Chelsea Wood

Chelsea Wood
University of Washington Seattle | UW · School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences

PhD in Ecology

About

88
Publications
25,349
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,079
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2008 - June 2013
Stanford University
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (88)
Article
As sustainable development practitioners have worked to “ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all” and “conserve life on land and below water”, what progress has been made with win–win interventions that reduce human infectious disease burdens while advancing conservation goals? Using a systematic literature review, we identified 46 prop...
Article
Full-text available
Though parasites are ubiquitous in marine ecosystems, predicting the abundance of parasites present within marine ecosystems has proven challenging due to the unknown effects of multiple interacting environmental gradients and stressors. Furthermore, parasites often are considered as a uniform group within ecosystems despite their significant diver...
Article
Full-text available
Schistosomiasis is a debilitating parasitic disease of poverty that affects more than 200 million people worldwide, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, and is clearly associated with the construction of dams and water resource management infrastructure in tropical and subtropical areas. Changes to hydrology and salinity linked to water infrastructure dev...
Preprint
Schistosomiasis is a debilitating parasitic disease of poverty that affects more than 200 million people worldwide, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, and is clearly associated with the construction of dams and water resource management infrastructure in tropical and subtropical areas. Changes to hydrology and salinity linked to water infrastructure dev...
Article
Full-text available
The unusual blue color polymorphism of lingcod ( Ophiodon elongatus ) is the subject of much speculation but little empirical research; ~20% of lingcod individuals exhibit this striking blue color morph, which is discrete from and found within the same populations as the more common brown morph. In other species, color polymorphisms are intimately...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Infectious disease risk is driven by three interrelated components: exposure, hazard, and vulnerability. For schistosomiasis, exposure occurs through contact with water, which is often tied to daily activities. Water contact, however, does not imply risk unless the environmental hazard of snails and parasites is also present in the wat...
Article
Full-text available
Schistosome parasites infect more than 200 million people annually, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, where people may be co-infected with more than one species of the parasite. Infection risk for any single species is determined, in part, by the distribution of its obligate intermediate host snail. As the World Health Organization reprioritizes snail...
Article
Full-text available
Historical data are extremely rare but essential for ascertaining whether contemporary infectious disease burdens are unusual. Natural history collections are a valuable source of such data, especially for reconstructing long timelines of parasite abundance. We quantified the parasites of 109 museum specimens of English sole (Parophrys vetulus), an...
Article
Full-text available
Background The risk of infectious diseases, including snail-borne schistosomiasis, is determined by three inter-related components: exposure, hazard, and vulnerability. For schistosomiasis, exposure occurs through behaviours involving water contact, but not without the environmental hazard of snails and parasites in the water. Socioeconomic vulnera...
Article
Full-text available
The abundances of free-living species have changed dramatically in recent decades, but little is known about change in the abundance of parasitic species. We investigated whether populations of several parasites have shifted over time in two shore crab hosts, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and Hemigrapsus nudus, by comparing the prevalence and abundance o...
Article
Schistosomiasis, or “snail fever”, is a parasitic disease affecting over 200 million people worldwide. People become infected when exposed to water containing particular species of freshwater snails. Habitats for such snails can be mapped using lightweight, inexpensive and field-deployable consumer-grade Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also known...
Article
Full-text available
A parasite is an organism that lives in an intimate and durable relationship with its host and imposes a cost on that host, in terms of its ability to survive, grow, and/or reproduce. Despite the fact that more than 40% of animal species are parasites, parasitism is rarely discussed in introductory biology courses. This may be because parasites are...
Article
To reach the Sustainable Development Goals, we may need to act on synergies between some targets while mediating trade-offs between other targets. But what, exactly, are synergies and trade-offs, and how are they related to other outcomes, such as ‘win–win’ solutions? Finding limited guidance in the existing literature, we developed an operational...
Article
Full-text available
• There are few resources available for assessing historical change in fish trophic dynamics, but specimens held in natural history collections could serve as this resource. In contemporary trophic ecology studies, trophic and source information can be obtained from compound‐specific stable isotope analysis of amino acids of nitrogen (CSIA‐AA‐N). •...
Article
Found throughout the tree of life and in every ecosystem, parasites are some of the most diverse, ecologically important animals on Earth—but in almost all cases, the least protected by wildlife or ecosystem conservation efforts. For decades, ecologists have been calling for research to understand parasites' important ecological role, and increasin...
Article
In 2017, Polydora websteri, a shell‐boring spionid polychaete worm and cosmopolitan invader, was identified for the first time in Washington State. Shell‐boring Polydora spp. and related shell‐boring spionid polychaetes (e.g., Dipolydora spp., Boccardia spp.), colloquially known as mud worms or mud blister worms, live in burrows within the shells o...
Article
Full-text available
Background Schistosomiasis is responsible for the second highest burden of disease among neglected tropical diseases globally, with over 90 percent of cases occurring in African regions where drugs to treat the disease are only sporadically available. Additionally, human re-infection after treatment can be a problem where there are high numbers of...
Article
Full-text available
Long‐term datasets are needed to evaluate temporal patterns in wildlife disease burdens, but historical data on parasite abundance are extremely rare. For more than a century, natural history collections have been accumulating fluid‐preserved specimens, which should contain the parasites infecting the host at the time of its preservation. However,...
Article
Infectious disease outbreaks emerged across the globe during the recent 2015–2016 El Niño event, re-igniting research interest in how climate events influence disease dynamics. While the relationship between long-term warming and the transmission of disease-causing parasites has received substantial attention, we do not yet know how pulse heat even...
Article
Full-text available
The Anthropocene has brought substantial change to ocean ecosystems, but whether this age will bring more or less marine disease is unknown. In recent years, the accelerating tempo of epizootic and zoonotic disease events has made it seem as if disease is on the rise. Is this apparent increase in disease due to increased observation and sampling ef...
Article
Full-text available
Invasions by shell-boring polychaetes such as Polydora websteri Hartman have resulted in the collapse of oyster aquaculture industries in Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii. These worms burrow into bivalve shells, creating unsightly mud blisters that are unappealing to consumers and, when nicked during shucking, release mud and detritus that can fo...
Chapter
Infectious marine diseases have profound impacts on fisheries and aquaculture through their effects on growth, fecundity, mortality, and marketability. Economic losses have motivated research to minimize the negative impacts of disease on these industries. However, this relationship is reciprocal, as fishing and aquaculture can shape disease transm...
Article
Full-text available
The disease ecology community has struggled to come to consensus on whether biodiversity reduces or increases infectious disease risk, a question that directly affects policy decisions for biodiversity conservation and public health. Here, we summarize the primary points of contention regarding biodiversity–disease relationships and suggest that ve...
Preprint
Full-text available
Invasions by the spionid polychaete Polydora websteri have resulted in the collapse of oyster aquaculture industries in Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii. These worms burrow into the shells of bivalves, creating unsightly mud blisters that are unappealing to consumers and, when nicked during shucking, release mud and detritus that can foul oyster...
Preprint
Invasions by the spionid polychaete Polydora websteri have resulted in the collapse of oyster aquaculture industries in Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii. These worms burrow into the shells of bivalves, creating unsightly mud blisters that are unappealing to consumers and, when nicked during shucking, release mud and detritus that can foul oyster...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, the World Health Organization recognized that efforts to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission through mass drug administration have been ineffective in some regions; one of their new recommended strategies for global schistosomiasis control emphasizes targeting the freshwater snails that transmit schistosome parasites. We sought to iden...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Manipulation experiments are a cornerstone of ecological research, but can be logistically challenging to execute—particularly when they are intended to isolate the ecological role of large, vagile species, like birds. Despite indirect evidence that birds are influential in many ecosystems, large‐scale, multi‐year bird manipulation experim...
Article
Full-text available
Recent evidence suggests that snail predators may aid efforts to control the human parasitic disease schistosomiasis by eating aquatic snail species that serve as intermediate hosts of the parasite. Here, potential synergies between schistosomiasis control and aquaculture of giant prawns are evaluated using an integrated bioeconomic–epidemiological...
Preprint
Full-text available
Invasions by the spionid polychaete Polydora websteri have resulted in the collapse of oyster aquaculture industries in Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii. These worms burrow into the shells of bivalves, creating unsightly mud blisters that are unappealing to consumers and, when nicked during shucking, release mud and detritus that can foul oyster...
Article
Full-text available
Recent decades have brought countless outbreaks of infectious disease among wildlife. These events appear to be increasing in frequency and magnitude, but to objectively evaluate whether ecosystems are experiencing rising rates of disease, scientists require historical data on disease abundance. Specimens held in natural history collections represe...
Article
Full-text available
Trematodes of the genus Plagiorchis have a wide geographical distribution and can exploit a variety of hosts. The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Plagiorchis spp. have been characterised across several countries in Asia; in contrast, information on Plagiorchis parasites in Africa remains anecdotal. We isolated a previously undescribed Plagiorc...
Article
Full-text available
More than 200 million people in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with schistosome parasites. Transmission of schistosomiasis occurs when people come into contact with larval schistosomes emitted from freshwater snails in the aquatic environment. Thus, controlling snails through augmenting or restoring their natural enemies, such as native predators...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent evidence suggests crustacean snail predators may aid schistosomiasis control programs by targeting the environmental component of the parasite's life cycle through predation of the snail species that serve as intermediate hosts of the parasite. We evaluate costs, benefits, and potential synergies between schistosomiasis control and aquacultu...
Article
Full-text available
Mussels in the order Unionoida comprise ∼75% of the world's freshwater bivalve species and are free-living apart from a brief larval stage that parasitizes fish. We investigated the relationships among species of North American unionid mussels and their known host fishes from a macroevolutionary perspective to test whether and how ecological and ev...
Article
Full-text available
1.Does disturbance increase or decrease parasite transmission among wildlife hosts? Ecologists cannot answer this controversial question, in part because few historical datasets rigorously document parasite abundance. Without such a baseline, it is difficult to determine whether contemporary ecosystems are experiencing elevated parasite burdens. 2....
Article
Full-text available
Human impacts on ecosystems can decouple the fundamental ecological relationships that create patterns of diversity in free‐living species. Despite the abundance, ubiquity, and ecological importance of parasites, it is unknown whether the same decoupling effects occur for parasitic species. We investigated the influence of fishing on the relationsh...
Article
Control strategies to reduce human schistosomiasis have evolved from 'snail picking' campaigns, a century ago, to modern wide-scale human treatment campaigns, or preventive chemotherapy. Unfortunately, despite the rise in preventive chemotherapy campaigns, just as many people suffer from schistosomiasis today as they did 50 years ago. Snail control...
Article
Full-text available
Dams have long been associated with elevated burdens of human schistosomiasis, but how dams increase disease is not always clear, in part because dams have many ecological and socio-economic effects. A recent hypothesis argues that dams block reproduction of the migratory river prawns that eat the snail hosts of schistosomiasis. In the Senegal Rive...
Article
Full-text available
Infectious disease burdens vary from country to country and year to year due to ecological and economic drivers. Recently, Murray et al. (Murray CJ et al. 2012 Lancet 380, 2197–2223. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4)) estimated country-level morbidity and mortality associated with a variety of factors, including infectious diseases, for the years...
Article
Background Dams have long been associated with increased burdens of human schistosomiasis, but how dams increase disease is not always clear, in part because dams have many ecological and socioeconomic effects. A recent hypothesis argues that dams block the reproduction of the migratory river prawns that eat the snail hosts of schistosomiasis. In t...
Article
Background Popular fears about human infectious disease often focus on pathogens spread by person-to-person contact. By contrast, we show that 70–80% of human pathogens are environmentally transmitted (ie, people are infected through contact with free-living stages or environmental reservoirs including soil, water, vectors, food, or non- human host...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite control efforts, human schistosomiasis remains prevalent throughout Africa, Asia, and South America. The global schistosomiasis burden has changed little since the new anthelmintic drug, praziquantel, promised widespread control. Methodology: We evaluated large-scale schistosomiasis control attempts over the past century and...
Data
Progression of schistosomiasis prevalence reductions (black lines) and timing of alien species introductions (intentional or inadvertent) which led to biological invasions of competitor snails (solid arrows) in the Caribbean or crayfish (dashed arrow) in Egypt. The suspected time-course of biological invasions in these regions—with most invasions o...
Data
List of variables searched for and recorded (when available) to assemble the database analyzed in this paper. (DOCX)
Data
Model selection results leading to the final model discussed in the main text. “3way interactions” signify a Strategy*Year*Engineering term in the full-model. The other variables are as in S2 Table. Those models above the dotted line were deemed to fit the data best. Removing the 3way interactions with engineering controls did not substantially cha...
Data
Supporting text. Detailed examples of cryptic social, ecological, and political factors: species invasions, sanitation, and ecosystem change. (DOCX)
Data
Variables included (and regression formulas used) in the binary and quantitative analyses. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Host species richness and parasite species richness are often positively correlated, but the strength of this relationship varies from study to study. What accounts for this variability? Here, we explore the role of spatial scale in mediating the commonly reported positive relationship between host and parasite diversity. Building from ecological t...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a century of research into the factors that generate and maintain biodiversity, we know remarkably little about the drivers of parasite diversity. To identify the mechanisms governing parasite diversity, we combined surveys of 8100 amphibian hosts with an outdoor experiment that tested theory developed for free-living species. Our analyses...
Article
Full-text available
Palmyra Atoll, USA, in the Central Pacific, has remained mostly uninhabited since construction and abandonment of a U.S. naval base during World War II. However, the effects of Navy modifications have persisted, affecting physical conditions and benthic habitat quality of Palmyra's lagoon sand flats. Sand flats provide important nonbreeding habitat...
Article
Full-text available
Schistosomiasis - a parasitic disease that affects over 200 million people across the globe - is primarily transmitted between human definitive hosts and snail intermediate hosts. To reduce schistosomiasis transmission, some have advocated disrupting the schistosome life cycle through biological control of snails, achieved by boosting the abundance...
Article
Full-text available
Parasites have historically been considered a scourge, deserving of annihilation. Although parasite eradications rank among humanity's greatest achievements, new research is shedding light on the collateral effects of parasite loss. Here, we explore a "world without parasites": A thought experiment for illuminating the ecological roles that parasit...
Article
Variability in primary productivity and fishing pressure can shape the abundance, species composition, and diversity of marine life. Though parasites comprise nearly half of marine species, their responses to these important forces remain little explored. We quantified parasite assemblages at two spatial scales, across a gradient in productivity an...
Chapter
Over the past decade, the benefits that healthy oceans provide have increasingly become the focus of science, management, and policy making (e.g., Halpern et al. 2012, Samhouri et al. 2013). Productive oceans enhance food security (Garcia and Rosenberg 2010), and marine habitats protect millions of people from floods, hurricanes, and typhoons (Barb...
Article
Full-text available
The range of the sicklefin lemon shark (Negaprion acutidens) is expanded to include Palmyra Atoll, in the Northern Line Islands, central Pacific. Despite the fact that researchers have been studying reef and lagoon flat habitats of the Atoll since 2003, lemon sharks were first observed in 2010, suggesting a recent colonization event. To date, only...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Competition is recognized as an important determinant of the distribution of free-living species but its role in shaping parasite communities is uncertain. We assessed the influence of competition on the within-host distribution of parasites, using the intestinal parasite guild of whitecheek surgeonfish (Acanthurus nig...