Chin Wu

Chin Wu
University of Wisconsin–Madison | UW · Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

PhD

About

126
Publications
40,538
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3,558
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1999 - present
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (126)
Article
Full-text available
Flash rips are episodic bursts of water jetting offshore, which can lead to drowning incidents by sweeping swimmers offshore without warning, thus posing a hidden and unrecognized danger to beachgoers. This study reveals hazards of flash rips by investigating a series of drowning incidents along coasts of Lake Michigan during a series of storm even...
Article
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Rip currents near coastal structures commonly occur in Lake Michigan in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Lack of timely warning due to undocumented characteristics of rip currents and no assessment tool can contribute to tragic drownings incidents. In this paper, we characterized rip current occurrences near breakwater structures and de...
Article
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A tragic drowning event occurred along southeastern beaches of Lake Michigan on a sunny and calm July 4, 2003, hours after a fast-moving convective storm had crossed the lake. Data forensics indicates that a moderate-height (~0.3 m) meteotsunami was generated by the fast-moving storm impacting the eastern coast of the lake. Detailed Nearshore Area...
Article
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Two meteotsunamis were unexpectedly observed along the eastern coast of Japan coinci-dentally with atmospheric pressure disturbances prior to two typhoons, respectively. The maximum wave height of meteotsunamis was up to ~ 0.5 m in Aburatsubo Bay with the pressure fluctuation of ~ 2 hPa before Typhoon Wipha. This study reveals the causes of the une...
Article
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Surface water waves is an important research topic in coastal and ocean engineering due to its influences on various human activities. In this study, our purpose is to gain a deeper insight on the effects of non-hydrostatic (NHS) pressure on surface wave motions and its role in numerical modeling, based upon the high-order NHS model and optional ve...
Technical Report
The Great Lakes Beach Resiliency Guide is an effort under this grant to develop resilient-specific beach guidance for coastal communities. The guidance was developed in cooperation by a diverse team of individuals from the University of Wisconsin Sea Grant, Wisconsin Coastal Management Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison Civil and Environmenta...
Preprint
On October 15, 2013, unexpected meteotsunamis occurred prior to Typhoon Wipha located the distance of ~1,100 km from the center of the cyclone to the Tokyo bay. The occurrences were observed around the east coast of Japan coincidentally with atmospheric pressure disturbances induced by this typhoon. The observed wave height of meteotsunamis was up...
Article
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Cisco (Coregonus artedi) are an important indicator species for cold-water lake habitats in the Great Lakes region, and many populations have been extirpated at their southern range limit over the last century. Understanding the roles of climate and water quality in these extirpations should inform protection of cold-water fishes. Using the water t...
Article
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In this paper, the effects of littoral submerged macrophytes on weak stratification conditions in a small and shallow lake are investigated. Diverse submerged macrophytes occupying a large portion of the littoral zone act as resistance to water motions and affect lake hydrodynamics. Strong solar radiation and mild wind forcing typically occurring d...
Article
Constraints in conventional field observations, such as measurement stations and instruments, human resources and occasional inclement weather conditions, hinder our understanding of the biological, chemical and physical processes in aquatic systems. Accordingly, the present study developed an integrated monitoring and prediction system called WISc...
Article
Please go to the next website due to copyright issues. Thank you, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/lre.12239
Article
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Changes in water temperature and ice cover are important for controlling the biogeochemical and food-web processes of dimictic lakes in temperate regions. To investigate these changes, we applied a 1-dimensional hydrodynamic lake-ice model to Crystal Lake, a 20 m deep, dimictic seepage lake in northern Wisconsin, USA, to a period of 23 years (1989-...
Article
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Lake warming can negatively impact cool-water fishes through both temperature and oxygen stress. We modeled the joint dynamics of water column temperature and oxygen to quantify oxythermal habitat for yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in Fish Lake, Wisconsin, USA. To estimate annual oxythermal stress, we developed a novel metric (Cumulative Oxytherma...
Article
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Assessing all pertinent environmental variables to categorize a skill level to safely navigate the water environment can be difficult for inexperienced kayakers, especially at a remote site where internet access is limited. A real-time kayaker safety assessment of water environmental conditions at the Mainland Sea Caves of the Apostle Islands Natio...
Article
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The role of meteorologically‐induced water level oscillations (MIWLOs) on bottom shear stresses in a freshwater estuary in the Great Lakes is investigated. Atmospheric data including air pressure, wind speed and direction, and radar reflectivity are compiled and comprehensive field measurements including velocity profiles, water levels, river disch...
Article
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A Water Exclosure Treatment System (WETS) is developed and installed to minimize the occurrence of beach closures due to algae and Escherchia coli (E. coli) in an inland lake. WETS consists of an "exclosure" sub-system with a five-sided polypropylene, barrier that excludes offshore lake contaminated water from the swimming area. Inside the exclosur...
Article
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Water temperatures and stratification are important drivers for ecological and water quality processes within lake systems, and changes in these with increases in air temperature and changes to wind speeds may have significant ecological consequences. To properly manage these systems under changing climate, it is important to understand the effects...
Article
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A one-dimensional hydrodynamic lake model (DYRESM-WQ-I) is employed to simulate ice cover and water temperatures over the period 1911-2014. The effects of climate changes (air temperature and wind speed) on ice cover (ice-on, ice-off, ice cover duration, and maximum ice thickness) are modeled and compared for the three different morphometry lakes,...
Article
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The generation mechanism of meteotsunamis, which are meteorologically induced water waves with spatial/temporal characteristics and behavior similar to seismic tsunamis, is poorly understood. We quantify meteotsunamis in terms of seasonality, causes, and occurrence frequency through the analysis of long-term water level records in the Laurentian Gr...
Article
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The meteotsunami hazard is assessed in northern Lake Michigan from both short-term and long-term records of water level, wind speed, and air pressure. Cross-wavelet analysis reveals that meteotsunamis can be caused by atmospheric disturbances that are pressure dominated, wind dominated, or both pressure and wind forced. In total, air pressure and w...
Article
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Water temperatures in three morphometrically different lakes are simulated using a one-dimensional hydrodynamic lake model over the century (1911–2014) to elucidate the effects of increasing air temperature and decreasing wind speed on lake thermal variables (water temperature, stratification dates, strength of stratification, and surface heat flux...
Article
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Diurnal dynamics such as stratification/destratification affects a shallow lake more than a deeper one. Surrounding topographic features such as forests and mountains affect a small lake more than a large one. This paper present a study of a small, shallow, sheltered, and weakly stratified lake in response to meteorological (MET) conditions and ind...
Article
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A nowcast and forecast system for providing real-time water information of a River Chain of Lakes (RCL) is developed. The system infrastructure comprises a web portal to retrieve and display observations that are used to drive models under a high performance computing server. Water level and flow discharge information are obtained from a suite of m...
Article
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The one-dimensional hydrodynamic-ice model, DYRESM-WQ-I, was modified to simulate ice cover and thermal structure of dimictic Lake Mendota, WI, USA, over a continuous 104-year period (1911–2014). The model results were then used to examine the drivers of changes in ice cover and water temperature, focusing on the responses to shifts in air temperat...
Article
Full-text available
The one-dimensional hydrodynamic-ice model, DYRESM-WQ-I, was modified to simulate ice cover and thermal structure of dimictic Lake Mendota, WI, USA, over a continuous 104-year period (1911-2014). The model results were then used to examine the drivers of changes in ice cover and water temperature, focusing on the responses to shifts in air temperat...
Article
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The occurrence of meteotsunamis in Lake Michigan is quantified at 10 locations from up to 20 years of historical water level records. Meteotsunami height data are fit with Pareto Type 1 and Generalized Pareto Distributions to estimate exceedance probabilities. The annual meteotsunami return level exceeds 0.25 m at all but two stations, with the lar...
Article
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On 27 May 2012, atmospheric conditions gave rise to two convective systems that generated a series of waves in the meteotsunami band on Lake Erie. The resulting waves swept three swimmers a 0.5 mi offshore, inundated a marina, and may have led to a capsized boat along the southern shoreline. Analysis of radial velocities from a nearby radar tower i...
Article
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In this study, thermally driven flow within a sharp change of rooted emergent vegetation distributions is discussed. A conceptual and linear model is developed to study the interferences and competitions between two forcing mechanisms (vegetation shading and sloping bottom effects) on circulation patterns. The two forcing mechanisms can counteract...
Article
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The wave climate of the Apostle Islands in Lake Superior for 35 year (1979–2013) was hindcast and examined using a third-generation spectral wave model. Wave measurements within the Apostle Islands and offshore NOAA buoys were used to validate the model. Statistics of the significant wave height, peak wave period, and mean wave direction were compu...
Article
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We present a new vertical coordinate system for cross-scale applications. Dubbed LSC2 (Localized Sigma Coordinates with Shaved Cell), the new system allows each node of the grid to have its own vertical grid, while still maintaining reasonable smoothness across horizontal and vertical dimensions. Furthermore, the staircase created by the mismatch o...
Article
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Two large meteotsunami wave events on Lake Michigan impacted the Chicago coastline within 10 days of each other in 1954. Initial data analysis suggested that the fatal first event (June 26) was caused by a Proudman resonant non-trapped wave, while the second event (July 6) was caused by Greenspan resonant trapped edge waves. In this study, a numeri...
Article
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An entropy-based method is developed to estimate estuarine river discharge from surface velocity measurements. A two-dimensional velocity profile based on the principle of maximum entropy is employed to express the mean velocity as a function of average surface velocity. The entropy-based flow profile is parameterized by the location of maximum vel...
Article
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A powerful Automated Trinocular Stereo Imaging System (ATSIS) is used to remotely measure waves interacting with three distinct ice types: brash, frazil, and pancake. ATSIS is improved with a phase-only correlation matching algorithm and parallel computation to provide high spatial and temporal resolution 3-D profiles of the water/ice surface, from...
Article
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In this study, we monitored changes of cohesive nearshore environment including bluff and lake bottom/bed response to newly-built coastal structures with a thousand-meter-long revetment in Lake Michigan shoreline over a six-year study period. Sequential aerial photos showed that excessive slumping occurred only on the south bluffs and no bluff rece...
Article
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Thermal-driven flow is generated due to topographic or vegetation-shading effects. Asymptotic solutions by assuming a small bottom slope are derived to discuss effects of rooted emergent vegetation and interactions between emergent vegetation and sloping topography on thermal-driven flow during diurnal heating and cooling cycles. The results show t...
Article
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This study combined several features of acoustic and electromagnetic (EM) waves-based devices including sub-bottom profiler (SBP), side-scan sonar (SSS) and ground penetrating radar (GPR), and in situ sediment data to study responses of bottom sediments after carp removal in Lake Wingra. In 2007, i.e., before carp removal, macrophytes only grew to...
Conference Paper
The modern study of freaque waves has been an active research field for at least over the last two decades or so. There have been significant advancements especially in connection with the study of nonlinear physics. In terms of the real world freaque waves in the ocean and lakes, however, we still really don't know very much. Basically we still ha...
Article
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Disturbances act as powerful structuring forces on ecosystems. To ask whether environmental microbial communities have capacity to recover after a large disturbance event, we conducted a whole-ecosystem manipulation, during which we imposed an intense disturbance on freshwater microbial communities by artificially mixing a temperate lake during pea...
Article
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1] High-frequency physical observations from 40 temperate lakes were used to examine the relative contributions of wind shear (u *) and convection (w *) to turbulence in the surface mixed layer. Seasonal patterns of u * and w * were dissimilar; u * was often highest in the spring, while w * increased throughout the summer to a maximum in early fall...
Article
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An automated river-estuary discharge imaging system (AREDIS) is developed to measure the velocity of a wide tidal estuary. The system contains near-and far-field cameras that capture the entire 370-m-wide channel from an oblique angle with high image resolution. A new rotational scheme is developed to calibrate the cameras. Wakes generated by flow...
Article
Full-text available
An automated river-estuary discharge imaging system (AREDIS) is developed to measure the velocity of a wide tidal estuary. The system contains near-and far-field cameras that capture the entire 370-m-wide channel from an oblique angle with high image resolution. A new rotational scheme is developed to calibrate the cameras. Wakes generated by flow...
Article
Estimating the flux of CO2 from lakes is important to understanding the role of lakes in the global carbon budget. The efflux of partially soluble gasses like CO2 is controlled by near-surface turbulence. Lakes receive turbulent inputs across the air-water interface via two primary mechanisms, wind shear and negative buoyancy flux (convective cooli...
Article
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For lake microbes, water column mixing acts as a disturbance because it homogenizes thermal and chemical gradients known to define the distributions of microbial taxa. Our first objective was to isolate hypothesized drivers of lake bacterial response to water column mixing. To accomplish this, we designed an enclosure experiment with three treatmen...
Conference Paper
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Background/Question/Methods We evaluated the predictive ability of a one-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic biogeochemical model across multiple temporal scales using wavelet analysis and traditional goodness-of-fit metrics. High-frequency in situ automated sensor data and long-term manual observational data from Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, USA, were u...
Article
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An efficient curvilinear non-hydrostatic free surface model is developed to simulate surface water waves in horizontally curved boundaries. The generalized curvilinear governing equations are solved by a fractional step method on a rectangular transformed domain. Of importance is to employ a higher order (either quadratic or cubic spline function)...
Article
Abstract 15 The partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2 ) in surface waters is an indicator of the state of a 16 lake’s carbon cycle and net metabolic balance. In this paper, we present and compare 17 pCO 2 observations taken in Lake Superior in the last decade with the goal of reconciling 18 the independent,observations,and,using them,to understand,tempor...
Article
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A virtual wave gauge (VWG) technique based on stereo imaging is developed to remotely measure water wave height, period, and direction. VWG minimizes computational costs by directly tracking the elevation of the water surface at selected points of interest using a Eulerian based dynamic searching algorithm. Results show that the VWG technique devel...
Article
Flow measurements in a tidal-affected river provide important information of cyclic flow pattern characteristics in temporal and spatial variations. Reliability and accuracy of measured flow data can provide for numerical model calibration and verification. In the present study, we measured tidally affected river flow in the Danshui River of northe...
Article
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A Gradual Entrainment Lake Inverter (GELI) designed to destroy thermal stratification was constructed and used to destratify a darkly stained humic lake. The GELI was developed to gain insight to the effects of altered lake-mixing regimes, but has utility in other mixing applications. The GELI comprises an 8.25 m diameter rubber membrane with a tub...
Article
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Previous observations and modeling studies of Lake Superior have only partly elucidated its large-scale circulation, in terms of both the climatological state and interannual variability. We use an eddy resolving, three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to bridge this gap. We simulate Lake Superior circulation and thermal structure from 1979 to 2006 a...