Chee-Yuen Gan

Chee-Yuen Gan
Universiti Sains Malaysia | USM · Analytical Biochemistry Research Centre (ABrC)

Ph.D

About

123
Publications
18,613
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,992
Citations
Citations since 2017
77 Research Items
2505 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
Introduction
Bioactive peptide; polysaccharide; pectin; bioactivity; polyphenol
Additional affiliations
January 2016 - July 2016
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Position
  • Deputy director/Lecturer

Publications

Publications (123)
Article
Full-text available
Defatted wheat germ is a viable source of plant-based proteins and this could be attributed to its high protein content. In this study, protein-rich DWG fractions were precipitated from extracts obtained via conventional alkaline and novel DES-microwave extraction techniques. Protein yield, SDS-PAGE protein profile, gelation property, water/oil hol...
Article
This is the first study to provide a preliminary investigation into the recovery of protein from wheat germ and the prediction of their extraction conditions in microwave cavity using a novel DES solvent. The response surface methodology was used to predict the microwaved protein extraction conditions of the DWG. The effects of DES buffer-concentra...
Article
Application of non-thermal treatment to proteins prior to enzymatic hydrolysis can facilitate the release of novel bioactive peptides (BPs) with unique biological activities. In this study, lupin protein isolate was pre-treated with ultrasound and hydrolysed using alcalase and flavourzyme to produce alcalase hydrolysate (ACT) and flavourzyme hydrol...
Article
Anthropogenic rise in atmospheric CO 2 level is a major contributor to global warming thus posing a threat to the rapidly increasing Malaysia's population. An in-depth investigation focusing on the use of microalgae for CO 2 abatement and pollution screening in Malaysia is thus necessary. The use of microorganisms like microalgae has been proposed...
Article
Full-text available
Abnormal skin pigmentation commonly occurs during the wound healing process due to the overproduction of melanin. Chicken egg white (CEW) has long been used to improve skin health. Previous published works had found CEW proteins house bioactive peptides that inhibit tyrosinase, the key enzyme of melanogenesis. The current study aimed to evaluate th...
Article
The anti-hyperpigmentation effect and tyrosinase inhibitory mechanism of cinnamon polysaccharides have not been reported. The current study focused on the extraction of polysaccharides from Cinnamomum cassia bark using microwave-assisted approach and optimization of the extraction process (i.e., microwave power, irradiation time and buffer-to-sampl...
Article
Full-text available
The use of natural ingredients for managing diabetes is becoming more popular in recent times due to the several adverse effects associated with synthetic antidiabetic medications. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antidiabetic potential (through inhibition of α-glucosidase (AG) and α-amylase (AA)) of hydrolysates from lupin proteins pret...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Nonconventional extraction methods, such as microwave, supercritical fluid, and ultrasonic, are known to be veritable means of producing solvent-free high-quality essential oils. Nonetheless, technical requirements for the utilization of these extraction technologies are often exorbitantly expensive, thereby limiting their utilization. Evi...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the microwave-assisted processing of Sesamum indicum leaves was intensified to predict the total alkaloid content via Taguchi orthogonal design and neural network model. Under the optimum microwave condition, the maximized alkaloid content was estimated to be 15.40 (mg/g) % using irradiation time (A) of 60 sec, microwave power (B) of...
Chapter
The COVID-19 pandemic offers enormous potential for digital health solutions, with social distancing being the only current approach that has thus far been established to reduce the risk. Wearable Activity Tracker (WATs) is an appealing, successful, and inexpensive choice in this context. This technology is of vital significance in ensuring the wel...
Chapter
The diverse adverse effects of waste generated from numerous industrial and local sources have been one of the most significant impediments to environmental sustainability. One of the many waste management technologies explored is the use of biological treatment techniques through the use of bioreactors. Bioreactors with a broad range of applicatio...
Article
Full-text available
The main aim of current study is to explore the potential of deep eutectic solvent (DES) as plasticizer. The influence of different choline chloride–citric acid monohydrate (ChCl–CAM) molar ratios was investigated based on the properties of the selected biopolymer film (BF). It should be highlighted that using DES as a plasticizer had improved the...
Chapter
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are used to control blood pressure or to prevent congestive heart failure by dilating blood vessel. These inhibitors are also applied to treat patients with kidney injury or diabetic nephropathy. Due to the side effects of the synthetic drugs, such as dizziness, hyperkalemia, angioedema, dysgeusia and...
Article
Full-text available
Chemical constituents in plants can be greatly affected by postharvest processing, and it is important to identify the factors that lead to significant changes in chemistry and bioactivity. In this study, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to analyze extracts of Clinacanthus nutan (C. nutans) le...
Article
Cow (CwC) and camel casein (CaC) hydrolysates were generated using Alcalase™ (CwCA and CaCA) and Pronase-E (CwCP and CaCP) each for 3 and 6 h, and investigated for their potential to inhibit key lipid digesting enzymes i.e., pancreatic lipase (PL) and cholesteryl esterase (CE). Results revealed stronger PL and CE inhibition by CaC hydrolysates comp...
Article
Full-text available
The application of natural products and supplements has expanded tremendously over the past few decades. Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans), which is affiliated to the Acanthaceae family, has recently caught the interest of researchers from the countries of subtropical Asia due to its medicinal uses in alternative treatment for skin infection conditio...
Article
The establishment of a viable program for new born screening in the Asian region has suffered unimaginable set-back partly due to several factors such as economic, cultural, and geographical differences. This has mostly become exacerbated partly in developing and developed economies due to lack of proper awareness. In many parts of the world, the s...
Article
The sustainability of the biodiesel production process is a controversial issue in terms of the production cost and promotion of a clean and safe energy process without adverse effects on the environment. Hence, the need to achieve energy sustainability is paramount due to the environmental benefits of biodiesel. In this study, a new approach was r...
Article
Full-text available
Human diet is undergoing a shift towards plant-based diet as a sustainable source of protein compared to animal-derived protein. In this study, cholesterol esterase (CEase) and pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activities of amaranth protein hydrolysates (APHs) were studied. Bromelain, chymotrypsin, and actinase E were used for generating APHs at 2...
Article
Full-text available
Our main objective was to investigate the effect of chronic administration of hydrogen sulphide donor (sodium hydrosulphide) on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and concentration of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) in a renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) model of WKY and L-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME)-induced...
Article
The health and environmental concerns are provoking changes in human diets and plant-based proteins are being considered as sustainable source of proteins compared to animal-derived proteins. In line with this, the current study investigated amaranth protein isolate (API) and hydrolysates (APHs) for in-vitro angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE), d...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the combination of parameters required for optimal extraction of anti-oxi-dative components from the Chinese lotus (CLR) and Malaysian lotus (MLR) roots were carefully investigated. Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the pH (X1: 2-3), extraction time (X2: 0.5-1.5 h) and solvent-to-sample ratio (X3: 20-40 mL/g) to obtain a hi...
Article
Novel antihypercholesterolemic bioactive peptides (BAP) from peptic camel whey protein hydrolysates (CWPH) were generated at different time, temperature, and enzyme concentration (%). Hydrolysates showed higher pancreatic lipase- (PL; except 3 CWPH) and cholesterol esterase (CE)-inhibiting potential, as depicted by lower half maximal inhibitory con...
Article
Full-text available
Camel milk has been gaining immmense importance due to high nutritious value and medicinal properties. Peptides from milk proteins is gaining popularity in various therapeutics including human cancer. The study was aimed to investigate the anti-cancerous and anti-inflammatory properties of camel whey protein hydrolysates (CWPHs). CWPHs were generat...
Article
Full-text available
Nature-derived tyrosinase inhibitors are of great industrial interest. Three monophenolase inhibitor peptides (MIPs) and three diphenolase inhibitor peptides (DIPs) from a previous study were investigated for their in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects, mode of inhibition, copper-chelating activity, sun protection factor (SPF) and antioxidant acti...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the inherent multiple response characteristics in many biological and separation processes, parameter optimization and modelling is usually a daunting task. The integration of Deng's grey incidence model (GRA) and Taguchi optimization (TM) therefore helps in transforming multiple quality characteristics into a single response presented as th...
Article
The increasing demand for food-based bio-products has necessitated screening characterizations and microstructural elu-cidation. In this study, different analytical techniques were employed to investigate the thermal stability, morphological changes and phenolic profile of macerated hog-tree apple leaf. TGA peak heights from the thermo-gravimetric...
Article
The quality characteristics and stability of phenolic by-products from Cola nitida wastes are critical factors for drug formulation and food nutraceutical applications. In this study, the effect of electromagnetic-based microwave-reflux extraction on the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, morphological characteristics, physisorption and...
Article
This study reports the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting potential of peptic camel whey hydrolysates (WHs) produced under different hydrolysis conditions. WHs displayed ACE inhibitory IC50 value in the range of 0.197 to 1.307 mg/mL. Among 27 hydrolysates generated, four, with the lowest IC50, were subjected to peptide sequencing using...
Article
Camel milk proteins are an important substrate for bioactive peptides generation. This study investigates in-vitro antidiabetic effect (via inhibition of α-amylase (AA), α-glucosidase (AG) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV)) of bovine (BC) and camel casein (CC) hydrolysates. Further, effect of simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) on inhibi...
Chapter
There is an undeniable evidence on the biopharmaceutical applications of phenolic extracts from functional plants in the treatment of many life-threatening diseases. A comparative review on the microwave and conventional extraction techniques were adequately outlined with their inherent drawbacks. The mechanism of microwave-assisted extraction was...
Article
This study explores the inhibitory properties of camel whey protein hydrolysates (CWPH) toward α-amylase (AAM) and α-glucosidase (AG). A general full factorial design (3 × 3) was applied to study the effect of temperature (30, 37, and 45°C), time (120, 240, and 360 min), and enzyme (pepsin) concentration (E%; 0.5, 1, and 2%). The results showed tha...
Article
Full-text available
The molecular basis of the anti-diabetic properties of camel milk reported in many studies and the exact active agent are still elusive. Recent studies have reported effects of camel whey proteins (CWP) and their hydrolysates (CWPH) on the activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and the human insulin receptor (hIR). In this study, CWPH were...
Article
Background A plethora of research has explored the potential of bioactive peptide as a new class of drug therapeutics, yet only a minute amount has successfully translated into clinical trials. Possible reasons may include several in vivo challenges such as the poor peptide bioavailability upon oral ingestion, peptide toxicity and peptide allergeni...
Article
The study aimed to characterize and identify anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive bioactive peptides generated upon enzymatic hydrolysis of quinoa protein isolates. Different quinoa protein hydrolysates (QPHs) were produced using food grade enzymes like Bromelain, chymotrypsin and Pronase E at a hydrolysis interval of 2 h up to 6 h. QPHs were charac...
Article
Full-text available
Previous study showed that deep eutectic solvent (DES)-extracted pectin exhibited undesirable structural and functional properties. It has to be noted that most of the researchers were seeking the parameters that could increase the extraction yield and neglected the importance of the pectin structures that could ultimately affect the functional pro...
Article
Full-text available
Active fragments (bioactive peptides) from the chicken egg white proteins were expected to exert tyrosinase inhibitory activities in which skin hyperpigmentation could be prevented. Egg white was hydrolyzed by trypsin, chymotrypsin and the combination of both enzymes. The enzyme treatments achieved >50% degree of hydrolysis (DH) at substrate-to-enz...
Article
Full-text available
The increase in wastes generated from jackfruit seeds has been largely under-utilized in Malaysia. Due to the high nutritional and medicinal content embedded in the cellulosic structure of jackfruit wastes, a need then arises for their physicochemical elucidations. In this study, the extraction of Artocarpus heterophyllus seed was carefully investi...
Article
This study succinctly investigated the impacts of energy-based functions on the total phenolic and physicochemical characteristics of Euphorbia hirta. The results of the orthogonal experimental array gave an optimum microwave condition at 2 min of irradiation time, 400 W of microwave power, 12 mL/g of solvent loading, 40°C of the temperature level,...
Article
The potential of Averrhoa bilimbi pectin (ABP) as a source of biopolymer for edible film (EF) production was explored, and deep eutectic solvent (DES) (1% w/w) containing choline chloride–citric acid monohydrate at a molar ratio of 1:1 was used as the plasticizer. The EF-ABP3:1, which was produced from ABP with large branch size, showed a higher va...
Article
Full-text available
Euphorbia Hirta is a herbaceous plant that has been traditionally applied for the treatment of various ailments due to its phenolic-rich constituents. These important bioactive phenolic contents are often lost during the microwave extraction if the inherent energy parameters are not well controlled. The average power density (APD) and average energ...
Article
The inherent environmental effects of the accumulated kola nut pod waste products have become a subject of discussion among many researchers. The need then arises for their alternative use as nutraceutical bioproducts. The physical and chemical analytical techniques are often required for the standardization of these bioproducts in order to determi...
Article
The deep eutectic solvents (DESs), which were made from different molar ratios (3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3) of choline chloride and citric acid monohydrate, were used as media for the pectic polysaccharide extraction from Averrhoa bilmbi (ABP). The physico-chemical, structural, functional and antioxidant properties of ABP were subsequently determined....
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the impacts of parameter combinations on the response (total phenolic yield) were evaluated using the single experiments and two-level factorial design. The investigated parameters with their value range include; the microwave extraction time (1-5 min), power level (400-600 W), temperature (60-80°C), the solvent-feed ratio, SFR (8-12...
Article
A complete integrated bioinformatics approach was developed to identify angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitory peptides from egg white ovalbumin. The sequence of the protein was initially obtained from the NCBI database followed by in silico digestion using different enzymes or combination of enzymes. The...
Article
Consumption of curry containing poppy seeds has raised an issue concerning the opiate content in the urine that might exceed the cut-off value (300ng/mL). The main objective of this study was to examine the morphine and codeine contents in the urine of the consumers after partaking poppy seed-enriched curry in. The volunteers were asked to partake:...
Article
Novel bioactive peptides from camel milk protein hydrolysates (CMPH) were identified and tested for inhibition of cholesterol esterase (CEase), and their possible binding mechanisms were elucidated by molecular docking. Papain-generated CMPH showed the highest degree of hydrolysis. All CMPH produced upon enzymatic degradation demonstrated a dramati...
Article
In order to investigate novel probiotics for brain health improvement, the psychotropic potential of Lactobacillus fermentum PS150 (PS150) was evaluated using a 4-week chronic mild stress (CMS) model in rats. Rats fed with PS150 showed less anxious and depressive behaviour in EPM, OFT and FST compared with negative control rats (P < 0.05). Rats in...
Article
Cerebral hypoperfusion involved a reduction in cerebral blood flow, leading to neuronal dysfunction, microglial activation and white matter degeneration. The effects on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) however, have not been well-documented. Here, two-vessel occlusion model was adopted to mimic the condition of cerebral hypoperfusion in Sprague-Dawley...
Article
Camel milk protein hydrolysates (CMPHs) were investigated for anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory activities using in-vitro assays. CMPHs with potent ACE inhibitory and anti-inflammatory activities were subjected to peptide identification and their possible binding mechanism to ACE were depicted via molecular docking. Papain generated CMPHs sho...
Article
The objective of the study was to synthesize deep eutectic solvents (DES) using choline chloride and citric acid monohydrate at different molar ratios (i.e. DES 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3) followed by physicochemical characterization. The DES produced were clear and homogenized liquids under a microscopic observation, and DES 1:1 was found to meet...
Article
The Box-Behnken Design was applied to optimize the extraction of pectin from Averrhoa bilimbi (ABP) using deep eutectic solvents (DES). The four variables of extraction were percentage of DES (X1), extraction time (X2), temperature (X3), and molar ratio of DES components (X4). The quadratic regression equation was established as a predicted model w...
Article
Full-text available
Present study compared the rheological properties of glutinous rice flour (GRF) gel (33.3%, w/v) added with raw bee honey (RBH) or stingless bee honey (SBH) with/without heating treatment. RBH (diatase activity: 12.14 Schade) and SBH (1.53 Schade) significantly reduced the network of GRF gel by lowering the gel viscosity, with RBH having the highes...
Article
Full-text available
The Elateriospermum tapos seed extract is one of the major contributors to the therapeutic effects as remedy drink for chronic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity by the locals in East Malaysia. It is believed that the component in the seed, such as protein, plays an essential role due to its nutraceutical properties. Hence, we rep...
Preprint
Full-text available
The capacity of crustaceans to biosynthesise long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids has yet to be fully defined, due to the lack of evidence on the functional activities of enzymes involved in desaturation or elongation of fatty acid substrates. We report here the cloning and in vitro functional analysis of an elongase from the orange mud crab, Scy...
Chapter
Antibodies are useful biomolecules applied in many biomedical applications. The selectivity and specificity of antibodies against the target antigens have gained wide interest for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The antibodies are capable of functioning as target-specific carriers to allow site-specific delivery of payloads. However,...
Article
The most daunting challenge in microwave extraction is the variability in the output quality due to inherent uncontrollable temperature factors. This study focused on how to optimize the energy absorption and reduce the effects of temperature fluctuations on extracts quality in microwave extraction of white pepper. The Taguchi Orthogonal Optimizati...
Article
The natural rubber latex extracted from the bark of Hevea brasiliensis plays various important roles in today's modern society. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the latex proteins are important for the stability and functionality of the proteins. In this study, latex proteins were acquired from the C-serum, lutoids and rubber particle lay...
Article
Momordica charantia bioactive polysaccharide was used as an alternative source for the production of bio-based plastics (BPs) and choline chloride/glycerol based deep eutectic solvent (DES) was added as a plasticizer. In this study, seven BPs were prepared: MCBP without plasticizer (as a control), with glycerol (as a reference), and with DES in dif...
Article
The potential of N. lappacheum and N. mutabile seed as a source of α-amylase inhibitor peptides was explored based on the local traditional practice of using the seed. Different gastro-digestive enzymes (i.e. pepsin or chymotrypsin) or a sequential digestion were used to extract the peptides. The effects of digestion time and enzyme to substrate (E...
Article
Starch propionate (SP) with a degree of substitution (DS) of 0.21 was produced and its ability to stabilise emulsion was studied and compared with a commercial octenylsuccinate (OSA) starch (DS 0.03). The intrinsic viscosity values of SP and OSA were 0.9018 and 0.2514 (100 mL/g), respectively. Three different concentrations of SP and OSA at 12, 14...
Article
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are produced in microbes as a source of carbon and energy storage. They are biodegradable and have properties similar to synthetic plastics, which make them an interesting alternative to petroleum-based plastics. In this study, a refined method of recovering PHA from Cupriavidus necator biomass was proposed by incorpora...
Article
Bioactive peptides Cumin seed Cell-based assay Enzyme kinetics a b s t r a c t Inhibitor of a-amylase offers an effective strategy to modulate hyperglycemia. Three novel cumin-seed peptides (CSPs) were proposed as potent inhibitors according to previous study. This study was performed to further assess the clinical relevance of CSPs in simulated ph...
Article
The current work investigated the α-amylase inhibitory activity of five selected Pinto bean peptides (PBPs) using AR42J cell. The objectives were: (a) to prove the potential of PBPs as α-amylase inhibitor in living cells, and (b) to investigate the inhibition mode of PBPs. Results showed that PBP9 obtained the lowest IC50 value of 0.31 mM followed...
Article
The aim of the study was to explore the physiological effects of Pinto bean peptides (PBP) and their structure-activity relationships. Five pre-screened PBPs were investigated. The results showed that PBPs enhanced the protease activity ranging from 333 to 400%, and conversely, they inhibited lipase activity ranging from ∼23 to ∼87%. It was suggest...
Article
A combination of palm olein (POl) and fructose was used as carbon source for the biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] by recombinant Cupriavidus necator Re2058/pCB113. Cultures grown using 5 g/L PO alone as carbon source produced cell dry weight (CDW) of 5.13 g/L, 67% PHA/CDW and accumulated a copolymer con...
Article
The leaves extracts from non and inoculated Aquilaria subintegra were tested and were shown to have high corrosion inhibition of up to 93 % at 1500 ppm using methods such as the weight loss study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement and potentiodynamic polarization measurement. The electrochemical measurements showed that the leaf ex...
Article
Five Pinto bean peptides with α-amylase and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities were successfully identified using the integrated bioinformatics approach. By using PEAKS studio, 511 peptide sequences were first shortlisted based on their de novo sequence property and average local confidence (ALC) yield of ≥ 60%. Subsequently,...
Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro physiological properties of pre-screened cumin seed peptides (CSPs) based on in vitro and in silico studies. Results showed that CSPs were capable of increasing the protein digestibility up to 400%. Apart from that, CSP1 and CSP2 showed >50% inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity. These pep...
Article
Full-text available
Poultry industry has always been a dynamic and integral part of national economies in many countries. Economic losses incur especially in large-scale rearing facilities, often attributed to the deterioration of environmental conditions, poultry exposure to stressors and development of diseases. While antibiotics have been commonly used for prophyla...
Article
Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are expensive partly due to the recovery and purification processes. Thus, many studies have been carried out in order to minimize the cost. Here we report on the use of mealworm, which is the larva of mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) to recover PHA granules from Cupriavidus necator. Mealworms were shown to r...
Article
The natural rubber latex extracted from the bark of Hevea brasiliensis plays various important roles in today's modern society. Following ultracentrifugation, the latex can be separated into 3 layers; C-serum, lutoids, and rubber particle. Previous studies showed that a large number of proteins were present inside these three layers. However, a com...