Chris Armstrong

Chris Armstrong
University of Southampton · Division of Politics & International Relations

PhD

About

83
Publications
25,641
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457
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
August 2005 - October 2015
University of Southampton
Position
  • Professor of Political Theory
August 2003 - August 2005
Queen's University Belfast
Position
  • Lecturer
August 2003 - August 2005
Queen's University Belfast
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (83)
Book
Full-text available
The ocean sustains life on our planet, from absorbing carbon to regulating temperatures, and, as we exhaust the resources to be found on land, it is becoming central to the global market. But today we are facing two urgent challenges at sea: massive environmental destruction, and spiraling inequality in the ocean economy. Chris Armstrong reveals h...
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According to one prominent theory of development, a country’s wealth is primarily explained by the quality of its institutions. Leaning on that view, several political theorists have defended two normative conclusions. The first is that we have no reason for concern, from the point of view of justice, if some countries have greater natural resource...
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The ocean is central to our lives, but many of our impacts on the ocean are highly unsustainable, and patterns of resource exploitation at sea are deeply inequitable. This article assesses whether the objectives encapsulated in the UN's Sustainable Development Goal for the ocean are well equipped to respond to these challenges. It will argue that t...
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Predicted sea level rise caused by anthropogenic climate change threatens to drastically alter coastlines around the world. In the case of low-lying atoll states it threatens to expunge them from the map. This potential scenario has engendered considerable discussion concerning the fate of climate refugees. There has been relatively little attentio...
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This chapter examines a variety of views about the nature of society’s putative duty to conserve natural resources for the future, with a focus on the contested idea of sustainability. This chapter examines competing conceptions of sustainability and their implications for natural resource conservation across generations. Sustainability is a very p...
Article
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If dangerous climate change is to be avoided, the majority of the world’s fossil fuel supplies cannot be burned. Fossil fuel exporting countries will therefore lose out on a significant source of revenue – among them some of the world’s poorest countries. Might they have a claim to assistance from the international community if these losses come to...
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We examined how, from the point of view of justice, the burdens of paying for conservation should be shared. I resisted simple answers to the question of who should pay for conservation that lean on a single moral principle. I identified 3 relevant principles that relate to who causes conservation challenges, who has greater capacity to carry burde...
Chapter
Selling citizenship, even if it (often) appears repugnant, pales in comparison to many of the other inequities attendant on the ordinary transmission of citizenship, as Shachar’s own work has forcefully hammered home. For all that selling citizenship troubles us, it might do us the considerable service of forcing us to think (more) about the way in...
Preprint
A number of hugely valuable natural resources fall outside of the borders of any nation state. We can legitimately expect political theory to make a contribution to thinking through questions about the future of these extraterritorial resources. However, the debate on the proper allocation of rights over these resources remains relatively embryonic...
Article
A number of hugely valuable natural resources fall outside of the borders of any nation state. We can legitimately expect political theory to make a contribution to thinking through questions about the future of these extraterritorial resources. However, the debate on the proper allocation of rights over these resources remains relatively embryonic...
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Preprint
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Forthcoming in Hugh Lafolette (ed) International Encyclopedia of Ethics
Book
Our world is increasingly marked by climate change, environmental degradation, and conflict over precious resources such as oil, water, and land. In each case, access to valuable resources is at stake. We require a normative account of how access to the benefits and burdens natural resources provide ought to be shared. But to date we have no compre...
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If dangerous climate change is to be avoided, it is vital that carbon sinks such as tropical rainforests are protected. But protecting them has costs. These include opportunity costs: the potential economic benefits which those who currently control rainforests have to give up when they are protected. But who should bear those costs? Should countri...
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The doctrine of permanent sovereignty over natural resources is a hugely consequential one in the contemporary world, appearing to grant nation-states both jurisdiction-type rights and rights of ownership over the resources to be found in their territories. But the normative justification for that doctrine is far from clear. This article elucidates...
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Any adequate position on allocating rights over natural resources will recognise that as well as the general claims we have over them (simply as human beings), there are also often special claims, based on the ways in which we have improved them, perhaps, or become attached to specific resources. The question is how to integrate these general and s...
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Many of the most important recent debates on global distributive justice take place between defenders of global egalitarian positions, on the one hand, and defenders of more sufficientarian or 'minimalist' positions on the other. This paper reviews two recent contributions to those debates, from Pablo Gilabert (in his book From Global Poverty to Gl...
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Are countries which have rainforests in their territories entitled to higher emissions quotas, on the basis that the sink capacity of those forests ought to be considered a 'credit' on their part? If good arguments can be made to that effect, then the nature and content of territorial rights matter for discussions of climate justice. This paper con...
Article
If dangerous climate change is to be avoided, it is vital that carbon sinks such as tropical rainforests are protected. But protecting them has costs. These include opportunity costs: the potential economic benefits which those who currently control rainforests have to give up when they are protected. But who should bear those costs? Should countri...
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Full-text available
Dozens of countries have established Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) in the last decade or so, in the majority of cases employing those funds to manage the large revenues gained from selling resources such as oil and gas on a tide of rapidly rising commodity prices. These funds have raised a series of ethical questions, including just how the money c...
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In Global Justice and Avant-Garde Political Agency, Lea Ypi sets out a challenging model for theorizing global justice. Such a theory should be robustly critical*and egalitarian*rather than swallowing sour grapes by adapting its ideals to what appears to be politically possible. But it should also offer concrete prescriptions capable of guiding ref...
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This paper investigates the significance, from the point of view of justice, of patterns of attachment to natural resources. Section I establishes what is at stake in arguments about attachment, distinguishing attachment from improvement as a source of special claims, and distinguishing attachment-based claims over natural resources from occupancy-...
Book
Global distributive justice is now part of mainstream political debate. It incorporates issues that are now a familiar feature of the political landscape, such as global poverty, trade justice, aid to the developing world and debt cancellation. This is the first textbook to focus exclusively on issues of distributive justice on the global scale. It...
Book
Global distributive justice is now part of mainstream political debate. It incorporates issues that are now a familiar feature of the political landscape, such as global poverty, trade justice, aid to the developing world and debt cancellation. This is the first textbook to focus exclusively on issues of distributive justice on the global scale. It...
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Full-text available
Many of the foremost defenders of distributive egalitarianism hold that its scope should be limited to co-citizens. But this bracketing of distributive equality exclusively to citizens turns out to be very difficult to defend. Pressure is placed on it, for instance, when we recognize its vulnerability to ‘extension arguments’ which attempt to cast...
Article
The political theorist Michael Walzer has usually been taken as an opponent of global distributive justice, on the basis that it is incompatible with collective autonomy, would endanger cultural diversity, or simply on the basis that principles of global distributive justice cannot be coherently envisaged, given cross-cultural disagreement about th...
Article
The political theorist Michael Walzer has usually been taken as an opponent of global distributive justice, on the basis that it is incompatible with collective autonomy, would endanger cultural diversity, or simply on the basis that principles of global distributive justice cannot be coherently envisaged, given cross-cultural disagreement about th...
Book
This text offers a perspicuous, empirically-informed theoretical overview of the prospects for citizenship in the light of its current political context. The authorial team comprises leading names from across the field, offering a cutting edge analysis of the problems and pressures of citizenship in the twenty-first century. The authors focus in pa...
Chapter
This chapter examines the challenge that claims for global justice have been said to pose for the nation, and the value of national self-determination in particular. A debate has arisen between defenders of global justice and defenders of national self-determination, with the latter camp sometimes arguing that although some forms of global justice...
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A review essay of Gillian Brock Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Account (Oxford University Press, 2009)
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Within the debate over global distributive justice, the most challenging proposals - those forwarded by global egalitarians - have attracted the objection that their ideals are incompatible with recognising the legitimate self-determination of national communities. In response, we might say that surely global egalitarians can accord some value to t...
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This paper examines arguments for restricting duties of specifically egalitarian distributive justice to the level of individual states. One argument suggests that citizens of a given state owe one another such duties on account of their subjection to, and authorship of, a system of coercive laws and institutions. An alternative argument suggests t...
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To whom is egalitarian justice owed? Our fellow citizens, or all of humankind? If the latter, what form might a global brand of egalitarianism take? This paper examines some recent debates about the justification, and content, of global egalitarian justice. It provides an account of some keenly argued controversies about the scope of egalitarian ju...
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Whereas the drive to elaborate principles and practices of global distributive justice is continuing apace in the academy, Rawls's last book The Law of Peoples rejected the very idea of global distributive justice, and recommended instead a 'duty of assistance' towards societies burdened by unfavourable conditions - a concession that was described...
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Over the past decade, Nancy Fraser has developed a highly sophisticated theory of social justice. At its heart lies the principle of parity of participation, according to which social arrangements must 'permit all (adult) members of society to interact with one another as peers.' The aim of this paper is to see whether it is possible to determine h...
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This paper examines Nancy Fraser's attempt to repair the apparent schism between economic and cultural struggles for justice. Fraser has argued that the only analysis equipped to theorise the relationship between economic and cultural injustices is a "perspectival dualist" one, which treats the two forms of injustice as analytically separate and ir...
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The focus of this article is Anthony Giddens's work on equality as a key value of a renewed social democracy. The first section gives a brief account of the key normative arguments of Giddens's egalitarian vision. The second then introduces Giddens's distinction between 'emancipatory politics' and 'life politics', and shows how a concern to accord...
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For many recent commentators, the association of citizenship with the nation-state is under siege, as transnational and even global forms of citizenship begin to emerge. The nascent phenomenon of global citizenship in particular is characterized by three components: the global discourse on human rights; a global account of citizenly responsibilitie...
Chapter
This chapter examines the inter-relation of economic and cultural or symbolic inequalities, focusing on Nancy Fraser's work on ‘recognition and redistribution’. Fraser's work initially suggested a limited role for the ideal of equality: whereas equality provided a crucial language for the advancement of claims for economic redistribution, such lang...
Chapter
This chapter examines the prospects for egalitarian citizenship at a global level. Both citizenship and the hopes of a substantive egalitarian politics are tied to the fate of the nation-state. Andrew Linklater asserts that a nascent global citizenship regime is epitomised by the universal system of human rights, an ethic of global responsibility,...
Chapter
The hegemony of equality of opportunity of some kind is profound within the liberal literature, and even beyond. Liberal egalitarianism has focused on equal opportunities to earn income within a market economy, and has offered an insufficient interrogation of the systematic inequalities that characterise contemporary societies. This chapter examine...
Chapter
This chapter examines John Rawls's theory of justice and compares it with T. H. Marshall's account of social citizenship. Like Marshall, Rawls tried to integrate a concern for economic equality into the framework of liberal citizenship. As such, both accounts represent attempts to heal the dualism of what Karl Marx called bourgeois citizenship. The...
Chapter
This chapter draws a brief comparison between the liberal emphasis on equality of opportunity and New Labour's rhetoric on social inclusion, to show how both have normalised neoliberal concerns. Specifically, both liberal equality of opportunity and the third way ideal of social inclusion foreground the importance of labour market participation as...
Book
Although formally equal, relations between citizens are actually characterised by many and varied forms of inequality. Do contemporary theories of equality provide an adequate response to the inequalities that afflict contemporary societies? And what is the connection between theories of equality and the contemporary politics of citizenship? Access...
Article
Within recent egalitarian theory, the ideal of equal opportunity holds considerable sway. Liberal egalitarians increasingly concentrate on refining this ideal, as do a number of Marxist theorists. At the same time many radical critics are unhappy with various aspects of this hegemony of equality of opportunity, and this article examines the reasons...
Article
Political identity has become increasingly detached from its ‘monogamous’ association with a single nation-state, and replaced for some with a system of fluid, multiple citizenships. Chris Armstrong examines the nature of the relationship between ‘global’ and ‘local’ forms of citizenship.
Article
The concept of risk occupies centre-stage in debates about individual and social responsibilities and, within a broadly neo-liberal regime, the paradigmatic form of risk management is insurance. Nevertheless analysis of these recent shifts in welfare politics appears curiously disconnected from dominant trends of normative political theorizing. The...
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This article scrutinizes the claim that liberal egalitarians are now the last real torchbearers for the principles of egalitarian reform. This claim might appear eccentric on the surface, but is increasingly common in leftist circles following the recent abandonment of such principles by formerly socialist parties. Programmes of 'social inclusion',...
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The public/private dichotomy has long been the object of considerable attention for feminists. We argue that, by focusing their attention on a divide which has declined in importance, feminists may fail to keep up with the current means by which sexual inequalities are perpetuated. Furthermore, by concentrating on this divide feminists risk reprodu...
Article
Equality has become a highly controversial concept within feminism, not least because standard egalitarian accounts have been accused of neglecting both difference and also issues of real concern to feminists, such as the structure of the `domestic' sphere, contexts of power, and responsibility for domestic work. Michael Walzer's theory of `complex...
Article
Walzer's work has been criticised by liberal writers on the grounds of its interpretive underpinnings, which have been equated with communitarianism. Theorists working in branches of radical political theory (such as feminism, critical theory or post-structuralism) have generally accepted this criticism and considered Walzer's work excessively cons...
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Bristol, 2001.

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