Chris Baeken

Chris Baeken
Ghent University | UGhent · Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology

M.D., Ph.D

About

363
Publications
62,749
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
7,388
Citations
Introduction
As a psychiatrist my main interests are within the neurobiological field of Affective Disorders. To gain more insight in the underlying mechanisms of emotional brain processes in the ‘healthy’ as well as in the ‘mentally affected’ human brain, brain-imaging paradigms (MRI, fMRI, (S)PET,….) are used with or without the combination of neuromodulation techniques, such as rTMS and tDCS.
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Ghent University
January 2012 - present
Universitair Ziekenhuis Ghent
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2010 - present
University Hospital Brussels - Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel
Description
  • PhD supervisor
Education
October 2004 - June 2009
Vrije Universiteit Brussel
Field of study
  • Medical Sciences
October 2001 - June 2005
Maastricht University
Field of study
  • Affective Neurosciences
October 1998 - June 2001
University of Antwerp
Field of study
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Publications

Publications (363)
Poster
https://cuptexsupport.spi-global.com/CUPTexSupport/FlippingBook/EPA_2200015_01%201..2/933/#zoom=z
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Following encouraging results of our (Dardenne et al. 2018) pilot study with Accelerated High Frequency repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) using a figure of eight coil in the elderly depressed, we started a more adapted randomized control trial (ClinicalTrials.gov) for this specific population with use of the H1 helmet c...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has suggested that the posterior cerebellum encodes predictions and sequences of social actions, and also supports detecting inconsistent trait-implying actions of individuals as discussed by Pu et al. (2020, 2021). However, little is known about the role of the posterior cerebellum in detecting sequencing and inconsistencies by a g...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brain imaging studies have shown that stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), which plays a pivotal role in high-order cognitive control processes, modulates brain reactivity to reward-related cues. Nevertheless, the impact of contextual factors such as reward availability (the reward that is depicted in the cue exposure tas...
Article
Recent research has indicated that the posterior cerebellum plays a crucial role in social cognition by encoding sequences of social actions. This study investigates its role in learning sequences of stereotype-implying actions by group members. We presented a set of five sentences that each described a group member who performed either stereotype-...
Article
One of the main challenges in fMRI processing is filtering the task BOLD signals from the noise. Independent component analysis with automatic removal of motion artifacts (ICA-AROMA) reduces motion artifacts by identifying ICA noise components based on their location at the brain edges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), high frequency content and corre...
Article
Full-text available
Whereas the link between psychosocial stress and health complications has long been established, the influence of psychosocial stress on brain activity is not yet completely understood. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been regularly employed to investigate the neural aspects of the psychosocial stress response, but these results have not yet been...
Article
Full-text available
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is thought to partly exert its antidepressant action through the serotonergic system. Accelerated rTMS may have the potential to result in similar but faster onset of clinical improvement compared to the classical daily rTMS protocols, but given that delayed clinical responses have been reported,...
Preprint
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a widespread mental illness that causes considerable suffering, and neuroimaging studies are trying to reduce this burden by developing biomarkers that can facilitate detection. Prior fMRI- and neurostimulation studies suggest that aberrant subgenual Anterior Cingulate (sgACC) – dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLP...
Article
Full-text available
Accelerated intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (aiTBS) is a new non-invasive brain stimulation protocol developed to rapidly treat medication resistant depression (MRD). However, to examine potential neurobiological changes only few sham-controlled studies combining pre/post treatment measures and brain imaging data are available. Consequently, w...
Article
Full-text available
Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proven to be a useful tool for the treatment of several severe neuropsychiatric disorders. Accelerated (a)rTMS protocols may have the potential to result in faster clinical improvements, but the effects of such accelerated paradigms on brain function remain to be elucidated. O...
Article
Full-text available
Low-intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), including alternating or direct current stimulation, applies weak electrical stimulation to modulate the activity of brain circuits. Integration of tES with concurrent functional MRI (fMRI) allows for the mapping of neural activity during neuromodulation, supporting causal studies of both bra...
Article
Full-text available
Background Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is considered to be an important transdiagnostic factor in the onset, course and recurrence of both depressive and anxiety disorders. This study aimed to investigate whether an add-on group intervention ‘Drop it’, compared to treatment as usual, would improve RNT, anxiety and depressive symptoms, as wel...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research suggests beneficial effects of cognitive control training (CCT) on repetitive negative thinking (RNT), a key risk factor for internalizing symptomatology. However, relatively little is known regarding predictors of adherence to internet-delivered CCT as well as moderators of treatment effects for this intervention. Answering these q...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing interest in applying double-dose repetitive transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) as a therapeutic tool for stress-related psychiatric disorders. Such stimulation protocols may shorten the treatment duration and may result in faster symptom improvement. Currently, theta-burst stimulation (TBS) protocols have gained attention b...
Article
Previous neuroimaging studies have highlighted the role of prefrontal-subcortical circuits in personality trait of novelty seeking (NS), thought to be mediated by the dopaminergic system. However, it remains largely unknown whether cortico-basal-cerebellar connections, heavily influenced by dopamine, are implicated in this temperament dimension as...
Article
Objectives: Treatment of repetitive negative thinking (RNT) focuses rather on individual than group cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) treatment. Additionally, little is known on how clients experienced these interventions. This study investigates clients' experiences on participating in a CBT group intervention targeting RNT (RNT-G). Design: Of...
Article
Full-text available
The current study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of people with OCD and the degree of family accommodation (FA) by live-in family members across phases of the lockdown measures imposed by the Belgian government. Forty-nine OCD patients and 26 live-in family members participated in the study. We assesse...
Article
Full-text available
Background Accelerated intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (aiTBS) has been put forward as an effective treatment to alleviate depressive symptoms. Baseline functional connectivity (FC) patterns between the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the subgenual anterior cortex (sgACC) have gained a lot of attention as a potential biomarker...
Article
Background: There is active interest in biomarker discovery for transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS). However, greater understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms is needed to identify candidate markers. Accumulating evidence suggests that taVNS influences activity in solitary and parabrachial nuclei, the primary brainstem...
Article
Full-text available
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is increasingly recognized as a multisystem disorder accompanied by cognitive changes. To date, no effective therapy is available for ALS patients, partly due to disease heterogeneity and an imperfect understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes. Reliable models that can predict cognitive and moto...
Article
This study tests the hypothesis that the posterior cerebellum is involved in social cognition by identifying and automatizing sequences of social actions. We applied a belief serial reaction time task (Belief SRT task), which requires mentalizing about two protagonists’ beliefs about how many flowers they receive. The protagonists’ beliefs could ei...
Article
Full-text available
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a tool that can be used to administer treatment to neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD). Though, the clinical efficacy is still rather modest. Overly general stimulation protocols that neither consider patient-specific depression symptomology nor individualized bra...
Article
Full-text available
Recent advances in social neuroscience have highlighted the critical role of the cerebellum and especially the posterior cerebellar Crus in social mentalizing (i.e., theory of mind). Research in the past 5 years has provided growing evidence supporting the view that the posterior cerebellum builds internal action models of our social interactions t...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Approximately half of all people with alcohol use disorder (AUD) relapse into alcohol reuse in the next few weeks after a withdrawal treatment. Brain stimulation and cognitive training represent recent forms of complementary interventions in the context of AUD. Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of five sessions of 2 mA bilat...
Article
Full-text available
Recent advances in social neuroscience have highlighted the critical role of the cerebellum in social cognition, and especially the posterior cerebellum. Studies have supported the view that the posterior cerebellum builds internal action models of our social interactions to predict how other people’s actions will be executed and what our most like...
Article
Introduction: Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) as monotherapy has been increasingly used to enhance the activity of brain networks. However, it is unclear whether a combination of distinct NIBS approaches could enhance prefrontal cortical (PFC) activity. Objective: We propose to investigate the combined and standalone effects of two NIBS mo...
Article
Full-text available
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are severe and difficult-to-treat psychiatric illnesses with high rates of comorbidity. Although both disorders are treated with serotonergic based psychotropic agents, little is known on the influence of the serotonergic neurotransmitter system on the occurrence of comorbid GAD...
Article
Full-text available
Background Remitted depressed (RMD) individuals form a risk group for developing future depressive episodes. Improving cognitive control may reduce the risk to develop novel depressive symptoms, as beneficial effects of such training were demonstrated in RMD individuals.Method The current study attempted to replicate and extend these results. In th...
Chapter
The combination of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with psychological interventions is a promising avenue for optimized tDCS treatment in psychiatric disorders. Given that the efficacy of tDCS depends on the functional state of the brain at the time of stimulation, longer-lasting neuroplastic effects could be greater when tDCS and ps...
Article
The posterior cerebellum is responsible for the understanding and learning of sequences of actions by others, which are a prerequisite for social understanding. This study investigates this cerebellar function while navigating towards a goal in a social context. Participants undertook a novel social navigation task requiring them to memorize and su...
Article
Full-text available
Social-evaluative threat (SET)-a situation in which one could be negatively evaluated by others-elicits profound (psycho)physiological reactivity which, if chronically present and not adaptively regulated, has deleterious effects on mental and physical health. Decreased self-awareness and increased other-awareness are understood to be an adaptive r...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The interaction between neuropsychiatric symptoms, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia is complex and remains to be elucidated. An additive or multiplicative effect of neuropsychiatric symptoms such as apathy or depression on cognitive decline has been suggested. Unraveling these interactions may allow the development of bette...
Article
Objective: Various studies investigated implicit sequence learning in Parkinson's disease (PD) by means of the traditional motor Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task and found a general pattern of impaired sequence learning. However, as perceptual and motor sequences of the SRT-task were correlated in previous studies, implicit sequential knowledge acq...
Article
Full-text available
Can we predict the future by reading others´ minds? This study explores whether attributing others' personality traits facilitate predictions about their future actions and the temporal order of these future actions. Prior evidence demonstrated that the posterior cerebellar Crus is involved in identifying the temporal sequence of social actions and...
Article
Full-text available
Can we predict the future by reading others´ minds? This study explores whether attributing others' personality traits facilitate predictions about their future actions and the temporal order of these future actions. Prior evidence demonstrated that the posterior cerebellar Crus is involved in identifying the temporal sequence of social actions and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Approximately half the people with alcohol use disorder (AUD) relapse into alcohol reuse in the few weeks following withdrawal treatment. Brain stimulation and cognitive training represent recent forms of complementary interventions in the context of AUD. Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of transcranial direct current stimula...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Frequent exposure to criticism is a known risk factor for various adult psychiatric disorders. Adolescents may be even more vulnerable to (parental) criticism, as their imbalanced brain maturation makes them prone to stronger mood changes and less effective emotional regulation. Identifying which adolescent subgroups are more vulnerable...
Article
Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) has been proposed as a potential new tool in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Prior studies have demonstrated that taVNS enhances cognitive control and is able to modulate brain activity in key regions involved in cognitive emotion regulation, such as the anterior cingulate and med...
Preprint
- Multiple sessions of tDCS targeting the DLPFC reduced the rate of early relapse in detoxified patients with alcohol-use disorder. - When tDCS is combined with alcohol cue inhibitory control training, the abstinence rate at two weeks after discharge was the highest. - The resilient effects of the combined procedure on abstinence did not persist...
Article
Recent studies have documented the involvement of the posterior cerebellar Crus (I & II) in social mentalizing, when sequences play a critical role. We investigated for the first time implicit learning of belief sequences. We created a novel task in which true and false beliefs of other persons were alternated in an adapted serial reaction time (SR...
Article
Full-text available
The tendency to ruminate (i.e., repetitive negative self-referential thoughts that perpetuate depressive mood) is associated with (a) an elevated propensity to maladaptively experience counterfactual thinking (CFT) and regret, and (b) hypo-activity of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The goal of this study was to investigate whether...
Article
Full-text available
Social cognition plays a crucial role in the development and treatment of cocaine dependence. However, studies investigating social cognition, such as empathy and its underlying neural basis, are lacking. To explore the neural interactions among reward and memory circuits, we applied effective connectivity analysis on resting-state fMRI data collec...
Article
Full-text available
Implicit motor sequence learning (IMSL) is a cognitive function that is known to be directly associated with impaired motor function in Parkinson's disease (PD). Research on healthy young participants shows the potential for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, over the primary motor cortex (M1)...
Article
Full-text available
The preservation of our environment requires sustainable ways of thinking and living. This study aimed to explore the core network of brain regions involved in the prospective thinking about (un)sustainable behaviors. We used a neuroimaging cue-exposure paradigm requesting participants (N=86) to report behaviors that were the most feasible for them...
Article
Objective Research suggests that the combination of different non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), could enhance the effects of stimulation. Studies investigating the combination of tDCS and iTBS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLP...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Accelerated intermittent theta burst stimulation (aiTBS) is a promising treatment option for depressed patients. However, there is a large interindividual variability in clinical effectiveness and individual biomarkers to guide treatment outcome are needed. Materials and Methods Here, the relation between cortical thickness and clinical...
Article
Full-text available
An increasing number of studies demonstrated the involvement of the cerebellum in (social) sequence processing. The current preliminary study is the first to investigate the causal involvement of the cerebellum in sequence generation, using low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS). By targeting the posterior cerebellum,...
Article
The unprecedented development and ubiquity of sports betting constitutes an emerging public health concern. It is crucial to provide markers that could help to better identify people experiencing sports betting-related harms. The current study investigated whether problem gambling status, sports betting passion, and trait self-control modulate brai...
Article
Objective To explore the effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF rTMS) on cortico-striatal-cerebellar resting state functional connectivity in Parkinson’s disease (PD), with and without dyskinesias. Methods Because there is increasing evidence of an involvement of the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) in the...
Article
Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a core process underlying various psychiatric disorders. ‘Uncontrollability of rumination (UOR)’ is one the most maladaptive factors of rumination, but little is known on how cognitive behavioral focused RNT psychotherapy may alter brain activity. In a subsample of 47 patients suffering from RNT who also underw...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction A recent study showed hypoactivity in the beta/gamma band in female suicide ideators and suicide attempters diagnosed with depression, relative to a low-risk group. The current study aimed to conceptually replicate these results. Methods In the iSPOT-D sample (n = 402), suicide ideators and low-risk individuals were identified. Confin...
Article
Full-text available
Background It has been suggested that individual differences in temperament could be involved in the (non-)response to antidepressant (AD) treatment. However, how neurobiological processes such as brain glucose metabolism may relate to personality features in the treatment-resistant depressed (TRD) state remains largely unclear. Methods To examine...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Trauma-based psychotherapy is a first line treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but not all patients achieve long-term remission. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) received considerable attention as a neuromodulation method that may improve trauma-based psychotherapy. Objective: We explored the effects of...
Chapter
Dogs can be used as research models in order to contribute to a better understanding of human neuropsychiatric disorders and to explore treatment options. In general, smaller laboratory animals, most often mice and rats, have been extensively used. Nevertheless, the implementation of larger animal (e.g. dogs) models has several important advantages...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), including alternating or direct current stimulation (tACS or tDCS), applies weak electrical stimulation to modulate brain circuits. Integration of tES with concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows neuromodulation of brain regions while mapping network function...