Chow-Yang Lee

Chow-Yang Lee
University of California, Riverside | UCR · Department of Entomology

Ph.D., B.Sc. (First Class Hons.) Universiti Sains Malaysia

About

353
Publications
98,980
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3,612
Citations
Citations since 2017
85 Research Items
1918 Citations
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Introduction
My research direction centers around the behavioral, ecological, and physiological adaptations of urban insect pests, especially understanding how these adaptations help them to thrive in the urban environment and their biological trade-offs. I am also interested in the roles of human activities and propagule pressure in invasion history of urban insect pests. Using the research findings obtained, my students and I design, evaluate, and integrate multiple management tactics to provide a system-level approach towards urban pest management. Our recent research activities focus on morphological and biological traits, insecticide resistance and its underlying mechanisms, endosymbiont roles, phylogenetics, population genetics, and environmental physiology of urban pests.
Additional affiliations
April 2015 - August 2015
National Taiwan University
Position
  • Professor
July 2011 - November 2011
Kyoto University
Position
  • Visiting Professor
October 2007 - March 2008
Kyoto University
Position
  • Visiting Professor

Publications

Publications (353)
Article
The longlegged ant Anoplolepis gracilipes (Smith) is a highly invasive tramp ant species known for its deleterious effects on native ecosystems. While tramp ants are associated with human activity, information on how different intensities of human activity affect their distribution is limited. This study investigated how anthropogenic activities af...
Article
Full-text available
Katydids produce sound for signaling and communication by stridulation of the tegmina. Unlike crickets, most katydids are known to sing at ultrasonic frequencies. This has drawn interest in the investigation of the biophysics of ultrasonic sound production, detection, evolution, and ecology (including predator–prey interactions) of these katydids....
Article
Clonal reproduction can provide an advantage for invasive species to establish as it can circumvent inbreeding depression which often plagues introduced populations. The world's most widespread invasive ant, Paratrechina longicornis, was previously found to display a double‐clonal reproduction system, whereby both males and queens are produced clon...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The DDT, deltamethrin, and malathion susceptibilities of five tropical bed bug (Cimex hemipterus) strains, and their resistance mechanisms were investigated using synergism studies and detection of kdr mutations. All C. hemipterus strains showed high resistance to DDT and deltamethrin and moderate to high resistance to malathion. Synergism studies...
Article
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In Egypt, only five species of Dermaptera (earwigs) have been reported. Based on both the morphological and molecular data of the earwig samples collected from a bakery in Beni-Suef, Egypt, we identified the species as Marava arachidis (Spongiphoridae), a cosmopolitan species with no prior records in Egypt. The current study was designed to analyze...
Article
Bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) are an important group of obligate hematophagous urban insect pests. The global resurgence of bed bugs, involving the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., and the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (F.), over the past two decades is believed to be primarily due to the development of insecticide resistance, along wit...
Article
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The yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes is a widespread invasive ant that poses significant threats to local biodiversity. Yet, compared to other global invasive ant species such as the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) or the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), little is known about the diversity of RNA viruses in the yellow crazy an...
Article
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Bed bugs are an important group of medical and urban insect pests. They are obligate blood-feeders. Their bites may cause skin irritation and allergic reactions and, under some circumstances, may lead to mental and other health issues. Despite numerous discoveries on the biology of these obnoxious pests and progress in control strategies over the l...
Article
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New infestations of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae), were discovered in southern California, namely in Rancho Santa Fe and La Mesa (San Diego County) and Highland Park (Los Angeles County) in 2021. We investigated whether these new infestations were related to the previous infestations...
Article
Full-text available
Some diopsid flies have sexually dimorphic eye stalks that are assumed to require considerable nutrition for growth but are advantageous in competition and courtship. According to the handicap theory, the eye span in some dimorphic species serves as a reliable signal of individual quality to an opponent. However, it is not well understood how well...
Article
Full-text available
Modern bed bugs are resistant to multiple insecticide classes, particularly the pyrethroids. The efficacy of pyrethroid-impregnated mattress liners marketed for bed bug management has been variable. This study evaluated the efficacy of a permethrin-impregnated mattress liner, ActiveGuard, against 24 bed bug strains, consisting of both Cimex hemipte...
Article
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The residual performance of two pyrethroid-neonicotinoid mixture formulations: Temprid SC (10.5% beta- cyfluthrin and 21% imidacloprid) and Tandem (3.5% lambda-cyhalothrin and 11.6% thiamethoxam) on two substrates (glass and filter paper) against eight pyrethroid-resistant strains (BM-MY, BP-MY, CH-MY, GL-MY, KL-MY, SAJ-MY,TT-MY, and QLD-AU) of the...
Article
Despite insecticide resistance issues, pyrethroids and fipronil have continued to be used extensively to control the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Ectobiidae) for more than two decades. We evaluated the physiological insecticide resistance in five German cockroach populations collected from 2018 to 2020 and measured the ext...
Preprint
Full-text available
Reproduction mode represents a key determinant for success of biological invasion as it influences the genetic variation and evolutionary potential of introduced populations. The world’s most widespread invasive ant, Paratrechina longicornis , was found to display an unusual double-clonal reproduction system, whereby both males and queens were prod...
Article
Full-text available
The longlegged ant ( Anoplolepis gracilipes) is one of the most damaging invasive tramp ants globally. It is generally found between latitudes 27°N and 27°S in Asia, although it has been introduced to other continents. Its native range remains debatable, but it is believed to be in Southeast Asia. Anoplolepis gracilipes invasion has many serious ec...
Article
Full-text available
Gel bait insecticides have been extensively used to manage the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), but issues with reduced effectiveness of such formulations are becoming increasingly common. We collected five field strains of German cockroaches in California and evaluated them against five commercial bait products [...
Article
Full-text available
The modern resurgence of the common (Cimex lectularius L.) and tropical bed bugs (C. hemipterus [F.]) is thought to be primarily due to insecticide resistance. While there are many reports on insecticide resistance mechanisms in C. lectularius, such information in C. hemipterus is limited. We examined dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), malath...
Article
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Over the last few years, there have been several exciting discoveries related to termite biology and management. This article reviews a few of the exciting findings and examines their potential in future termite management strategies.
Article
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The behavioral responses of two bed bug species, Cimex lectularius L. and C. hemipterus (F.), to conspecific or heterospecific nymphal aldehyde blends were examined using a two-choice olfactometer. Volatile cues from exuviae or a synthetic blend containing (E)-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal were tested. In bo...
Article
Full-text available
Overexpression of a cytochrome P450 gene, CYP4G19, is known to associate with pyrethroid resistance in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Ectobiidae). In this study, we investigated the CYP4G19 expression level in 20 field-collected strains of B. germanica in Taiwan. We also examined the level of adult male susceptibility to...
Article
Full-text available
The Formosan subterranean termite was first discovered in California in La Mesa, San Diego County in 1992. The original colony was baited, but newer infestations were found and were also baited, fumigated, or underwent corrective soil treatment. In 2018, a pest management professional found another infestation of the Formosan subterranean termite i...
Book
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As a species, the German cockroach is one of the most widespread indoor urban pests worldwide. While numerous products have been developed to control their spread, German cockroaches continue to contaminate food, transmit disease and cause significant, long-term economic expense to homes, restaurants, hospitals and more. Biology and Management of...
Article
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A new infestation of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae), was discovered in Canyon Lake, Riverside County, California. We used three mitochondrial DNA (COI, COII, and 16S) and seven polymorphic microsatellite markers to characterize the genetic relationship of the colony with two other colo...
Article
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We unveiled the penile penetration mechanics of two earwig species, Echinosoma horridum, whose intromittent organ, termed virga, is extraordinarily long, and E. denticulatum, whose virga is conversely short. We characterised configuration, geometry, material and bending stiffness for both virga and spermatheca. The short virga of E. denticulatum ha...
Article
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Spillover of honey bee viruses have posed a significant threat to pollination services, triggering substantial effort in determining the host range of the viruses as an attempt to understand the transmission dynamics. Previous studies have reported infection of honey bee viruses in ants, raising the concern of ants serving as a reservoir host. Most...
Article
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Artificial sweeteners are sweet-tasting additives found in consumable products as substitutes for naturally occurring sugars. They are derived from plant extracts or manufactured by chemical synthesis. Ingestion of sweeteners by insects can lead to significant physiological effects, such as mortality, decreased fecundity, and behavioral change. Due...
Article
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Reproductive biology, including the mating behavior, ootheca rotation and deposition, and the embryonic development of a nocticolid cockroach Nocticola sp. were examined and described, and the phylogenetic issues regarding Nocticolidae and Blattodea were discussed. The abdominal terga II to IV are specialized in males, relating to the tergal glands...
Article
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Bed bugs produce volatile aldehydes that have alarm and aggregation functions. Using two synanthropic bed bug species, Cimex lectularius L. and C. hemipterus (Fabricius), developmental changes were examined for (E)-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal, the four most abundant aldehydes shared between the two species...
Article
A 2012-13 survey on Penang Island, Malaysia, revealed the existence of both Drosophila ananassae and Drosophila parapallidosa, the latter of which carries chromosomes Y and 4 from D. ananassae and thus is of hybrid origin. We collected the flies again from the same location in 2018. The hybrid population remained present, which suggests that the D....
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the influences of insecticide exposure time and mortality assessment intervals on the bioassay results of three insecticide-resistant tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (F.) populations (Madam Mo, Tanjong Tokong, and Green Lane). This was achieved using the surface contact method and tested with six commercial insecticide products: Tand...
Article
Full-text available
While Wolbachia, an intracellular bacterial symbiont, is primarily transmitted maternally in arthropods, horizontal transmission between species has been commonly documented. We examined kleptoparasitism as a potential mechanism for Wolbachia horizontal transmission, using ant crickets and their host ants as the model system. We compared prevalence...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper explores the influence of COVID-19 regarding its effect on the pest management industry.
Article
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The yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes (Smith, 1857), is a widespread invasive ant in tropical and subtropical regions. In our study, we surveyed ant cricket species (Myrmecophilinae) associated with A. gracilipes in the Indo-Pacific region and provided a taxonomic revision using an integrative approach by combining morphological and molecula...
Article
Full-text available
Insecticide resistance in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), is a significant challenge to the pest management professionals worldwide. We collected 24 field populations of B. germanica from different localities in Taiwan island, reared them for one to two generations, and evaluated them for their resistance to deltamethrin, propoxur,...
Article
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􏰵􏰦􏰑 􏰚􏰑􏰒􏰑􏰏􏰓 􏰆􏰈􏰐􏰒􏰇􏰪􏰑􏰚􏰟 􏰇􏰠 􏰖􏰙􏰜􏰓􏰈􏰗􏰜􏰑 􏰪􏰈􏰚􏰙􏰐􏰑􏰐 􏰈􏰏 􏰛􏰏􏰓􏰐􏰁 􏰛􏰜􏰇􏰏􏰣 􏰕􏰈􏰓􏰦 􏰓􏰦􏰑 􏰕􏰈􏰆􏰑􏰐􏰗􏰚􏰑􏰛􏰆 􏰈􏰏􏰠􏰑􏰒􏰓􏰈􏰇􏰏 􏰇􏰠 􏰓􏰦􏰑􏰈􏰚 􏰦􏰇􏰐􏰓􏰐 􏰛􏰒􏰚􏰇􏰐􏰐 􏰣􏰑􏰇􏰣􏰚􏰛􏰗􏰦􏰈􏰒 􏰚􏰛􏰏􏰣􏰑􏰐􏰁 􏰗􏰚􏰇􏰪􏰈􏰆􏰑􏰐 􏰛􏰏 􏰑􏰯􏰒􏰑􏰜􏰜􏰑􏰏􏰓 􏰇􏰗􏰗􏰇􏰚􏰓􏰙􏰏􏰈􏰓􏰟 􏰓􏰇 􏰓􏰑􏰐􏰓 􏰕􏰦􏰑􏰓􏰦􏰑􏰚 􏰪􏰈􏰚􏰛􏰜 􏰗􏰚􏰑􏰪􏰛􏰜􏰑􏰏􏰒􏰑 􏰈􏰏 􏰓􏰦􏰑 􏰠􏰈􏰑􏰜􏰆 􏰈􏰐 􏰛􏰐􏰐􏰇􏰒􏰈􏰛􏰓􏰑􏰆 􏰕􏰈􏰓􏰦 􏰓􏰦􏰑 􏰒􏰇􏰖􏰗􏰜􏰑􏰯􏰈􏰓􏰟 􏰇􏰠 􏰐􏰇􏰒􏰈􏰛􏰜 􏰈􏰏􏰓􏰑􏰚􏰛􏰒􏰓􏰈􏰇􏰏􏰐 􏰈􏰏 􏰓􏰦􏰑 􏰛􏰏􏰓 􏰗􏰇􏰗􏰙􏰜􏰛􏰓􏰈􏰇􏰏􏰌 􏰡􏰏 􏰓􏰦􏰈􏰐 􏰐􏰓􏰙􏰆􏰟􏰁 􏰕􏰑 􏰑􏰯􏰛􏰖􏰈􏰏􏰑􏰆 􏰕􏰦􏰑􏰓􏰦􏰑􏰚 􏰓􏰦􏰑 􏰛􏰐􏰐􏰇􏰒􏰈􏰛􏰓􏰈􏰇􏰏 􏰑􏰯􏰈􏰐􏰓􏰐 􏰞􏰑􏰓􏰕􏰑...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the presence of insecticide resistance in different developmental stages (adults, first instars, and eggs) of the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (F.) using several insecticide formulations. Adults and first instars of five strains (Queensland, Kuala Lumpur, Bukit Mertajam, Saujana, and Krystal Point) were evaluated using the...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the phylogeographic history of an invasive species may facilitate reconstructing the history and routes of its invasion. The longhorn crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis, is a ubiquitous agricultural and household pest throughout much of the tropics and subtropics, but little is known about the history of its spread. Here, we examine...
Article
Full-text available
The cavities of bamboos (Poaceae) are used by various animals. Most of the animals access these cavities either by existing cracks or by excavating bamboos with soft walls or small, thin-walled bamboos. Only a few animals excavate into the cavities of large and thick- and hard-walled internodes of mature bamboos. We studied two lizard beetle specie...
Article
Full-text available
The longhorn crazy ant, Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille), is a ubiquitous agricultural and urban pest that has invaded most tropical and subtropical regions. Although P. longicornis has been found worldwide for more than a century, the genetic struc- ture, origin, and invasion history of this species have not yet been extensively studied, parti...
Article
Full-text available
The behavioural ecology of ultrasonic-singing katydids is not well understood, and the general bioacoustics, barely known for a few Neotropical Meconematinae, tends to be overlooked for species from Southeast Asia. These include Asiatic species of Phlugidini, commonly known as crystal predatory katydids. One of its genera, Asiophlugis consists of 1...
Article
Full-text available
Many insect species display daily variation of sensitivity to insecticides when they are exposed to the same concentration at different times during the day. To date, this has not been investigated in bed bugs. To address this, we explored circadian rhythms in insecticide susceptibility, xenobiotic metabolizing (XM) gene expressions, and metabolic...
Article
Full-text available
Rattan is an important climbing palm taxon in Malaysian tropical rain forests. Many rattan species have unique structures directly associated with certain ant species. In this study, four rattan species (Daemonorops lewisiana, Calamus castaneus, Daemonorops geniculata and Korthalsia scortechinii) were inspected and documented in a field survey conc...
Article
The evolution of laterality, i.e., the biased use of laterally paired, morphologically symmetrical organs, has attracted the interest of researchers from a variety of disciplines. It is, however, difficult to quantify the fitness benefits of laterality because many organs, such as human hands, possess multimodal functions. Males of the earwig Labid...
Article
Full-text available
The insect male accessory gland (MAG) is an internal reproductive organ responsible for the synthesis and secretion of seminal fluid components, which play a pivotal role in the male reproductive strategy. In many species of insects, the effective ejaculation of the MAG products is essential for male reproduction. For this purpose, the fruit fly Dr...
Article
Full-text available
Several taxa of Nemobiinae and Trigonidiinae from some islands and coasts of Pacific Ocean and Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean) are considered. The tribes Marinemobiini Gorochov, 1985 and Burcini Gorochov, 1986 are briefly redescribed, and the tribes Nemobiini Saussure, 1877 and Pteronemobiini Vickery, 1973 are also discussed. Some genera of Marinemobiin...
Chapter
At the start of this book it was mentioned that Advances in the Biology and Management of Modern Bed Bugs (ABMMBB) is the first academic text since Robert L. Usinger’s seminal 1966 publication, The Monograph of Cimicidae. However, there are a number of key differences between the two texts. For example, Advances has over 60 different authors and fo...
Book
The first comprehensive scholarly treatment of bed bugs since 1966 This book updates and expands on existing material on bed bugs with an emphasis on the worldwide resurgence of both the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., and the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (F.). It incorporates extensive new data from a wide range of basic and applied r...
Chapter
“…misery acquaints a man with strange bedfellows…” William Shakespeare, The Tempest, 1610 “…intellects vast and cool and unsympathetic, regarded this earth with envious eyes, and slowly and surely drew their plans against us…” H.G. Wells, The War of the Worlds, 1898 The quotation above from one of William Shakespeare’s greatest works could easily...
Chapter
In a survey of pest management professionals, bed bugs were ranked as the most difficult of all urban pests to control, largely due to issues of insecticide resistance. Successful bed bug management relies on integrated pest management, encompassing non‐chemical means of control, as well as the judicious use of insecticides. Despite the resistance...
Chapter
Full-text available
Many researchers are trying to develop fungus-based biological control methods against insect pests, including termites. This study explored the termite−fungus relationship using Globitermes sulphureus (Haviland) as a model species. Fungal species in termite mounds of G. sulphureus were isolated, purified, and identified. These fungal species were...
Article
Full-text available
Dispersal of soil-dwelling organisms via the repeatedly exposed Sunda shelf through much of the Pleistocene in Southeast Asia has not been studied extensively, especially for invertebrates. Here we investigated the phylogeography of an endemic termite species, Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen), to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of dispersal routes...
Data
Additional M. gilvus samples used in microsatellite analysis. (DOCX)
Data
Partitioning schemes for the concatenated dataset based on GARLI and MrBayes optimization process. Numbers in bracket represents 1st, 2nd and 3rd codon positions of COII gene respectively. Partitioning scheme with best AIC score is highlighted in bold. (DOCX)
Data
Bayes factor analysis. Best partitioning scheme for Bayesian inference is shown in bold. Italicized values indicate number of parameters used to calculate the bayes factor. (DOCX)
Data
Maximum likelihood values and statistics for the alternative phylogenetic hypotheses calculated in GARLI and CONSEL. (DOCX)
Data
PCR conditions and primers used for the mtDNA sequencing. (DOCX)
Data
Permission to reprint copyrighted figure. (DOCX)
Data
Sampling details of M. gilvus across SE Asia. Positive PCR amplifications are indicated with x symbol. (DOCX)
Data
Best-fit nucleotide substitution model based on hierarchical likelihood ratio test (hLRT) and Akaike’s information criteria (AIC). (DOCX)
Data
Pairwise ΦST values (lower diagonal) and geographical Euclidean distance (shortest distance between pairs of populations, km) used in isolation-by-distance analysis (upper diagonal). (DOCX)
Data
Allelic richness (AR), number of alleles (NA), number of private alleles (in parenthesis) and its percentages (PA) for each locus and population. (DOCX)
Data
Pairwise RST (sum of squared sized differences–lower diagonal) and FST (number of different alleles–upper diagonal) generated from Arlequin 2.0. (DOCX)
Data
Divergence dating of the fungus-growing termites based on COII gene. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
The study of insect–plant interactions such as flower visitors, pollinators, and florivores, are important for understanding the natural world. However, not all flower-visiting insects are equally well known, especially in the biodiverse Southeast Asian region. One group is the orthopterans, comprising of grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids. Natur...