Chi Ming Lee

Chi Ming Lee
The Chinese University of Hong Kong | CUHK · Department of Psychiatry

Doctor of Philosophy

About

98
Publications
2,883
Reads
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4,921
Citations
Citations since 2016
0 Research Items
528 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
2016201720182019202020212022020406080
Additional affiliations
November 1998 - August 2013
AstraZeneca
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
Modulating deposition of Aβ-containing plaques in the brain may be beneficial in treating Alzheimer's disease. β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitors have been shown to reduce Aβ in plasma and CSF in healthy volunteers. In this study safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, i.e. reduction of the plasma biomarker...
Chapter
Drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) represents a common challenge in drug development. This chapter reviews the impact of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) on CNS drug delivery and discuss the use of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to ascertain delivery and brain exposure. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux transporters...
Article
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists active at the alpha-7 (α-7) receptor subtype are potential therapeutics for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and other mental disorders. SSR180711, an α-7 selective partial agonist, has been shown to improve preclinical cognition. A novel positron emission tomograph...
Article
We describe a new term: glutamate-based depression (GBD). GBD is defined as a chronic depressive illness associated with environmental stress and diseases associated with altered glutamate neurotransmission. We hypothesize that glutamate-induced over-activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors in the subgenual cingulate area called Brodmann's 25 pla...
Article
There are great expectations for the personalized medicine approach to address the therapeutic needs of patients in the twenty-first century. Advances in human genome science and molecular innovations in neuroscience have encouraged the pharmaceutical industry to focus beyond broad spectrum population therapeutics--the driving force behind the "blo...
Article
Full-text available
The neurotransmitter glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in mammalian brain and is responsible for most corticocortical and corticofugal neurotransmission. Disturbances in glutamatergic function have been implicated in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders-including schizophrenia, drug abuse and addiction, autis...
Article
Full-text available
Innovation is essential for the identification of novel pharmacological therapies to meet the treatment needs of patients with psychiatric disorders. However, over the last 20 yr, in spite of major investments targets falling outside the classical aminergic mechanisms have shown diminished returns. The disappointments are traced to failures in the...
Article
Some naphthoquinone and anthraquinone ketals have been prepared by anodic oxidation. Regioselective hydrolysis of the above diketals into monoketals is also described. Diels-Alder reaction of (E)-1-methoxybuta-1,3-diene with the monoketal of 1,4-dihydro-4,4-dimethoxy-5-benzyloxynaphthalene proceeded in a regioselective manner.
Article
A series of 7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-2-[1-(pyridinyl)alkyl]-pyridazino[4,5-b]quinoline-1,4,10(5H)-triones were synthesized and found to have potent activity at the glycine site of the NMDA receptor. In some cases, these compounds possessed poor aqueous solubility that may have contributed to poor rat oral bioavailability. Subsequently, compounds have b...
Article
Six analogues of substance P were synthesized with the aim of developing a metabolically stable peptide that would retain the biological activity of substance P. A recently isolated and characterized substance-P-degrading enzyme from human brain with a high specificity for substance P described in the preceding paper in this journal was used as a m...
Article
Several members of the 7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-2-[1-(pyridinyl)alkyl]-pyridazino[4,5-b]quinoline-1,4,10(5H)-triones (2) have been identified as being potent and selective NMDA glycine-site antagonists. Increasing size of the alkyl substituent on the alpha-carbon led to a progressive decrease in binding affinity. Some of these analogues possess improve...
Article
Withdrawal of NGF (NGF-W) in PC12 cells leads to caspase and GSK3beta activation which results in cell death. Our recent findings suggest that inhibition of GSK3beta promotes PC12 cell survival after NGF-W. To determine whether these pathways interact from a signalling perspective, we compared the effects of BAF (a general caspase inhibitor), Li+ (...
Article
Full-text available
Inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) by S9 phosphorylation is implicated in mechanisms of neuronal survival. Phosphorylation of a distinct site, Y216, on GSK3β is necessary for its activity; however, whether this site can be regulated in cells is unknown. Therefore we examined the regulation of Y216 phosphorylation on GSK3β in models...
Article
β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and complement-derived membrane attack complex (MAC) are co-localized in senile plaques of brains from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. But the relationship between Aβ and complement activation is unclear. We have used human neurotypic cells, differentiated SH-SY5Y, as a model system to examine regulation of neuronal MAC ex...
Article
The complement system plays an important role in human immune defense mechanism. Its activation via either the classical or the alternative pathway can lead to the formation of membrane attack complex (MAC) and subsequently kills target cells [1]. Activation of the classical pathway can be initiated with binding of C1q which is first factor of comp...
Article
The cardiovascular effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of low doses of CPU-23, a substituted tetrahydroisoquinoline, were investigated and compared with those of nifedipine in pentobarbital-anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. CPU-23, in doses of 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg (i.c.v.), which did not elicit any significant cardiovascular respons...
Article
The ability of β-amyloid peptides to activate the classical complement cascade and the presence of various complement proteins including the membrane attack complex (C5b-9) on dystrophic neurites in Alzheimer's disease brains, raises the possibility that the complement system may contribute to this neurodegenerative disorder. To address this issue,...
Article
1. The effects of CPU-23 (1-(1-[(6-methoxyl)-naphth-2-yl])-propyl-2-(1-piperidine)-acetyl-6 ,7- dimethyoxy-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydroisoquinoline) were studied on mechanical and electrical activities, and intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) of isolated cardiac tissues in order to investigate its spectrum and mechanisms of action in the heart. Its antiarr...
Article
Two new labdane diterpenes, namely preleoheterin and leoheterin, have been isolated from Leonurus heterophyllus. The previously known hispanolone and galeopsin have also been found in the same source. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic means.
Article
Lithospermic acid B has been isolated to > 95% purity by high performance liquid chromatography from the aqueous extract of the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza. When infused at 5.5 mumoles/kg into the post-ischemic rabbit heart, it reduced by 62 +/- 10% (n = 8) the myocardial damage found in the saline control in a rabbit ischemia-reperfusion model.
Article
Lithospermic acid B, an active principle found in a Chinese herbal medicine for treating various heart ailments, was recently isolated, purified and demonstrated by us to salvage the postischemic rabbit heart from reperfusion injury. In this work, we further report that lithospermate B is able to protect each of two types of rabbit cardiocytes, nam...
Article
The conformation of two substance P (SP) related hexapeptides. Glp-Phe-Phe-(L-Pro)-Leu-Met.NH2 (I) and Glp-Phe-Phe-(D-Pro)-Leu-Met.NH2 (II), in two solvents, chloroform-d and trifluoroethanol(TFE)-d3/H2O, was studied by two-dimensional NMR methods, including COSY, TOCSY, ROESY and HMQC. The study shows that these two peptides exist predominantly in...
Article
By maintaining the balance between the electronic requirements, the stereochemical restrictions as well as the kinetic and thermodynamic factors, the unprecedented regioselective electrophilic aromatic substitution of formyl and nitro groups to carbon-3 of 5-alkyl-7-methoxy-2-phenylbenzo[b]furans have been achieved. Subsequent transformation of the...
Article
Based on the structure of 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (CPX), the most potent adenosine A1-selective antagonist known today, two derivatives of the novel adenosine A1 receptor ligand 5-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-methoxy-2-(3′-methoxy-4′-hydroxyphenyl)-benzo[b]furan-3-carbaldehyde have been synthesized by utilizing as key steps the regiospecific intr...
Article
1. A series of substituted tetrahydroisoquinolins derived from the cleavage products of tetrandrine were found to inhibit [3H]-nitrendipine binding to rat cerebral cortical membranes. Those compounds which displaced [3H]-nitrendipine binding were also able to inhibit high KCl-induced contraction of rat aorta in vitro. 2. There was a significant cor...
Article
Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides have been found previously to bind to specific receptors on cultured mouse astrocytes and to stimulate cyclic guanosine 5-monophosphate (cGMP) production with similar dose dependency although brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) shows a greater maximal stimulatory effect. The present study provides evidence that bot...
Article
The activation of NK1 receptors on U373 MG human astrocytoma cells by substance P (SP) and related tachykinins was accompanied by an increase in taurine release and an accumulation of inositol phosphates. Both of these effects could be inhibited by spantide, a SP receptor antagonist. The relative potency of tachykinins in stimulating 3H-inositol ph...
Article
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a recently discovered natriuretic peptide, has a potent stimulatory effect on cyclic GMP (cGMP) formation in cultured mouse astrocytes. Pretreatment of astrocytes with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), attenuated CNP-induced cGMP responses in a dose-dependent manner, wit...
Article
The effect of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a novel member of the natriuretic peptide family, on cyclic GMP (cGMP) generation was studied in primary cultures of mouse astrocytes. CNP stimulated cGMP production by mouse astrocytes in a dose-dependent fashion, with an EC50 of 32 nM and a maximal stimulatory concentration of greater than 1 microM,...
Article
Leonurus hereterophyllus Sweet is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine used to treat menstrual disturbances in woman. A new labdane diterpene, prehispanolone LC-5504, namely 9 alpha, 13R,15,16-diepoxy-labdane-14-en-7-one, had been isolated. The authors studied the synergism of labdane diterpene, prehispanolone LC-5504 and Con A and LPS on T cells...
Article
The synthesis of racemic forms of the reportedly active principle of Danshen, namely (±)-β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)lactic acid [(±)3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid] and its seven racemic derivatives is reported.
Article
A new labdane diterpene, prehispanolone, has been isolated from Leonurus heterophyllus. Its structure, 9α,13R;15,16-diepoxylabdan-14-en-7-one, was established by spectroscopic means as well as by examination of its derivatives.
Article
1. Using an in vitro radioligand binding assay for the platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor, we have identified a novel, specific PAF antagonist, prehispanolone, from a Chinese medicinal herb Leonurus heterophyllus. 2. The presence of sodium ions inhibited specific [3H]-PAF binding to rabbit platelet membrane with an IC50 of 5.2 mM, decreased...
Article
Ten diterpene quinones, which inhibited the binding of [3H]flunitrazepam to central benzodiazepine receptors with IC50s ranging from 0.3 to 36.2 μM, were isolated from the ethereal extract of the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Among these natural products, miltirone has the highest potency (IC50 = 0.3 μM). It was orally active in an animal model use...
Article
Full-text available
Twenty one o-quinonoid-type compounds and one coumarin-type compound related to miltirone (1) have been synthesized with the aim to identify the key structural elements involved in miltirone's interaction with the central benzodiazepine receptor. On the basis of their inhibition of [3H]flunitrazepam binding to bovine cerebral cortex membranes, it i...
Article
Substance P (SP) stimulated [3H]taurine release from human astrocytoma cells (U-373 MG). This effect was concentration dependent and the EC50 was 0.3 nM. This stimulatory effect of SP can be inhibited by spantide, a SP receptor antagonist. The rank order of potencies of related tachykinins and their analogues in stimulating the release of [3H]tauri...
Article
A naturally occurring benzofuran, namely 5-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-methoxy-2-(3′-methoxy-4′-hydroxyphenyl)-3-benzo[b]furancarbaldehyde was isolated from the roots of S. miltiorrhiza Bunge “Danshen”. Its structure was established by means of spectroscopic methods as well as by a total synthesis. Both the natural and the synthetic compounds showed a high...
Article
A novel ligustilide dimer, E-232, was isolated from the roots of Angelica sinensis. Its structure was determined by spectroscopic methods. It inhibited 3H-nitrendipine binding to the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel with an ic50 of 4 × 10−7 M.
Article
New compounds related to miltirone and diazepam containing a halogen substituent in ring B or a heterocyclic nitrogen atom in ring A have been synthesized.
Article
In our cross-sectional survey of the residents of homes for the elderly in 2 Hong Kong districts--Shatin and Tai Po--we found that 3.4% of the subjects had Parkinson's disease (PD). There was no sex difference in the disease rate. We also conducted a case-control study to determine the associated factors of PD. We found that subjects with residence...
Article
[125I]Bolton Hunter conjugate of substance P ([125I]BHSP) can bind to human astrocytoma membranes in a monophasic and saturable manner with a Kd of 0.57 +/- 0.17 nM and a Bmax of 67.8 +/- 5.5 fmol/mg protein. The rank order of potency of tachykinins and related analogues as inhibitors of [125I]BHSP binding to astrocytoma membranes and intact cells...
Article
A significant increase in the size and weight of the urinary bladder was observed 2 weeks after streptozotocin treatment and 2 months after neonatal capsaicin treatment. Both treatments induced a significant increase in the level of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the urinary bladder membranes. However, co...
Article
Tetramethylpyrazine, a drug originally isolated from the rhizome of Ligusticum walliichi, has been used routinely in China for the treatment of stroke and angina pectoris. We evaluated this drug by testing its effectiveness in increasing the survival rate in a stroke model using Mongolian gerbils. Our results indicate that tetramethylpyrazine can i...
Article
Carbachol (0.1-300 mumol/L) potentiated contractions to field stimulation (0.1 Hz, 1 ms, supramaximal V) in the rat epididymal and prostatic vas deferens. Desensitization of P2-purinoceptors by exposure to alpha,beta-methylene ATP (30 mumol/L) markedly reduced (greater than 80%) the potentiating effect of carbachol in the prostatic vas deferens but...
Article
1. 1-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), a protein kinase C inhibitor, was found to inhibit con A stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation and cytosolic protein kinase C (PKC) activation in T-lymphocytes of mouse spleen. 2. The inhibitory effect of H-7 was both concentration and time-dependent. 3. H-7 exerted no inhibition when T-lymp...
Article
We have demonstrated a high affinity specific binding of 125I-Bolton Hunter conjugate of substance P (125I-BHSP) to rat retina membranes. The binding was saturable and monophasic with a Kd of 0.2 nM and a Bmax of 290 fmol/mg protein. The rank order of potency of tachykinins and related analogues in inhibiting 125I-BHSP binding conformed to that of...
Article
1. The effect of neonatal monosodium-L-glutamate (MSG) treatment on lipolysis in rat epididymal adipose tissue was studied. A reduction in the basal lipolysis was observed in the MSG-treated rats. 2. This was accompanied by a decrease lipolytic response to isoprenaline, adrenocorticotropic hormone, forskolin, isobutylmethylxanthine and dibutyryl-cA...
Article
The effect of chronic caffeine treatment on lipolysis in rat epididymal adipose tissue was studied. There was a decrease in body weight, epididymal fat pad weight and mean adipocyte diameter in caffeine-treated rats when compared with control rats. No difference in adipocyte triglyceride content or mean adipocyte weight between control and caffeine...
Article
Two dihydropyridine compounds, Bay K8644 (a calcium entry activator) and nifedipine (a calcium entry blocker), were found to inhibit the binding of [3H]phenylisopropyladenosine ([3H]PIA) to A1 adenosine receptors in rat cerebral cortex membranes with comparable potencies (IC50 10-30 microM). Scatchard analyses indicated that both Bay K8644 and nife...
Article
Tachykinin binding sites in guinea pig urinary bladder (GPUB), rat salivary gland (RSG), hamster urinary bladder (HUB), rat vas deferens (RVD) and rat cerebral cortex (RCC) were compared using 125I-Bolton Hunter conjugates of substance P (125I-BHSP), eledoisin (125I-BHE) and neurokinin A (125I-BHNKA). In typical SP-P tissues (GPUB, RSG) and in RCC,...
Article
There are many reports regarding the risk of hypertensive crisis when tyramine-containing food is taken together with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Thus, psychiatric patients taking MAOIs are routinely given dietary warning cards. However, most of these cards have been prepared according to assays of tyramine in Western food samples. We now...
Article
Dehydroindicolactone, a novel linear furanocoumarin with an 8-substituted side chain carrying a 5-member ring lactone, showed spasmolytic activity in a number of smooth muscle preparations. The spasmolytic activity seems to lie in its ability to block the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel.
Article
Cholinoceptor agonists (arecoline congruent to carbachol greater than acetylcholine greater than pilocarpine) potentiated contractions to field stimulation of rat vas deferens via the activation of an atropine-sensitive muscarinic receptor. The potentiating effect of carbachol was dependent on the level of calcium in the medium, being more potent a...
Article
The inhibitory effects of adenosine as well as its related analogues on the contractile response of the rat vas deferens to field stimulation were compared in the absence and in the presence of nitrobenzylthioguanosine (NBTGR), a potent adenosine uptake inhibitor. In the presence of NBTGR, the order of potency was N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) great...
Article
The inhibitory effect of adenosine on the electrically evoked contractions in the rat prostatic vas deferens was markedly dependent on the calcium concentration in the medium, with adenosine being 20 times more potent at lower calcium levels (1.26 mM vs 3.6 mM). Similar calcium dependence of adenosine inhibition was observed in the presence of a po...
Article
Analysis of rat hypothalamic extracts by gel filtration and HPLC revealed the presence of a form of substance P-like immunoreactivity with a molecular weight of approximately 5,700 (6k-SP). 6k-SP is probably an N-terminally extended form of substance P; the peptide may be an intermediate in SP biosynthesis, or may function as a biologically active...
Article
Binding of the potent nucleoside transport inhibitor [3H]nitrobenzylthioinosine to rat and guinea pig lung membranes was investigated. Reversible high-affinity binding was found in both species (apparent KD approximately 0.3nM). Binding was inhibited by nitrobenzylthioguanosine, adenosine and uridine. Dipyridamole was also an effective inhibitor of...
Article
Recognition sites for the uptake of norepinephrine on adrenergic neurons in the brain and periphery were labeled with [3H]desipramine. The number of these uptake sites varied with the concentration of transmitter; depletion of norepinephrine with reserpine reduced the number of uptake sites, whereas increasing the concentration of norepinephrine in...
Article
With appropriate measures to protect 3H-substance P (3H-SP) from proteolytic degradation and from nonspecific adsorption to glass-fiber filters, we have been able to demonstrate reliably a high-affinity specific binding of 3H-SP to rat submaxillary/sublingual gland membranes with a KD of 1 nM and Bmax of 6 pmoles/g of tissue. The relative potencies...
Article
Full-text available
A variety of evidence indicates that [3H]desipramine can label neuronal norepinephrine uptake sites in brain membranes. Pretreatment of rat cerebral cortical membranes with 0.3 M KCl increases the ratio of high affinity to low affinity saturable [3H]desipramine binding. With this improved tissue preparation, we have confirmed our earlier observatio...
Article
Full-text available
The cytosolic dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase III (EC 3.4.14.4) from rat brain was partially purified using Arg-Arg-4-methoxy-beta-naphthylamide as a substrate. It was completely separated from aminopeptidase B on DEAE-Sephacel ion exchange chromatography. Similar to bovine pituitary dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase III, it has a pH optimum of 9, prefers Arg-Ar...
Article
Using a rapid, simple and sensitive radioreceptor assay, a Ca2+-dependent K+-evoked release of endogenous GABA was demonstrated from rat cortical and hippocampal slices in vitro. This evoked-release of endogenous GABA was similar to that of [3H]GABA release (in its Ca2+ dependency) but differed from the latter in having a higher signal to noise lev...
Article
A membrane-bound 'substance P degrading enzyme' (EC 3.4.24.-) from human brain has been purified to apparent homogeneity. The enzyme was extracted from a membrane fraction of human diencephalon with a non-ionic detergent, Brij 35, and activity was monitored by measuring the rate of disappearance of added substance P using radioimmunoassay, bioassay...
Article
The ability of various related peptides and substance P analogues to compete for the binding of 3H-labelled substance P to rat brain membranes corresponds with their known biological activities, providing a simple model for studies of peptide receptors in the central nervous system. In salivary gland and brain slices substance P and related peptide...
Article
1. The possible existence of multiple receptors for substance P (SP) was investigated by examining the relative pharmacological potencies of SP and related peptides in contracting guinea pig ileum, in potentiating electrically evoked contractions of rat vas deferens preparations and in competing for 3H-SP receptor binding in rat brain membranes, an...