Cheryl Johnson

Cheryl Johnson
Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division

Ph.D. Cognitive Psychology

About

33
Publications
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Introduction
I am an applied cognitive psychologist passionate about applying science of learning principles to improve technology-based training applications. My research interests include adaptive training, virtual reality and game-based training, and multimedia learning.

Publications

Publications (33)
Chapter
Full-text available
Advances in virtual reality (VR) technology have resulted in the ability to explore high-resolution immersive environments, which seem particularly useful for training spatial knowledge tasks. However, empirical research on the effectiveness of training in VR, including for spatial knowledge-based tasks, has yielded mixed results. One potential exp...
Chapter
In an effort to modernize training, the United States Navy and Marine Corps have placed an emphasis on identifying effective, learner-centric instructional methods. One avenue is to apply individualized training techniques, such as adaptive sequencing to flashcard-based study, a popular tool used for independent study. Therefore, the goal of this r...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptive training is tailored instruction designed to target an individual’s strengths and weaknesses, and it has been shown to improve learning outcomes and efficiency in a variety of domains, including flashcard training. The goal of this experiment was to determine whether the addition of other instructional strategies, such as enhanced feedback...
Chapter
The present work explores the effectiveness of goal setting in the context of adaptive training. Previous research has demonstrated that adaptive training approaches that tailor feedback and difficulty based on task performance lead to better learning outcomes than non-adaptive approaches. Likewise, decades of research on goal setting as an instruc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The U.S. military is interested in modernizing its training and educational technology resources to support tailored, learner-centric experiences more consistent with the digital-age. The goal of this research was to explore the benefits of adaptive training in the context of a USMC course. To this end, we describe the development of an adaptive fl...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptive Training (AT) has been shown to be an effective technique for training tasks in multiple domains. Despite the promise AT has shown as a training technique, researchers remain unsure of the specific qualities that improve learning. In this experiment, we examined how adaptation schedule affects the efficacy and efficiency of difficulty adap...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Students often use flashcards to study but they do not always use them effectively. In this experiment, we explored different methods of dropping flashcards to inform the development of an adaptive flashcard-based trainer. Forty-seven U.S. Marine Corps students were randomly assigned to one of three groups in an armored vehicle training task. In th...
Chapter
Full-text available
Although many praise the positive benefits of game-based training to increase learner engagement and performance, there has been little empirical research to support these claims. The goal of this experiment was to establish whether adding game features has a positive impact on performance during training and leads to better learning outcomes. Spec...
Chapter
Full-text available
As technology matures, human-computer interfaces have changed to meet the needs of interacting with more complex systems in user-friendly ways. Gesture-based interfaces, a type of natural user interface (NUI), allow users to use their bodies to interact with computers or virtual/augmented reality (VR/AR) and offer a more natural and intuitive user...
Chapter
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that adaptive training (AT) is an effective tool for improving training outcomes relative to non-adaptive approaches. Taking a value-added perspective, in this study we sought to determine whether the presence of an embedded non-player character (NPC) served to improve performance outcomes relative to AT alone. To suppor...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Commandant's Planning Guidance (CPG; Berger, 2019) describes a future in which Marines must be prepared to make difficult decisions in high-stress and high-stakes situations. As a result, the USMC CPG highlights the need for more flexible, learner-centered training that emphasizes decision-making and critical-thinking s...
Article
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Introduction Although one-on-one tutoring offers many benefits in terms of flexibility and engagement, it can prove to be a resource-intensive method of instruction. Adaptive training (AT) is a viable alternative when one-on-one tutoring is impractical. AT caters instructional content based on an individual’s aptitudes, learning styles, preferences...
Article
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We investigated whether virtual reality (VR) training transfers to real-world performance. Participants were trained to complete a real-world maze task, which involved quickly moving an object through a tabletop maze without hitting the maze walls. Participants either trained in VR, trained by physically simulating the task (PS), or received no tra...
Article
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The study examined whether the individual differences of gesture production and attitudes toward gesturing were related to performance on a gesture-based natural user interface. Participants completed a lesson using gesture interactions and were measured on how long it took to complete the lesson, their reported mental effort, and how much they lea...
Chapter
Adaptive training (AT) can be an efficient option for providing individualized instruction tailored to trainees’ needs. Given promising research findings involving AT, we were challenged with developing an AT solution for Submarine Electronic Warfare (EW). Submarine EW is a complex task that involves classifying contacts, recognizing changes in the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Adaptive training (AT) is training that is tailored to an individual trainee’s strengths and weaknesses, such that each trainee receives a unique training experience. Previous research has demonstrated that AT can lead to higher learning gains and decreased training time when compared to traditional training approaches in certain domains [1]. Howev...
Article
Full-text available
Highlights: - Gesture interaction design does not typically begin with a user-centered approach that takes into consideration what the user perceives is natural - Natural gestures were perceived as having 15% higher usability than arbitrary gestures - Natural gestures were seen as inducing a higher sense of control in the computer lesson, more imme...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In light of rapid technology advances and budget declines, the Navy is exploring innovative training solutions though initiatives such as Sailor 2025 and High Velocity Learning, which call for more hands-on, learner-centric training. Consistent with these initiatives, virtual reality (VR) offers a low-cost alternative to traditional methods of trai...
Chapter
Full-text available
Taking a value-added approach, we examined the impact of feedback on learning outcomes and performance in serious games and simulations. Although feedback has been demonstrated to be beneficial in traditional learning environments, we explore how feedback has been implemented in game- and simulation-based learning environments. In this review, we d...
Article
The purpose of this panel is to discuss current directions in research and design of adaptive tutoring, and the need for a method to uniformly describe tutors within this growing field. Discussions will focus on the increasing complexity of individual tutors, as well as how tutors could be categorized through identification of relevant, constituent...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The goal of this experiment was to compare the effectiveness of training a procedural task in two simulated environments (desktop and virtual reality [VR]) and to examine the impact of different interaction methods in VR (gesture-based and voice-based). Traditional desktop-based computer simulations may create learning environments different from V...
Article
Full-text available
In the training literature, little empirical research has been devoted to the design of effective mobile-based instruction for training transfer. In this experiment, we tested the applicability of a multimedia learning design principle, the redundancy principle, in the context of a highly interactive tablet-based simulation for training m4 rifle di...
Chapter
Multimedia learning environments require learners to integrate information across different sources and modalities, which can pose a challenge for some learners. Providing feedback on student responses can be an effective method of guiding learners to achieve a deep understanding of the material. The feedback principle states that novice students l...
Article
Training in virtual environments (VEs) has the potential to establish mental models and task mastery while providing a safe environment in which to practice. Performance feedback is known to contribute to this learning; however, the most effective ways to provide feedback in VEs have not been established. The present study examined the effects of d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Feedback clearly contributes to performance improvement; however, the most effective ways to provide feedback in virtual training environments has not been established. In the present experiment we investigated the effect of feedback specificity. Participants practiced applying search procedures during multiple search missions in a virtual environm...
Article
In three studies, eye movements of participants were recorded while they viewed a single-slide multimedia presentation about how car brakes work. Some of the participants saw an integrated presentation in which each segment of words was presented near its corresponding area of the diagram (integrated group, Experiments 1 and 3) or an integrated pre...
Article
What is the most effective way to incorporate self-explanation into an educational game? In Experiment 1, students who played a 10-level computer game about electrical circuits performed better on an embedded transfer test (i.e., level 10) if they were required to select the reason for each move from a list on levels 1–9 (selection self-explanation...
Article
Students learned about electrical circuits in an arcade-type game consisting of 10 levels. For example, in one level students saw two circuits consisting of various batteries and resistors connected in series or parallel, and had to indicate which one had a higher rate of moving current. On levels 1-9, all students received a correct tone and had p...
Article
A testing effect occurs when a learner performs better on a retention test after studying the material and taking a practice-retention test than after studying the material twice. In the present study, 282 participants watched a narrated animation about lightning formation and then watched the presentation again (restudy), took a practice-retention...
Article
College students viewed a short multimedia PowerPoint presentation consisting of 16 narrated slides explaining lightning formation (Experiment 1) or 8 narrated slides explaining how a car's braking system works (Experiment 2). Each slide appeared for approximately 8-10 s and contained a diagram along with 1-2 sentences of narration spoken in a fema...
Article
Participants completed a measure of computer trust and generated responses to the question, ?What is like a computer?? These responses were coded as one of seven types ranging from being perceptually similar to sharing similar functions to being cognitively similar. Computer trust scores were associated with generating more responses, particularly...