Cheryl L Wellington

Cheryl L Wellington
University of British Columbia - Vancouver | UBC · Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

About

109
Publications
17,166
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12,031
Citations
Citations since 2016
5 Research Items
3363 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500

Publications

Publications (109)
Article
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Advances in the understanding of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) suggest that pathogenesis is not directly related to plaque burden, but rather to soluble toxic amyloid-beta oligomers (AßO). Therapeutic antibodies targeting Aß monomers and/or plaque have shown limited efficacy and dose-limiting adverse events in clinical trials. These findings suggest tha...
Article
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Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is defined by amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles and characterized by neurodegeneration and memory loss. The majority of AD patients also have Aβ deposition in cerebral vessels known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), microhemorrhages, and vascular co-morbidities, suggesting that cerebrovasc...
Article
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Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a hallmark of traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathology. Recently, the Closed Head Injury Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration (CHIMERA) was developed to generate an experimental model of DAI in a mouse. The characterization of DAI using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; diffusion tensor imaging, D...
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The brain is the most lipid-rich organ in the body and contains 25% of the body's total cholesterol content. ApoE is the major apolipoprotein expressed in the brain and genetic variations in apoE underlie much of the genetically determined risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Regulation of lipid homeostasis in the CNS is therefore of great inter...
Article
Scientific evidence continues to demonstrate the linkage of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia such as Alzheimer's disease. In December, 2013, the Alzheimer's Association, with scientific input from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute from the National...
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Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health care concern that currently lacks any effective treatment. Despite promising outcomes from many preclinical studies, clinical evaluations have failed to identify effective pharmacological therapies, suggesting that the translational potential of preclinical models may require improvement....
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Background Brain lipoprotein metabolism is dependent on lipoprotein particles that resemble plasma high‐density lipoproteins but that contain apolipoprotein (apo) E rather than apoA‐I as their primary protein component. Astrocytes and microglia secrete apoE but not apoA‐I; however, apoA‐I is detectable in both cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue l...
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A key step in plasma HDL maturation from discoidal to spherical particles is the esterification of cholesterol to cholesteryl ester, which is catalyzed by LCAT. HDL-like lipoproteins in CSF are also spherical, whereas nascent lipoprotein particles secreted from astrocytes are discoidal, suggesting that LCAT may play a similar role in the CNS. In pl...
Article
Cholesterol is an essential component of both the peripheral and central nervous systems of mammals. Brain cholesterol is synthesized in situ by astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and is almost completely isolated from other pools of cholesterol in the body, but a small fraction can be taken up from the circulation as 27-hydroxycholesterol, or via SR-...
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High Throughput Screening of a pre-fractionated natural product library identified 11 active fractions showing ApoE modulation activity.Mass-directed fractionation of oneactivecrude extract from the Australian marine sponge Callyspongia sp. Resulted in the isolation of 13 metabolites, including three new bromotyrosine derivatives, callyspongic acid...
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Mass-directed fractionation of an extract from the Australian marine sponge Aplysinella sp., from the Great Barrier Reef, resulted in the isolation of four new bromotyrosine derivatives, aplysinellamides A-C (1-3) and aplysamine-1-N-oxide (4), along with six known compounds (5-10). The structure elucidation of compounds 1-4 was based on their 1D an...
Article
Cerebrovascular dysfunction significantly contributes to the clinical presentation and pathoetiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Deposition and aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ) within vascular smooth muscle cells leads to inflammation, oxidative stress, impaired vasorelaxation, and disruption of blood-brain barrier integrity. Midlife vascular risk fa...
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major worldwide healthcare problem. Despite promising outcomes from many preclinical studies, the failure of several clinical studies to identify effective therapeutic and pharmacological approaches for TBI suggests that methods to improve the translational potential of preclinical studies are highly desirable. Rod...
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Apolipoprotein E is the major lipid carrier in the central nervous system. As apoE plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and also mediates repair pathways after several forms of acute brain injury, modulating the expression, secretion or function of apoE may provide potential therapeutic approaches for several neurologi...
Article
ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates cellular cholesterol efflux in the brain and influences whole brain cholesterol homeostasis. Activation of liver X receptors (LXRs), transcription factors that increase the expression of cholesterol transport genes including ABCA1, reduces neuroinflammation and pathology in neurodegenerative anim...
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk and leads to the deposition of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid deposits similar to those found in AD. Agonists of Liver X receptors (LXRs), which regulate the expression of many genes involved in lipid homeostasis and inflammation, improve cognition and reduce neuropathology i...
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In vitro studies have suggested that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins can provide cholesterol for synthesis of glucocorticoids. Here we assessed adrenal glucocorticoid function in lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) knockout mice to determine the specific contribution of HDL-cholesteryl esters to a...
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Over the past 15 years, insights into sterol metabolism have improved our understanding of the relationship between lipids and common conditions such as atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). A better understanding of sterol lipid metabolism in individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) may help elucidate how this population's unique metabolic char...
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Cellular cholesterol homeostasis is important for normal β-cell function. Disruption of cholesterol transport by decreased function of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCA1 results in impaired insulin secretion. Mice lacking β-cell ABCA1 have increased islet expression of ABCG1, another cholesterol transporter implicated in β-cell functi...
Article
Lipoprotein metabolism in the central nervous system (CNS) is based on high-density lipoprotein-like particles that use apoE as their predominant apolipoprotein rather than apoA-I. Although apoA-I is not expressed in astrocytes and microglia, which produce CNS apoE, apoA-I is reported to be expressed in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells and...
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Lipid transport in the brain is coordinated by glial-derived lipoproteins that contain apolipoprotein E (apoE) as their primary protein. Here we show that apoE is secreted from wild-type (WT) primary murine mixed glia as nascent lipoprotein subspecies ranging from 7.5 to 17 nm in diameter. Negative-staining electron microscropy (EM) revealed roulea...
Article
The association between apoE genotype and risk and age of onset for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) was first discovered in 1993. Innumerable studies since then have defined Aβ-dependent and Aβ-independent roles for apoE in AD pathogenesis. Although therapeutic approaches that specifically target apoE are not yet developed for AD, apoE may have a more fun...
Article
The purple, nonsulfur phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus has recently been found to contain several pigment biosynthetic operons that exhibit marked transcription read through into downstream operons that encode polypeptide components of photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes. This phenomenon has been found to be phenotypically signifi...
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Apolipoprotein E (apoE) and cholesterol play a critical role in synapse and myelin maintenance and integrity and are thus appealing candidates in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To explore the role of these 2 molecules, we quantified cholesterol and apoE levels in prefrontal grey and white matter in patients with schizophren...
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The cholesterol transpoter ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) moves lipids onto apolipoproteins including apolipoprotein E (apoE), which is the major cholesterol carrier in the brain and an established genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). In amyloid mouse models of AD, ABCA1 deficiency exacerbates amyloidogenesis, whe...
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Brain cholesterol, which is synthesized locally, is a major component of myelin and cell membranes and participates in neuronal functions, such as membrane trafficking, signal transduction, neurotransmitter release, and synaptogenesis. Here we show that brain cholesterol biosynthesis is reduced in multiple transgenic and knock-in Huntington's disea...
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Some dietary fats are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) but the mechanisms for this association are presently unknown. In the present study we showed in wild-type mice that chronic ingestion of SFA results in blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and significant delivery into the brain of plasma proteins, including apo B lipoproteins that...
Article
Several lines of evidence suggest that dysregulated lipid metabolism may participate in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiologic studies suggest that elevated mid-life plasma cholesterol levels may be associated with an increased risk of AD and that statin use may reduce the prevalence of AD. Cellular studies have shown that the...
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Lipid trafficking in the brain is essential for the maintenance and repair of neuronal membranes, especially after neurotoxic insults. However, brain lipid metabolism is not completely understood. In plasma, LCAT catalyses the esterification of free cholesterol on circulating lipoproteins, a key step in the maturation of HDL. Brain lipoproteins are...
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Although apolipoprotein E (apoE) is the most common genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's Disease (AD), how apoE participates in AD pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. ApoE is also the major carrier of lipids in the brain. Here, we review studies showing that the lipidation status of apoE influences the metabolism of Abeta peptides, which a...
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The expression of the cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the brain and its role in the lipidation of apolipoproteins indicate that ABCA1 may play a critical role in brain cholesterol metabolism. To investigate the role of ABCA1 in brain cholesterol homeostasis and trafficking, we characterized mice that specifica...
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Parenchymal accumulation of amyloid-beta (A beta) is a hallmark pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease. An emerging hypothesis is that blood-to-brain delivery of A beta may increase with compromised blood-brain barrier integrity. In plasma, substantial A beta is associated with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) secreted by the liver and in...
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Cognitive deficits are a hallmark feature of both Down Syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Extra copies of the genes on chromosome 21 may also play an important role in the accelerated onset of AD in DS individuals. Growing evidence suggests an important function for cholesterol in the pathogenesis of AD, particularly in APP metabolism and...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole body overexpression of human ABCG1 on atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice. We generated BAC transgenic mice in which human ABCG1 is expressed from endogenous regulatory signals, leading to a 3- to 7-fold increase in ABCG1 protein across various tissues. Although the ABCG1 BAC transgene re...
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Cholesterol homeostasis is of emerging therapeutic importance for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Agonists of liver-X-receptors (LXRs) stimulate several genes that regulate cholesterol homeostasis, and synthetic LXR agonists decrease neuropathological and cognitive phenotypes in AD mouse models. The cholesterol transporter ABCG1 is LXR-responsive and hig...
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APOE genotype is a major genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). ABCA1, a member of the ATP-binding cassette family of active transporters, lipidates apoE in the CNS. Abca1(-/-) mice have decreased lipid associated with apoE and increased amyloid deposition in several AD mouse models. We hypothesized that mice overexpressing ABCA...
Article
Recent evidence suggests that cholesterol metabolism participates in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Apolipoprotein E is the main lipid carrier in the brain and the best-established risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Intracellular cholesterol levels influence the generation of amyloid-beta peptides, the toxic species thought t...
Article
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Although intracellular cholesterol levels are known to influence the proteolysis of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP), the effect of specific genes that regulate cholesterol metabolism on APP processing remains poorly understood. The cholesterol transporter ABCG1 facilitates cholesterol efflux to HDL and is expressed in brain. Notably, the human...
Article
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ABCA1-deficient mice have low levels of poorly lipidated apolipoprotein E (apoE) and exhibit increased amyloid load. To test whether excess ABCA1 protects from amyloid deposition, we crossed APP/PS1 mice to ABCA1 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice. Compared with wild-type animals, the ABCA1 BAC led to a 50% increase in cortical A...
Article
Dietary or pharmacological manipulation of plasma lipids markedly influences amyloid deposition in animal models of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, it is not known whether baseline plasma lipids in AD models differ from wild-type littermates throughout the natural history of disease. To address this question, we measured plasma total cholesterol...
Article
Cleavage of huntingtin (htt) has been characterized in vitro, and accumulation of caspase cleavage fragments represents an early pathological change in brains of Huntington's disease (HD) patients. However, the relationship between htt proteolysis and the pathogenesis of HD is unknown. To determine whether caspase cleavage of htt is a key event in...
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Both apolipoprotein E (apoE) and 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol are involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). It has been hypothesized that apoE affects AD development via isoform-specific effects on lipid trafficking between astrocytes and neurons. However, the regulation of the cholesterol supply of neurons via apoE-containing high densit...
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The pathophysiology of Huntington’s disease reflects actions of mutant Huntingtin (Htt) (mHtt) protein with polyglutamine repeats, whose N-terminal fragment translocates to the nucleus to elicit neurotoxicity. We establish that the nuclear translocation and associated cytotoxicity of mHtt reflect a ternary complex of mHtt with GAPDH and Siah1, a ub...
Article
Huntingtin is a caspase substrate, and loss of normal huntingtin function resulting from caspase-mediated proteolysis may play a role in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease. Here we tested the hypothesis that increasing huntingtin levels protect striatal neurons from NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. Cultured striatal neurons from yeast art...
Chapter
Macrophages are key mediators of atherosclerosis. Circulating monocytes adhere to activated endothelial cells at lesion-prone sites within large arteries, and migrate into the subendothelial space where they differentiate into macrophages. Within the arterial intima, macrophages mobilize the uptake of oxidized lipoproteins through scavenger recepto...