Chiara Pronzato

Chiara Pronzato
Università degli Studi di Torino | UNITO · Dipartimento di Economia e Statistica "Cognetti de Martiis"

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71
Publications
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Publications

Publications (71)
Chapter
In this chapter, we study the relationship between grandparents’ availability for childcare and mothers’ work by analysing information that reflects three different points of view: the point of view of mothers, and more generally of families, who have the task of reconciling work and family; the point of view of grandparents, who may (not) be in a...
Article
From business to politics and academia, the economic effects of gender quotas are under scrutiny. We provide new causal evidence based on the introduction of mandatory gender quotas for boards of directors of Italian listed companies. Exploiting staggered board elections, we find that quotas are associated with a new selection of board members, cha...
Article
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In this paper, we analyze the impact of formal childcare attendance at ages 0–2 on children’s attitudes toward schooling and on social behavior at the end of the subjects’ first year of primary school and at the end of high school. We compare children who attended formal childcare with children who were looked after at home, but who otherwise share...
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In this study, we investigate the effect of time allocation on children’s non-cognitive development, using data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK) and focusing on children aged 7 and 11 years. We classify the time spent outside of school into seven groups of activities and evaluate their impact on five socio-emotional skills drawn from the Stren...
Article
Employment correlates with the reduced risk of poverty. Through a randomized controlled trial, we evaluate the impact of a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program offered to low-income families with dependent children on household members’ labor supply. Recipients are required to attend labor-market-oriented mentoring courses as a condition for rec...
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Abstract The double standard represents a standard of good behaviour that, unfairly, some people are expected to follow or achieve, but others are not. Once neglected by social scientists, the double standard in sexual attitudes has become more and more studied. In this paper, we inquire about the existence of the double standard in opinions regard...
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In recent years, the relationship between parental separation and child outcomes has received massive attention. This extraordinary level of interest stems from the rise in divorce rates in almost all developed countries. The aim of the paper is to identify the effect of parental separation on child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. It uses data...
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This paper examines the short and medium term impact of early childcare provision by grandparents and formal care settings on child cognitive outcomes, using data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK). Compared with children placed in formal childcare, children cared for by their grandparents are better at naming objects, but perform worse on tests...
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We evaluate the Reggio Approach using non-experimental data on individuals from the cities of Reggio Emilia, Parma and Padova belonging to one of five age cohorts: ages 50, 40, 30, 18, and 6 as of 2012. The treated were exposed to municipally offered infant-toddler (ages 0-3) and preschool (ages 3-6) programs. The control group either did not recei...
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We investigate the effect of providing information about the benefits to children of attending formal child care when women intend to use formal child care so they can work. We postulate that the reaction to the information differs across women according to their characteristics, specifically their level of education. We present a randomized experi...
Article
Our study explores the impact of selection criteria on the costs and benefits of early childcare for mothers’ employment, child development, and municipalities’ revenues by exploiting the selection criteria of different Italian municipalities in assigning childcare slots. In Italy, only around 13% of the demand for public childcare coverage is met,...
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This paper investigates the effects of public child care availability in Italy in mothers’ working status and children’s scholastic achievements. We use a newly available dataset containing individual standardized test scores of pupils attending the second grade of primary school in 2009–2010 in conjunction with data on public child care availabili...
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Full-text available
In this paper, we focus on the impact of early grandparents' care on child cognitive outcomes, in the short and medium term, using data from the Millennium Cohort Study (UK). Compared with children looked after in a formal care centre, children cared by grandparents (as well as parents) are better in naming objects, but worse in tests concerning ba...
Article
Childcare arrangements are key in women’s ability to juggle motherhood and work outside the home. As such, the study of access to childcare and its use is of great policy relevance. We focus on a particular kind of informal childcare, the one provided by grandparents. Empirically, assessing the effect of grandparental childcare is not an easy task...
Article
Casarico A., Profeta P. and Pronzato C. D. On the regional labour market determinants of female university enrolment in Europe, Regional Studies. This paper empirically investigates how young women's decisions of investing in post-secondary education are affected by labour market outcomes of older women living in the same region. EU-SILC data on ed...
Article
Lone mothers are overrepresented among the poor in many European countries, with detrimental consequences for them and their children. Even in Norway, which is known for its successful economic and welfare development, lone mothers were at least three times more likely to be poor than married mothers. To redress this issue, the Norwegian government...
Article
There is a growing body of literature that examines the relationship between parental separation and children’s life-course patterns. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effect of parental separation on the timing of nest-leaving of young adults. After providing descriptive findings using the recent Generation and Gender Survey for six countrie...
Article
More educated parents are observed to have better educated children. However, previous research has found conflicting results regarding the role of fathers and mothers: in most cases, a strong positive paternal effect was found with a negligible maternal effect; in fewer cases, opposite results were found. In this paper, I use a sample of Norwegian...
Article
Childcare arrangements are key in women's ability to juggle motherhood and working outside the home. As such, the study of the access to childcare and its use is of great policy relevance. We focus on a particular kind of informal childcare, the one provided by grandparents. Empirically, assessing the effect of grandparental childcare is not an eas...
Article
Lone mothers are overrepresented among poor people in many European countries, with worrying consequences for themselves and their children. Also in Norway, which is known as a country of economic and welfare success, lone mothers are at least three times more likely to be poor than married mothers with children. In 1998, a welfare reform increased...
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Full-text available
This paper asks whether the availability of breastfeeding facilities at the workplace helps to reconcile breastfeeding and work commitments. Using data from the 2005 UK Infant Feeding Survey, we model the joint probability to return to work and breastfeeding and analyse its association with the availability of breastfeeding facilities. Our findings...
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Full-text available
This paper investigates the effects of public childcare availability in Italy on mothers' working status and children's scholastic achievements. We use a newly available dataset containing individual standardized test scores of pupils attending second grade of primary school in 2008-09 in conjunction with data on public childcare availability. Publ...
Article
We empirically investigate the determinants of the female decision of investing in post-secondary education, focusing on the role played by the context where young women take their education decision. We first develop a stylized two-period model to analyze the female decision of investing in education and highlight two main determinants: the time t...
Article
The paper analyses the impact of grandparenting on individuals’ fertility behaviour using longitudinal data from eleven European countries. In particular, we focus on how siblings may share and compete for grandparents’ time in terms of childcare. By considering different family scenarios, we show that availability of grandparenting play an importa...
Article
Full-text available
In the traditional models of female labour supply formal childcare is assumed to be provided by the market. This is not the case in most European countries. In this paper we estimate the causal effect of a particular kind of informal care, the one provided by grandparents, on mothersÂ’ work decisions in Italy. We deal with the endogeneity due to mo...
Article
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The paper shows that parentsÂ’ education is an important, but hardly exclusive part of the common family background that generates positive correlation between the educational attainments of siblings from the same family. But the correlation between the educational attainments of parents and those of their children overstates considerably the causa...
Article
This paper explores the impact of social polices and labour market conditions on women's decisions on work and childbearing. This is analysed using data from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). The aim of the paper is to jointly estimate the two decisions while controlling for factors such as personal characteristics, variables related t...
Article
There is a heated debate in many European countries about a move towards a welfare system that increases the incentives for lone mothers to move off welfare and into work. We analyze the consequences of a major Norwegian workfare reform of the generous welfare system for lone mothers. Our difference-in-differences estimates show that the policy cha...
Article
This study evaluates a Norwegian single parent benefit reform, in which work and educational requirements were introduced, time limits imposed, and the maximum benefit level increased. We propose to identify the impact of the reform by taking the difference between a pre-reform difference-in-difference estimator and a post-reform difference-in-diff...
Article
Full-text available
The generous Nordic model of welfare is commonly viewed as an exceptional success, in terms of both equality and economic growth. However, it recently became evident that subgroups of the population with weak labour market attachment and high welfare dependency, such as lone mothers, were vastly overrepresented among the poor. This prompted a workf...
Article
More educated parents are observed to have better educated children. From a policy point of view, however, it is important to distinguish between causation and simple selection. Researchers trying to control for unobserved ability have found conflicting results: in most cases, they have found a strong positive paternal effect but a negligible mater...
Article
A large proportion of divorced and separated fathers form new partnerships. The new partner's preferences are not likely to put much weight on expenditures on the man's children from his previous union. Thus, his own and his partner's income would have different impacts on his child support payments if partners' relative incomes affect bargaining p...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we explore the impact of social policies and labour market characteristics on women’s decisions regarding work and childbearing, using data from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). We estimate the two decisions jointly and, in addition to personal characteristics, include variables related to the childcare system, parental...
Article
Introduction In this chapter, we explore the impact of social policies on the joint decisions of women's labour market participation and fertility and on wages. We use the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), a longitudinal survey coordinated and supported by Eurostat. The survey involves a representative sample of households and individuals...
Article
A new measure of 'voraciousness' in leisure activities is introduced as an indicator of the pace of leisure, facili-tating a theoretical linkage between the literature on time pressure, busyness and harriedness in late modernity, and the literature on cultural consumption. On the methodological side it is shown that time use diaries can pro-vide at...
Article
This paper investigates the role of the extended parental leave in the return to work for mothers of newborn children. Exploiting the variability in policies offered by the European countries, the paper studies the influence of statutory leave characteristics—length of the job-protection and payments during the leave-period—on the hazard of returni...
Article
This paper evaluates a Norwegian single parent benefit reform, in which work and educational requirements were introduced, time limits imposed, and the maximum benefit level increased. We identify the impact of the reform by taking the difference between a pre-reform difference-in-difference estimator and a post-reform difference-in-difference esti...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we aim to explore the impact of social policies and labour market characteristics on the woman’s joint decisions of working and having children, using data from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). We include in the analysis, beyond personal characteristics, variables related to the childcare system, parental leave arrangem...
Article
We examine the physical and mental health effects of providing care to an elderly mother on the adult child caregiver. We address the endogeneity of the selection in and out of caregiving using an instrumental variable approach, and carefully control for baseline health and work status of the adult child using fixed effects and Arellano-Bond estima...
Article
 < According to the agenda for employment set by the European Union in 2000 for the following 10 years, the target for female employment was set at 60 per cent for the year 2010. Although Northern and most Continental countries have achieved this quantitative target, the Mediterranean countries are lagging behind. Labor market policies should be ai...
Article
According to the agenda for employment set by the EU in 2000 for the following ten years, the target for female employment was set at 60 per cent for the year 2010. While Northern and most Continental countries have achieved this quantitative target, the Mediterranean countries are lagging behind. Labor market policies should be aimed to encourage...
Article
The generous Nordic model of welfare is commonly viewed as an exceptional success both in terms of equality and economic growth. However, it has recently become evident that subgroups of the population with weak labour market attachment and high welfare dependency, such as lone mothers, were vastly overrepresented among the poor. This motivated a w...
Article
This paper describes and compares transitions into employment of mothers of newborn children in several European Countries. Although female labour participation has increased everywhere, women are still likely to interrupt their career when they have a child for a period of time longer than the basic maternity leave. Using data from ECHP, we select...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing literature considering the relationship between parental divorce and children’s life-course patterns. However, there is no general consensus on whether parental separation accelerates or postpones children’s transition to adulthood. The aim of this paper is to add to this literature by analyzing the effect of parental divorce on...
Article
A large proportion of divorced and separated fathers form new partnerships. The new partner's preferences are likely to put a much lower weight (if any) on expenditures on the man's children from his previous union. As a consequence, his own and his partner's income would have different impacts on his child support payments if partners' relative in...

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Projects (4)
Archived project
Project
An ongoing project aimed at understanding ALL the economic effects of law 120/2011 which introduced board gender quotas in companies listed on the Italian stock exchange. The project started in 2011 and already includes the following output: 1) a project financed by EC-DG Justice http://www.womenmeanbusiness.it/en/ 2) a book published by Palgrave Mac Millan http://www.palgrave.com/us/book/9781137427465 3) a working paper by Dondena, CESifo and IZA http://ftp.iza.org/dp10239.pdf