Ching-Nung Yang

Ching-Nung Yang
National Dong Hwa University · Computer Science and Information Engineering

PhD

About

255
Publications
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4,797
Citations

Publications

Publications (255)
Article
Full-text available
Graphical password systems have received significant attention as one potential solution to the need for more usable authentication, but graphical passwords are often considered prone to shoulder-surfing attacks. In this paper, in order to build a balance between usability and security for authentication, we propose a new graphical password scheme...
Article
Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Image (RDHEI) may redistribute the data hiding procedure to other parties, and can preserve privacy of the cover image. Recently, cloud computing technology has led to the rapid growth of networked media, many multimedia rights are owned by multiple parties, such as a film's producer and multiple distributors. Th...
Article
A distortionless secret image sharing scheme using finite field GF(PG) (PG is the largest prime less than a given number) is investigated for sharing the absolute moment block truncation coding (AMBTC) images. Two adjusting operations are devised to modify the AMBTC trios (i.e., quantization pixels and bit maps) suitable for GF(PG) sharing. Polynom...
Article
In the industrial Internet of Things (IoT), large amounts of image data are collected, stored and transmitted by low power cooperative sensors and heterogeneous devices, such as, monitoring pictures taken by surveillance cameras in intelligent transportation. Thus the increasing image data would be outsourced and shared between different distribute...
Article
Recently, Ehdaie et al. proposed a two-dimensional hash chain based key pre-distribution (2DHC-KPD) scheme that can enhance resiliency against node-capture attack when compared with the conventional hash chain based key pre-distribution (HC-KPD) scheme. However, these HC-KPD-like schemes cannot resist the advanced node-capture attack (ANA) that att...
Article
A (k, n) Secret document sharing (SDS) was first proposed by Tu and Hsu. A secret document is shared into n noise-like shares with a public meaningful cover document. In Tu and Hsu's (k, n)-SDS, any k or more shares with the public document are collaboratively used for recovering the secret document. Recently, Liu et al. enhanced Tu and Hsu's (k, n...
Article
Full-text available
Data hiding technology has achieved many technological developments through continuous research over the past 20 years along with the development of Internet technology and is one of the research fields that are still receiving attention. In the beginning, there were an intensive amount of studies on digital copyright issues, and since then, intere...
Article
In this paper, a (k,n,m)-intragroup and intergroup secret image sharing (I2SIS) scheme for the multi-group (i.e., m-group) environment is investigated. (2m−1) secret images are shared within groups (intragroups) and between groups (intergroups). Differing from existing SIS methods, any k or more qualified participants among different groups (i.e.,...
Article
Determination of image authenticity usually requires the identification and localization of the manipulated regions of images. Hence, image manipulation detection has become one of the most important tasks in the field of multimedia forensics. Recently, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have achieved promising performance in image manipulation d...
Article
With the rapid development of E-commerce, more and more people are used to shopping online, in which the reputation scores of sellers play an important role in helping consumers purchase satisfactory products. However, in the existing E-commerce environments, the reputation scores of users (including sellers and buyers) are centrally computed and s...
Article
Full-text available
Image compression technology and copyright protection are certainly the important technologies for free exchange of multimedia. For compression of an image, we propose a color Absolute Moment Block Trucation Coding (AMBTC) method using a common bit-plane created by k-means. In addition, a data hiding method based on a color AMBTC using Optimal Pixe...
Article
Secret Image Sharing (SIS) as a secure data sharing scheme in multiple cover images, has become an increasing researchers’ concern. In traditional SIS, the cover image can’t be recovered losslessly. The distorted cover images would reduce the practicability of the scheme, especially in medical and military images. The lossless recovery of cover ima...
Article
In (k, n) Progressive Secret Image Sharing (PSIS) schemes, n shares are obtained by sharing a secret image. With k to n shares, the secret image can be recovered progressively. No information of the secret image can be constructed by k-1 or fewer shares. Many Secret Image Sharing (SIS) schemes have been developed to achieve the progressive reconstr...
Article
With the rapid development of network media, increasing research on reversible watermarking has focused on improving its robustness to resisting attacks during digital media transmission. There are some other reversible watermarking schemes that work in the encrypted domain for preserving the privacy of the cover image. The robustness of the waterm...
Article
Full-text available
Research on self-embedding watermarks is being actively conducted to solve personal privacy and copyright problems by image attack. In this paper, we propose a self-embedded watermarking technique based on Absolute Moment Block Truncation Coding (AMBTC) for reconstructing tampered images by cropping attacks and forgery. AMBTC is suitable as a recov...
Article
Hou et al. introduced a (2, n) block-based progressive visual cryptographic scheme (BPVCS). In (2, n)-BPVCS, a secret image is subdivided into n non-overlapped image blocks. When t (2 ≤ t ≤ n) participants stack their shadow images, the image blocks belonged to these t participants will be recovered. Unfortunately, Hou et al.’s (2, n)-BPVCS suffers...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, image compression using adaptive block truncation coding based on edge quantization (ABTC-EQ) was proposed by Mathews and Nair. Their approach deals with an image for two types of blocks, edge blocks and non-edge blocks. Different from using the bi-clustering approach on all blocks in previous block truncation coding (BTC)-like schemes, A...
Article
Full-text available
Because of the importance of digital images and their extensive application to digital watermarking, block chain, access control, identity authentication, distributive storage in the cloud and so on, image secret sharing (ISS) is attracting ever-increasing attention. Share authentication is an important issue in its practical application. However,...
Article
Full-text available
Existing secret image sharing (SIS) schemes with steganography and authentication are only suitable for uncompressed grayscale images. To make it more practical, a scheme for sharing and hiding a secret image in color palette images with authentication is proposed in this paper. Three commonly used system color palettes are considered. In sharing p...
Article
A ( $k$ , $n$ ) visual cryptographic scheme (VCS) shares a secret image into $n$ shadow images that are distributed over $n$ involved participants. When $k$ participants stack their shadow images, the secret is revealed. The secret image of VCS is a visual secret. Even though black/white dots in shadows suffer from interference by noise, t...
Article
Full-text available
The image-based data hiding method is a technology used to transmit confidential information secretly. Since images (e.g., grayscale images) usually have sufficient redundancy information, they are a very suitable medium for hiding data. Absolute Moment Block Truncation Coding (AMBTC) is one of several compression methods and is appropriate for emb...
Article
Full-text available
A high capacity partial reversible data hiding (PRDH) is introduced in this paper. First of all, an original image is converted to a cover image by the proposed image transformation algorithm. The image transformation algorithm adopts (7,4) Hamming code and minimal pairwise square error to ensure that the generated cover image is an almost distorti...
Article
A (k, n)-threshold secret image sharing (SIS) scheme protects a secret image by dividing it into n shadow images. When any k or more shadow images are collected, the secret image is reconstructed. While any (k−1) or fewer shadows give no clue about the secret. However, all previous SIS schemes do not deal with secure secret image recovery over dist...
Preprint
We present a method of effectively concealing data in two quantization levels representing blocks based on Absolute Moment Block Truncation Coding (AMBTC) using Hamming code. The reason for choosing AMBTC as the cover media is that AMBTC is not only easily compressible by simple arithmetic operations, but is also efficient for exchanging data in sm...
Article
Video traffic monitoring is an inexpensive and convenient source of traffic data. Traffic images processing are widely used to check traffic conditions and they can determine traffic control strategies in intelligent transportation systems (ITS). However, these traffic images always contain privacy-related data, such as vehicles registration number...
Article
A general framework for partial reversible data hiding is proposed in this paper. The original image is adjusted to form a cover image in image transferring phase. The minimal square error criterion between Hamming codeword and the bits from the original image is adopted to generate the cover image. After image transformation, some bits in the cove...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the great success of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in the area of computer vision, the existing methods tend to match the global or local CNN features between images for near-duplicate image detection. However, global CNN features are not robust enough to combat background clutter and partial occlusion, while local CNN features lead t...
Article
Full-text available
We present a new data hiding method based on Adaptive BTC Edge Quantization (ABTC-EQ) using an optimal pixel adjustment process (OPAP) to optimize two quantization levels. The reason we choose ABTC-EQ as a cover media is that it is superior to AMBTC in maintaining a high-quality image after encoding is executed. ABTC-EQ is represented by a form of...
Article
A hybrid approach for enhancing the recovered image quality in Shamir’s polynomial based secret image sharing (SIS) is proposed in this paper. To remain computational efficiency, simple modular arithmetic is still used. The fundamental operation in the proposed method is mod P calculation, where P is a prime. A framework for the proposed method is...
Article
Color-black-and-white visual cryptography scheme (CBW-VCS) is a methodology that utilizes colors to alleviate the pixel expansion problem. In a general (k,n) CBW-VCS, when k and n become larger, the pixel expansion increases dramatically. In this paper, two constructions for constituting a (k,n) threshold probabilistic CBW-VCS (PCBW-VCS) are introd...
Article
Recently, Secret Image Sharing (SIS) has attracted more and more researchers’ attention, in which a secret image is divided into several shadows for sharing. In practice, the produced shadows are meaningless, and are easy to be attacked if that shadows are directly used in transmission. In order to overcome the shortcoming, the shadows would be emb...
Preprint
Relief algorithm is a feature selection algorithm used in binary classification proposed by Kira and Rendell, and its computational complexity remarkable increases with both the scale of samples and the number of features. In order to reduce the complexity, a quantum feature selection algorithm based on Relief algorithm, also called quantum Relief...
Chapter
Band moiré pattern is produced by the superposition of the base layer with the revealing layer that has a different periodic frequency. Band moiré can effectively describe the geometric transformation of moiré, so that we can design more elements and specific moiré in band moiré image, which can be used to engage and decipher the secret image. Hers...
Chapter
There are many schemes to detect and identify cheaters when the number of participants is exactly equal to \( t \) in secret sharing schemes. However, most of them need dealers or redundant information to detect the dishonest participants when participants are greater than threshold \( t \). Harn et al. proposed a dynamic threshold secret reconstru...
Chapter
In 2017, Singh et al. constructed a secure cloud-based (2, 2) secret image sharing with the capability of tampering detection using (r, n) Permutation Ordered Binary (POB) number system. This scheme can solve the problem of secure storage of image-shares at cloud servers, and is also capable of authenticating image-shares at pixel level. However, S...
Chapter
Absolute Moment Block Truncation Coding (AMBTC) is a compression method with low complexity and simple computation to easily compress a block. Various AMBTC-like methods have been proposed for developing data hiding schemes. All the existing techniques demonstrated steady performance. To further improve performance, in this paper, we present a meth...
Chapter
Visual cryptography scheme (VCS) shares secret image into shadows. Without computing, stacking shadows can reveal the secret image. In this paper, we propose a VCS with block expansion. Each shadow pixel is expanded into a 4-pixel block with extra secret information embedded in. In the revealing process, the secret image can be revealed by stacking...
Book
This book presents the proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Security with Intelligent Computing and Big-data Services (SICBS 2018). With the proliferation of security with intelligent computing and big-data services, the issues of information security, big data, intelligent computing, blockchain technology, and network security have...
Article
Full-text available
Text password systems are commonly used for identity authentication to access different kinds of data resources or services in cloud environment. However, in the text password systems, the main issue is that it is very hard for users to remember long random alphanumeric strings due to the long-term memory limitation of the human brain. To address t...
Article
(k, n)-Traditional Visual Cryptographic Scheme (VCS) based on basis matrices encoded a secret image into n shadow images distributed among n participants. When any k participants superimposed their shadow images, the secret image can be visually revealed. This stacking operation in decoding process is equivalent to perform OR operation. Basis matri...
Article
Data hiding is a way of hiding secret data on cover-media and it is used for a variety of applications. An important of the data hiding is to conceal the data in a secret way without loss of cover-media. Until now, continuous research on absolute moment block truncation coding based data hiding methods have improved a performance on data concealmen...
Article
Existing secret image sharing (SIS) schemes provided steganography and authentication abilities. But those schemes cannot deal with Absolute Moment Block Truncation Coding (AMBTC) compressed images. Moreover, if the cover image is significant, the distorted stego image cannot be reverted into the original form. In this paper, an invertible SIS sche...
Article
Full-text available
Inspired by Naor et al.’s visual secret sharing (VSS) scheme, a novel n out of n quantum visual secret sharing (QVSS) scheme is proposed, which consists of two phases: sharing process and recovering process. In the first process, the color information of each pixel from the original secret image is encoded into an n-qubit superposition state by usi...
Article
To protect the copyright of digital videos, video copy detection has become a hot topic in the field of digital copyright protection. Since a video sequence generally contains a large amount of data, to achieve an efficient and effective copy detection, the key issue is to extract compact and discriminative video features. To this end, we propose a...
Article
Full-text available
A secret image sharing (SIS) scheme inserts a secret message into shadow images in a way that if shadow images are combined in a specific way, the secret image can be recovered. A 2-out-of-2 sharing digital image scheme (SDIS) adopts a color palette to share a digital color secret image into two shadow images, and the secret image can be recovered...
Article
Full-text available
Matrix coding based data hiding (MCDH) using linear codes (syndrome coding) is an efficient coding method for steganographic schemes to improve their embedding efficiency. Hamming code data hiding (HDH) is a well-known MCDH using a covering function COV (1, n = 2k − 1, k). Afterwards, Hamming+ 1 DH (H1DH) was proposed with good embedding efficiency...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, Jana et al. proposed the partial reversible data hiding (PRDH) based on (7, 4) Hamming code, which deals with three images: the original image (OI), the cover image (CI), and the stego image (SI). The CI is obtained by slightly modifying OI. After that, one can embed secret into CI to generate SI. The so-called partial reversible feature...
Article
Full-text available
In previous (k,n) secret image sharing scheme, the threshold k is decided by dealer according to the security requirement, and this threshold value is fixed without considering the dynamic secure environment in future. In this work, we propose a novel threshold changeable secret image sharing scheme where the threshold value can be changed accordin...
Article
Existing secret image sharing (SIS) schemes with steganography and authentication are designed for uncompressed images. They cannot be applied to compressed domain. When the cover image is of significance, these schemes cannot revert the distorted stego image into its original form. To solve these problems, a (k,n) threshold partial reversible abso...
Article
The embedding capacity and stego-image quality are two important features in data-hiding schemes. In 2016, Kuo et al. introduced sparse modified signed-digit (SMSD)-based data hiding that could embed secret data into a group of n cover-pixels. Compared with previous exploiting modification direction (EMD) and generalized EMD (GEMD)-based data hidin...
Article
Full-text available
A steganographic scheme, matrix coding-based data hiding (MCDH), is constructed from covering function to enhance embedding efficiency, and, meanwhile, decrease the required changed bits. However, the MCDH may be compromised when using it as steganography over lossy channel. In this paper, we consider the so-called error spreading problem that one-...
Article
Recently, Tu and Hsu proposed a secret sharing based document protecting scheme. In their scheme, a document is encrypted into n shares using Shamir's (k,n) secret sharing, where the n shares are tied in with a cover document. The document reconstruction can be accomplished by acknowledgement of any k shares and the cover document. In this work, we...
Article
Full-text available
With the advent of 3D video compression and Internet technology, 3D videos have been deployed worldwide. Data hiding is a part of watermarking technologies and has many capabilities. In this paper, we use 3D video as a cover medium for secret communication using a reversible data hiding (RDH) technology. RDH is advantageous, because the cover image...
Article
Exploiting Modification Direction (EMD) based data hiding achieves good stego-image quality and high security level. Recently, a section-wise EMD was proposed to enhance the embedding capacity of EMD. Later, Wang et al. introduced a switch map based multi-group EMD to further improve the embedding capacity. However, by a detail observation on the s...
Article
A new (k,n) threshold secret image sharing scheme with two decoding options is introduced in this paper. The proposed scheme combines color-black-and-white visual cryptography scheme (CBW-VCS) and polynomial based secret image sharing (PSIS) together, to offer stacking-to-see decryption and lossless image reconstruction. To construct the color shar...
Article
Recently, Yang et al. introduced a (k,n) approach called Reversible Absolute moment block truncation coding Visual Cryptography Scheme (RAVCS) (Yang et al., 2017) to conceal a secret image into n AMBTC shares. However, a large number of reference images is used in their method. To reduce the number of reference images, a (k,n) PRAVCS using one AMBT...
Article
Full-text available
As a popular technology in information security, secret image sharing is a method to guarantee the secret image’s security. Usually, the dealer would decompose the secret image into a series of shadows and then assign them to a number of participants, and only a quorum of participants could recover the secret image. Generally, it is assumed that ev...
Article
This paper proposes a novel method for near-duplicate image elimination, by tracing the original image of each near-duplicate image cluster. For this purpose, image clustering based on the combination of global feature and local feature is firstly achieved in a coarse-to-fine way. To accurately eliminate redundant images of each cluster, image rela...
Article
Full-text available
Relief algorithm is a feature selection algorithm used in binary classification proposed by Kira and Rendell, and its computational complexity remarkably increases with both the scale of samples and the number of features. In order to reduce the complexity, a quantum feature selection algorithm based on Relief algorithm, also called quantum Relief...
Article
In (k,n) progressive secret image sharing (PSIS) schemes, a secret image is shared into n shadows in such way that: (1) fewer than k-1 shadows get no information on the secret image; (2) k to n shadows can progressively recover the secret image. In most PSIS schemes, the shadows are noise-like images which would cause suspicious of attackers. The c...
Article
Recently, Lin et al. [29] introduced a (k, n) multi-factor cheating prevention visual cryptographic scheme (MCPVCS) by hiding verification images into shadow images. Through authenticating the verification image and the reconstructed image simultaneously, Lin et al.'s MCPVCS can prevent cheating attack that dishonest participants may collude and ch...
Article
Shamir's polynomial based secret image sharing has been widely adopted to protect an image by splitting it into multiple shadows with GF(251) calculation. However, mod 251 operation requires pixel values in the secret image to be modified into the range of [0,250], and leads to image distortion. In this paper, a method for improving recovered image...
Article
(k,n) progressive secret image sharing (PSIS) schemes were discussed frequently in recent years. A (k,n) PSIS scheme consists of sharing phase and reconstruction phase. During sharing phase, a secret image is encrypted into n image-shadows; while during reconstruction phase, k to n image-shadows can progressively recover the image; fewer than k ima...