendations for data analysis, and appropriate training methods to reduce strength and power asymmetries within athlete populations. Present evidence shows that a strong interest in the assessment of asymmetry exists. Despite the perceived associated relationsh...
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The aims of this study were: a) to investigate the effects of a unilateral training program in reducing inter-limb asymmetry in male soccer players; b) to explore such effects on measures of physical performance and unilateral inter-limb asymmetry. Twenty-four soccer players, randomly assigned to a 6-week unilateral strength and power training (UNI...
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The primary aim of this narrative review was to outline the historical genesis of resistance training strategies that incorporate high-load, low-velocity exercises and low-load, high-velocity exercises in the same training session allowing for different "exercise sequences" to be simultaneously implemented. Discrepancies between scientific works an...
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Besides examining upper and lower limb morphological and functional asymmetry magnitudes, this study examined the relationship between lean mass and functional asymmetry in terms of magnitude and direction in 41 youth tennis players versus 41 controls. Asymmetry magnitude was determined based on anthropometric measurements (circumferences, widths),...
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The aim of this study was to determine the optimal velocity loss (VL) threshold that maximises the post activation potentiation (PAP) stimulus for achieving larger and more consistent performance gains in track and field athletes. Twenty-two athletes from athletics participated in four back squat PAP tests with four different VL threshold (5%, 10%,...
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The aim of the present study was to analyse the validity and reliability of the newly developed My Jump Lab smartphone app, which includes the option to calculate time to takeoff and the reactive strength index modified (RSI_Mod-calculated as jump height divided by time to takeoff), in addition to jump height. Twenty-seven postgraduate sport scienc...
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The aims of the current study were to: 1) determine between-session reliability of peak force during the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) in professional soccer players during the pre-season, and 2) determine the subsequent magnitude and direction of peak force asymmetry from the NHE between all test sessions. The NHE was used as a weekly monitoring...
Article
Velocity-based training is often applied to ballistic exercises, like the barbell jump squat, to improve vertical jump performance. However, determining the ideal training load based on velocity data remains difficult, as load prescriptions tend to be limited to subjective velocity loss thresholds, velocity ranges, or both. Using data from jump squ...
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Historically, golf is not a sport that has a strong tradition of strength and conditioning (S&C). However, a greater understanding of the health and performance-related benefits of S&C training has resulted in players starting to take their physical fitness much more seriously. As a result, professional players are hitting the ball much further tha...
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Study aim : This study examines the relationship between different magnitudes of asymmetry and their effects on speed performance. Material and methods : Forty-two sub-elite male youth soccer players performed a 30-m sprint, change of direction, single leg countermovement jump and single leg hop. Subjects were divided into groups with vertical and...
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This study aimed to report seasonal variations for: 1) physical performance, 2) inter-limb asymmetry and, 3) BLD data over the course of a competitive soccer season, and determine which metrics are sensitive to change. This study used a repeated measures observational design for 19 under-20 elite academy soccer players (age: 17.58 ± 0.61 years; hei...
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This study analyzed the effects of two different training programs on functional performance and inter-limb asymmetries in basketball players. Twenty-four elite youth basketball players were randomly assigned to a training program including variable unilateral horizontal movements (VUH, n = 12) or unilateral lateral movements (VUL, n = 12). Eccentr...
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This study aimed to describe the bilateral deficit (BLD) during the countermovement jump (CMJ) in judo athletes and determine the relationship between the BLD and judo-specific performance. Fourteen male judo athletes participated. The athletes performed tree specific judo tests: Maximal Sprint Speed Judo Test, Maximal Aerobic Speed Judo Test, Spec...
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Strength and conditioning (S&C) is implemented across various sports and levels, but there is limited understanding of the personnel responsible for this, including their S&C practices and perspectives. Whereas recent evidence has shown that coaches and players are often tasked with the responsibility. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate: 1)...
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This study sought to investigate the inter-relationship between different vertical and horizontal variants of reactive strength index (RSI) and change of direction performance. Thirty-one male volleyball players (age: 22.4 ± 3.9 years), performed bilateral drop jumps (DJ), bilateral and unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJ), and triple hops for di...
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This study aimed to compare the post-activation performance enhancement induced by successive drop-jumps performed on hard or sand surfaces in the sprint and jump performance of top-level sprinters. Athletes were tested on 2 occasions. On each visit they were allocated to one of the experimental protocols, which consisted of performing 2x5 drop-jum...
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This study aimed to examine the frequency and modes of psychological priming techniques and strategies being implemented by athletes of a variety of performance levels. A 15-question, anonymous questionnaire was developed and shared via social media sites. The survey implemented a quantitative method approach to collect background information (e.g....
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Background: This study compared the effects of performing different unilateral combined training interventions on diverse vertical and horizontal jumping performance parameters, change of direction, concentric and eccentric mean power, and their associated inter-limb asymmetries in young soccer players. Methods: Forty-seven young male soccer pla...
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The relationship between lean mass and functional asymmetry in terms of their magnitude and direction was examined in 22 high-level female tennis players (20.9 ± 3.6 years). Lean mass of both upper and lower extremities was examined using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry. Functional asymmetry was assessed using a battery of field tests (handgrip strength,...
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The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of change-of-direction (CoD) angle (90° vs. 180°) and the inclusion of acceleration approach on total task time, CoD deficit, and agreement regarding inter-limb asymmetry direction across CoD tasks. The sample included 13 young male handball players (age: 22.4 ± 3.2 years). The CoD task...
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The aims of the present study were to: 1) determine within and between-session reliability of multiple metrics obtained during the triple hop test and, 2) determine any systematic bias in both the test and inter-limb asymmetry scores for these metrics. Thirteen male youth American football athletes performed three trials of a triple hop test on eac...
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(1) Background: the present study examined the isokinetic peak torque exerted by both knee extensors and flexors, anterior–posterior imbalance and the magnitude and direction of inter-limb asymmetry in professional and academy soccer players. (2) Methods: one hundred soccer players (professional = 50, elite academy = 50) volunteered to take part in...
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There is global concern surrounding the current lifestyle behaviours and future health and well-being of youth (1). Levels of physical activity, aerobic and muscular fitness in youth are in decline (2) with such trends further worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic (3). Increases in obesity prevalence suggest that many youth do not develop the requisite...
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the validity and reliability of a phone app [named: change of direction (COD) timer] and stopwatches for the measurement of COD performance. Methods: Sixty-two youth basketball players (age: 15.9±1.4yrs., height: 178.8±11.0cm, and body mass: 70.0±14.1kg) performed six trials of 505 COD test (with the le...
Article
The main objective of the present study was to provide seasonal variation data for inter-limb asymmetry in youth elite team-sport athletes. Fifty-nine players performed the single leg countermovement jump (SLCMJ) and the one leg hop for distance (OLHT) tests during pre-season, mid-season and end-season. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was...
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Background: The present study compared the effects of performing the lateral squat exercise in three different formats from eccentric overload training on concentric/eccentric peak/mean power and inter-limb asymmetries in young soccer players. Methods: Forty-five young male (U-17) soccer players were distributed into three groups. Two groups per...
Article
Change of direction (COD) efforts are crucial in team-sports and an extensive body of research has been devoted to investigating this complex and multifaceted skill. Most studies have assessed players' ability to change direction by reporting completion time or average velocity in different COD tasks. However, it has been argued that these variable...
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This study aimed to examine inter-limb jump asymmetries and their association with sport-specific performance in young swimmers. Thirty-eight (male, n=19; female, n=19) region-al/national level young swimmers (age: 12.3±1.2 years; height: 159.6±8.2 cm; body mass: 52.5±9.2 kg) participated in this study. Inter-limb asymmetries were assessed for sing...
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The direction of inter-limb asymmetries and the change of direction (COD) deficit are two aspects that have increased in recent years. The main objective of the present study was to assess the magnitude of neuromuscular asymmetries in an elite youth female team-sports sample and determine its directionality. Secondary objectives were to evaluate th...
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Background Resistance training has been used to enhance a range of athletic abilities through correct manipulation of several variables such as training load, training volume, set configuration, and rest period. Objective The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the acute and chronic responses of lower body cluster, contr...
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Background: Exercises can be categorized into either unilateral or bilateral movements. Despite the topic popularity, the answer to the question as to which (unilateral or bilateral) is superior for a certain athletic performance enhancement remains unclear. Purpose: To compare the effect of unilateral and bilateral resistance training intervention...
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Background: Asymmetries have been reported to negatively impact sport performance. This study examined the magnitude and direction of whole-body functional asymmetry in international versus national female tennis players. Methods: Ten internationally and twelve nationally ranked tennis players participated. Upper extremity functional asymmetries (o...
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The aim of this study was to examine changes in body mass (BM) and power-related measures in Olympic boxers during an official qualifying boxing tournament. Fourteen elite amateur boxers from the Brazilian National Team (eight men and six women) participated in this study. Athletes performed three fights in four days against the same opponent of th...
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The current study aimed to compare locomotive outputs across English U16, U18 and U23 academy soccer and investigate possible relationships with neuromuscular and aerobic capacities. Participants included 46 outfield players from an English Category Two soccer academy. Global positioning system (18Hz) data were utilised to analyse locomotive output...
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In this study, we aimed to analyze the magnitude and direction of interlimb asymmetries in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), power (using iso-inertial devices), and a neuromuscular skill (change of direction). Secondarily, we aimed to determine the relationship between interlimb asymmetry scores for each test and also between these scores a...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a traditional resistance training scheme on the relative strength (RS), relative peak-force (RPF), strength deficit (SDef), and vertical jump and sprint abilities in elite young soccer players. Thirty-five under-20 soccer players from two professional clubs were assessed before and after a 4-week...
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The association between asymmetries in jump and change of direction (COD)with physical performance in several sports show inconclusive results. The purposes of this study were to: (1) measure inter-limb asymmetries in 3 distinct groups in adolescent female soccer players and, (2) to determine the association between inter-limb asymmetries and physi...
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The strength and conditioning (S&C) industry can appear as a saturated market, with a lack of balance between supply and demand of strength and conditioning coaches, with the former outweighing the latter. Job descriptions may be an effective tool for aspiring coaches to identify what current skill sets employers look for, in particular those deeme...
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The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pre-season strength training on bilateral and unilateral jump performance and the bilateral deficit (BLD) in Premier League academy soccer players. Fourteen male academy players (age: 16.36 ± 0.50 years; body mass: 73.45 ± 8.43 kg; height: 1.80 ± 0.09 m) performed one upper body and one lower bo...
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To the authors’ knowledge this is the first study to describe the strength and conditioning (S&C) practices and perspectives of volleyball coaches and players. In total, 30 volleyball coaches (mean age 34.47 ± 7.83 years and coaching experience 19.57 ± 8.28 years), and 30 volleyball players (mean age 22.03 ± 4.43 years and playing experience 10.43...
Article
The aims in the present study were to assess reliability for two unilateral and two bilateral field-based hamstring assessments and compare magnitude, direction and agreement of inter-limb asymmetry between tests and sessions. Twenty-nine female soccer players (age: 21.1±4.5 years; height: 169.7±5.8 cm; body mass: 66.2±6.4 kg) performed three repet...
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To examine the effects of a strength training program with random recovery times between sets in consideration of several physical parameters, high-intensity actions (HIA), and spatial exploration index during a simulated basketball game. Twenty male basketball players (age: 19.45 ± 4.36 years) were assigned randomly, either to strength training gr...
Article
We used image-processing techniques to determine the moment (i.e., image frame) of the Achilles tendon (AT) rupture in an Olympic sprinter. This report may be unique due to the difficulty in conducting motion capture analyses during injury events. Our report includes one female Olympic sprinter, 29 years old (body mass: 56 kg, height: 1.68 m, and b...
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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of flywheel training on female populations, report practical recommendations for practitioners based on the currently available evidence, underline the limitations of current literature, and establish future research directions. Studies were searched through the electronic databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and...
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We examined the effectiveness of training on sand and compared the effects of sand and hard surface training programs on the sprint and jump performance of team-sport players. PubMed MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases were used in the literature search. A total of 377 records were initially identified and six studies comprising 136...
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Due to the negative effects that injuries have on performance, club finances, and long-term player health (permanent disability after a severe injury), prevention strategies are an essential part of both sports medicine and performance. Purpose : To summarize the current evidence regarding strength training for injury prevention in soccer and to in...
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Context Arbitrary asymmetry thresholds are regularly used in professional soccer athletes, notwithstanding the sparse literature available to examine their prevalence. Objective To establish normative and positional asymmetry values for commonly used screening tests and investigate their relationships with jumping performance. Design Cross-sectio...
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The aims of the present study were to: 1) determine whether limb dominance and inter-limb asymmetry were the same across both change of direction (COD) and deceleration (DEC) deficits and, 2) determine the association between the COD and DEC-deficits and other physical performance tests in elite male rugby union players. Twenty five players perform...
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Context: Deficits in plyometric abilities are common following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Vertical rebound tasks may provide a targeted evaluation of knee function. Objective: Examine the utility of a vertical hop test to assess function following ACLR and establish factors associated with performance. Design: Cross-sectional...
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The aims of the present study were to: 1) determine the seasonal variation of physical performance in professional cricket players, 2) determine the seasonal variation of inter-limb asymmetries in the same cohort of professional players. Fifteen male professional cricket players (age: 20.60 ± 1.59 years; height: 1.82 ± 0.08 m; body mass: 78.70 ± 11...
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The influence of asymmetry on performance in sports with highly asymmetric demands is yet to be properly determined. This investigation sought to examine jump-based asymmetries within skateboarders and determine any possible relationships with subjective skating ranking and jumping performance. Twelve recreational skateboarders (age: 24 ± 7 years;...
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Despite growing research in the field of inter-limb asymmetries (ILAs), little is known about the variation of ILAs in different populations of athletes. The purpose of this study was to compare ILAs among young basketball, soccer and tennis players. ILAs were assessed in three different types of tests (strength, jumping and change of direction (Co...
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Objective: This study aims to develop a physical profile of international cricketers, and investigate if positional differences exist between bowlers and batters. Methods: Nineteen, international male cricketers, eleven bowlers (age 24.1 ± 5.2 years; height 179.73 ± 5.27 cm; weight 73.64 ± 6.65 kg), and eight batters (age 22.9 ± 3.8 years; height 1...
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Maximizing the neuromuscular capacities of players is a critical challenge during short soccer preseasons. This study compared the effects of two strength-power training regimes, on the strength, speed, and power performance of elite young soccer players during a 4-week preseason. Twenty-five under-20 players from the same club were pair-matched in...
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Objective To verify the effects of successive judo matches on interlimb asymmetry and bilateral deficit in judo athletes. Design Repeated measures; Setting University Judo center. Participants Fourteen male judo athletes. Outcome measures Four simulated matches consisting of 4-min. Before the first match and after each match athletes were submi...
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Rugby union is a field-based team sport with a large number of high-intensity actions such as sprinting, change of direction, tackling, scrummaging, rucking, and mauling. Competitive success in female rugby union has previously been related to anthropometric and physical characteristics, and with the recent introduction of professionalism in female...