Charlotte Rebecca Pennington

Charlotte Rebecca Pennington
Aston University · School of Life and Health Sciences

BSc (Hons) Psychology; PgCERT; PhD Experimental Social Psychology
Learn more about me and my research: https://research.aston.ac.uk/en/persons/charlotte-rebecca-pennington

About

94
Publications
23,776
Reads
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Introduction
I am an Lecturer in Psychology at Aston University and my research spans two main themes: (1) addictive behaviours and (2) social cognition. In the first theme, I examine the cognitive mechanisms that drive alcohol consumption with a particular focus on attentional bias and inhibitory control. In the second theme, I am interested in evaluating measures of implicit bias and how these relate to other socio-cognitive processes that underpin how we interact with others.
Additional affiliations
September 2013 - May 2022
Edge Hill University
Position
  • Research Assistant
Description
  • Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA)
September 2013 - May 2022
Edge Hill University
Position
  • PhD Student
Description
  • Fully funded PhD studentship.
May 2013 - September 2014
Edge Hill University
Position
  • Research Assistant
Description
  • Fixed term Research Assistant (4-months): Edge Hill University.
Education
September 2013 - September 2016
Edge Hill University
Field of study
  • Psychology (Stereotype Threat)
September 2010 - September 2013
Edge Hill University
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (94)
Article
Full-text available
This systematic literature review appraises critically the mediating variables of stereotype threat. A bibliographic search was conducted across electronic databases between 1995 and 2015. The search identified 45 experiments from 38 articles and 17 unique proposed mediators that were categorized into affective/subjective (n = 6), cognitive (n = 7)...
Article
Full-text available
Srull and Wyer (1979) demonstrated that exposing participants to more hostility-related stimuli caused them subsequently to interpret ambiguous behaviors as more hostile. In their Experiment 1, participants descrambled sets of words to form sentences. In one condition, 80% of the descrambled sentences described hostile behaviors, and in another con...
Article
Full-text available
The self-concept maintenance theory holds that many people will cheat in order to maximize self-profit, but only to the extent that they can do so while maintaining a positive self-concept. Mazar, Amir, and Ariely (2008, Experiment 1) gave participants an opportunity and incentive to cheat on a problem-solving task. Prior to that task, participants...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the structure of social cognition, and how it is influenced by personality; specifically, how various socio-cognitive capabilities, and the pattern of inter-relationships and co-dependencies among them differ between divergent personality styles. To measure social cognition, a large non-clinical sample (n = 290) undertook an...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Research indicates that high consumers of alcohol exhibit attentional bias (AB) towards alcohol-related cues, suggestive of a cognitive mechanism that might drive substance seeking. Many tasks that measure AB (e.g., visual probe, addiction Stroop), however, are limited by their reliance on non-appetitive control cues, the seri...
Article
Full-text available
Many disciplines are facing a “reproducibility crisis”, which has precipitated much discussion about how to improve research integrity, reproducibility, and transparency. A unified effort across all sectors, levels, and stages of the research ecosystem is needed to coordinate goals and reforms that focus on open and transparent research practices....
Article
Full-text available
The UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee has called for evidence on the roles that different stakeholders play in reproducibility and research integrity. Of central priority are proposals for improving research integrity and quality, as well as guidance and support for researchers. In response to this, we argue that there is one imp...
Preprint
Background and Aims Substance use disorders (SUD) are associated with cognitive deficits that are not always addressed in current treatments, and this hampers recovery. Cognitive training and remediation interventions are well suited to fill the gap for managing cognitive deficits in SUD. We aimed to reach consensus on recommendations for developin...
Article
Full-text available
Research in perception and attention has typically sought to evaluate cognitive mechanisms according to the average response to a manipulation. Recently, there has been a shift toward appreciating the value of individual differences and the insight gained by exploring the impacts of between-participant variation on human cognition. However, a recen...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Objectives Cross-sectional research has demonstrated weight-related stigma and discrimination, however experimental research providing causal evidence of financial-based weight discrimination is lacking. The aim of these preregistered experiments was to examine whether a novel paradigm in which participants attributed financial rewards a...
Preprint
Background: The race-based Implicit Association Test (IAT) was proposed to measure individual differences in implicit bias subsumed within social cognition. For this claim to be valid, performance on this task should relate to other implicit socio-cognitive processes that are proposed to guide social interaction. Aims: Experiment 1 assessed whether...
Preprint
Objectives: A need for Open Research practices exists, yet there remains a lack of validated questionnaires to assess Open Research practices. The study aimed to develop a brief (<5 minutes), standardised questionnaire to measure Open Research awareness and engagement across UK institutions.Methods: The Brief Open Research Survey (BORS) was develop...
Preprint
Objectives. Hearing loss is the leading potentially modifiable risk factor for dementia. A potential mediator in the relationship between hearing loss and increased dementia risk is the psychosocial pathway, which suggests that increased social isolation and mental health factors associated with hearing loss causes increased dementia risk and exace...
Preprint
Full-text available
In recent years, the scientific community has called for improvements in the credibility, robustness, and reproducibility of research, characterized by higher standards of scientific evidence, increased interest in open practices, and promotion of transparency. While progress has been positive, there is a lack of consideration about how this approa...
Article
Full-text available
Crowdsourcing-the process of using the internet to outsource research participation to "workers"-has considerable benefits, enabling research to be conducted quickly, efficiently, and responsively, diversifying participant recruitment, and allowing access to hard-to-reach samples. One of the biggest threats to this method of online data collection...
Article
Full-text available
Open scholarship has transformed research, and introduced a host of new terms in the lexicon of researchers. The ‘Framework for Open and Reproducible Research Teaching’ (FORRT) community presents a crowdsourced glossary of open scholarship terms to facilitate education and effective communication between experts and newcomers.
Preprint
Background Undisclosed discrepancies often exist between study registrations and their associated publications. Discrepancies can increase risk of bias, and when undisclosed, they disguise this increased risk of bias from readers. To remedy this issue, we developed an intervention called discrepancy review . We provided journals with peer reviewers...
Article
Full-text available
Participant crowdsourcing platforms (e.g., MTurk, Prolific) offer numerous advantages to addiction science, permitting access to hard-to-reach populations and enhancing the feasibility of complex experimental, longitudinal, and intervention studies. Yet these are met with equal concerns about participant nonnaivety, motivation, and careless respond...
Article
Recently, there has been a growing emphasis on embedding open and reproducible approaches into research. One essential step in accomplishing this larger goal is to embed such practices into undergraduate and postgraduate research training. However, this often requires substantial time and resources to implement. Also, while many pedagogical resourc...
Preprint
Participant crowdsourcing platforms (e.g., MTurk, Prolific) offer numerous advantages to addiction science, permitting access to hard-to-reach populations and enhancing the feasibility of complex experimental, longitudinal and intervention studies. Yet these are met with equal concerns about participant non-naivety, motivation, and careless respond...
Preprint
The UK House of Commons Science and Technology Committee has called for evidence on the roles that different stakeholders play in reproducibility and research integrity. Of central priority are proposals for improving research integrity and quality, as well as guidance and support for researchers. In response to this, we argue that there is one imp...
Preprint
Many disciplines are facing a “reproducibility crisis”, ushering in much discussion about how to improve research integrity, reproducibility, and transparency. A unified effort across all sectors, levels, and stages of the research ecosystem is needed to coordinate goals and reforms that focus on open and transparent research practices, while promo...
Preprint
Crowdsourcing — the process of using the internet to outsource research participation to ‘workers’ — has considerable benefits, enabling research to be conducted quickly, efficiently, and responsively, diversifying participant recruitment, and allowing access to hard-to-reach samples. One of the biggest threats to this method of online data collect...
Preprint
Background/Objectives: Cross sectional research has demonstrated weight-related stigma and discrimination, however experimental research providing causal evidence of financial based weight discrimination is lacking. The aim of these experiments was to examine whether a novel paradigm in which participants attributed financial rewards and punishment...
Preprint
Götz et al. (2021) argue that small effects are the indispensable foundation for a cumulative psychological science. Whilst we applaud their efforts to bring this important discussion to the forefront, we argue that their core arguments do not hold up under scrutiny, and if left uncorrected have the potential to undermine best practices in reportin...
Preprint
Research in perception and attention has typically sought to evaluate cognitive mechanisms according to the average response to a manipulation. Recently, there has been a shift toward appreciating the value of individual differences and the insight gained by exploring the impacts of between-participant variation on human cognition. However, a recen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recently, there has been a growing emphasis on embedding open and reproducible approaches into research. One essential step in accomplishing this larger goal is to embed such practices into undergraduate and postgraduate research training. However, this often requires substantial time and resources to implement. Also, while many pedagogical resourc...
Preprint
The popularity of social networking sites (SNS) continues to rise globally, prompting research into the potential consequences of their usage on our well-being. Studies have produced vastly disparate findings, however, reporting positive, negative, and sometimes no associations with psychosocial outcomes. These inconsistencies may, in part, reflect...
Article
Full-text available
Background & Aims A range of experimental paradigms claim to measure the cognitive processes underpinning alcohol use, suggesting that heightened attentional bias, greater approach tendencies and reduced cue‐specific inhibitory control are important drivers of consumption. This paper identifies methodological shortcomings within this broad domain o...
Preprint
Full-text available
This Editorial outlines two Registered Report (RR) formats offered by Addiction Research and Theory (ART): the ‘traditional’ RR route and the new ‘Peer Community in RR’ initiative. In the former, authors submit their study protocol for pre-study peer-review, allowing for assessment and peer feedback regarding the validity of the research questions...
Preprint
Background & Aims: A range of experimental paradigms claim to measure the cognitive processes underpinning alcohol use, suggesting that heightened attentional bias, greater approach tendencies and reduced cue-specific inhibitory control are important drivers of consumption. This paper identifies substantial methodological shortcomings within this b...
Preprint
Research has examined how standardized tests give rise to gender differences in English and STEM attainment, but little research has explored gender differences in classroom-based attainment and the degree to which these correspond to differences in school-related attitudes. To explore the extent to which gender-achievement gaps in classroom-based...
Article
Full-text available
Research has examined how standardized tests give rise to gender differences in English and STEM attainment, but little research has explored gender differences in classroom-based attainment and the degree to which these correspond to differences in school-related attitudes. To explore the extent to which gender-achievement gaps in classroom-based...
Preprint
Background and Aims: Research indicates that high consumers of alcohol exhibit attentional bias (AB) towards alcohol-related cues, suggestive of a cognitive mechanism that might drive substance seeking. Many tasks that measure AB (e.g., visual probe, addiction Stroop), however, are limited by their reliance on non-appetitive control cues, the seria...
Preprint
Introduction: Representing a more immersive testing environment, the current study exposed individuals to both alcohol-related visual and auditory cues to assess their respective impact on alcohol-related inhibitory control. It examined further whether individual variation in alcohol consumption and trait effortful control may predict inhibitory co...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale Experimental tasks that demonstrate alcohol-related attentional bias typically expose participants to single-stimulus targets (e.g. addiction Stroop, visual probe, anti-saccade task), which may not correspond fully with real-world contexts where alcoholic and non-alcoholic cues simultaneously compete for attention. Moreover, alcoholic sti...
Article
Full-text available
Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is considered stereotypically as a gendered phenomenon, empirical evidence contradicts such gender asymmetry in reported rates of victimisation and perpetration. The current research explored the impact of stereotype priming on implicit attitudes associated with IPV victimisation (Study 1) and perpetration (...
Article
Full-text available
The present commentary explores the impact of gender role stereotypes on perceptions of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence. Two papers published in this issue of Sex Roles explored the influence of gender stereotypes on both IPV (Bates et al., 2019) and rape myths (Klement et al., 2019). An overarching theme of these papers is...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rationale: Experimental tasks that demonstrate alcohol-related attentional bias typically expose participants to single-stimulus targets (e.g., addiction stroop, visual probe, anti-saccade task), which may not correspond fully with real-world contexts where alcoholic and non-alcoholic cues simultaneously compete for attention. Moreover, alcoholic s...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing awareness of the need to explore the social and environmental milieus that drive alcohol consumption and related cognitions. The current study examined the extent to which alcohol-congruent and incongruent drinking contexts modulate alcohol-related inhibitory control using a novel go/no-go task. One hundred and eight participants...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is a growing awareness of the need to explore the social and environmental milieus that drive alcohol consumption and related cognitions. The current study examined the extent to which alcohol-congruent and incongruent drinking contexts modulate alcohol-related inhibitory control using a novel Go/No-Go task. One-hundred and eight participants...
Article
Full-text available
The present commentary explores the impact of gender role stereotypes on perceptions of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence. Two papers published in this issue of Sex Roles explored the influence of gender stereotypes on both IPV (Bates et al., 2019) and rape myths (Klement et al., 2019). An overarching theme of these papers is...
Preprint
The present commentary explores the impact of gender role stereotypes on perceptions of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence. Two papers published in this issue of Sex Roles explored the influence of gender stereotypes on both IPV (Bates et al., 2019) and rape myths (Klement et al., 2019). An overarching theme of these papers is...
Preprint
Objective: The current study examined the impact of varying pictorial cues and testing contexts on implicit alcohol-related expectancies. Method: Seventy-six participants were assigned randomly to complete an Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) in either a pub or lecture context. The IRAP exposed participants to pictorial cues that depi...
Preprint
This study investigated the structure of social cognition, and how it is influenced by personality; specifically, how various socio-cognitive capabilities, and the pattern of inter-relationships and co-dependencies among them differ between divergent personality styles. To measure social cognition, a large non-clinical sample (n = 290) undertook an...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper is a pre-print version of a commentary published in a special issue on Gender & Gaming for the BPS Psychology of Women Section Review.
Preprint
Full-text available
Underpinned by the findings of Jamieson and Harkins (2007; Experiment 3, Journal of Personality & Social Psychology), the current study pits the mere effort motivational account of stereotype threat against a working memory interference account. In Experiment 1, females were primed with a negative self- or group stereotype pertaining to their visuo...
Preprint
Background Prior research demonstrates that individuals who consume alcohol show diminished inhibitory control towards alcohol-related cues. However, such research contrasts predominantly alcoholic appetitive cues with non-alcoholic, non-appetitive cues (e.g., stationary items). As such, it is not clear whether it is specifically the alcoholic natu...
Preprint
Background Non-problem drinkers attend automatically to alcohol-related cues compared to non-alcohol related cues on tests of inhibitory control. Moreover, attentional bias for alcohol-related cues varies between problem and non-problem drinkers.AimTo examine attentional bias towards alcoholic and non-alcoholic appetitive cues between problem and n...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Non-problem drinkers attend automatically to alcohol-related cues compared to non-alcohol related cues on tests of inhibitory control. Moreover, attentional bias for alcohol-related cues varies between problem and non-problem drinkers. Aim: To examine attentional bias towards alcoholic and non-alcoholic appetitive cues between proble...
Article
Full-text available
Underpinned by the findings of Jamieson and Harkins (2007; Experiment 3, Journal of Personality & Social Psychology), the current study pits the mere effort motivational account of stereotype threat against a working memory interference account. In Experiment 1, females were primed with a negative self‐ or group stereotype pertaining to their visuo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is considered stereotypically as a gendered phenomenon, empirical evidence contradicts such gender asymmetry in reported rates of victimisation and perpetration. The current research explored the impact of stereotype priming on implicit attitudes associated with IPV victimisation (Study 1) and perpetration (...
Preprint
Full-text available
The current study examined the impact of stereotype threat on female online gamers’ performance and further examined whether manipulating the availability of multiple social identities effectively eliminated these performance decrements. Further, participants’ implicit attitudes towards female online gamers were assessed. Eighty-one participants (6...
Preprint
Research points to the positive impact that gender segregated schooling and classroom initiatives exert on academic attainment. An evaluation of these studies which reveal positive effects highlights, however, that students are typically selectively assigned to single- or mixed-gender instructional settings, presenting a methodological confound. Th...
Article
Full-text available
In view of recent changes in the Higher Education sector, such as increased tuition fees, a greater focus has been placed on widening participation initiatives and monitoring student satisfaction. The aims of the current study were twofold: 1), to explore whether pre-entry programmes foster successful transition to higher education, and 2), to exam...
Preprint
Females often report experiencing stigmatisation pertaining to their competency in digital gaming communities. Employing the principles of the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat, the current research examined the impact of gender-related stereotypes on females’ gaming performance and related self-perceptions. In Experiment 1, 90 females we...
Preprint
This systematic literature review appraises critically the mediating variables of stereotypethreat. A bibliographic search was conducted across electronic databases between 1995and 2015. The search identified 45 experiments from 38 articles and 17 unique proposedmediators that were categorized into affective/subjective (n = 6), cognitive (n = 7) an...
Article
Full-text available
Research points to the positive impact that gender-segregated schooling and classroom initiatives exert on academic attainment. An evaluation of these studies which reveal positive effects highlights, however, that students are typically selectively assigned to single- or mixed-gender instructional settings, presenting a methodological confound. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Females often report experiencing stigmatisation pertaining to their competency in digital gaming communities. Employing the principles of the multi-threat framework of stereotype threat, the current research examined the impact of gender-related stereotypes on females’ gaming performance and related self-perceptions. In Experiment 1, 90 females we...
Article
Full-text available
Despite relatively equal participation rates between females and males in casual gaming, females often report stigmatisation and prejudice towards their gaming competency within this sub-domain. Applying the theoretical framework of “stereotype threat”, this research examined the influence of explicit stereotype priming on females’ casual gameplay...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Prior research demonstrates that individuals who consume alcohol show diminished inhibitory control towards alcohol-related cues. However, such research contrasts predominantly alcoholic appetitive cues with non-alcoholic, non-appetitive cues (e.g., stationary items). As such, it is not clear whether it is specifically the alcoholic na...
Article
Full-text available
Contrasting the traditional focus on alcohol-related visual images, this study examined the impact of both alcohol-related auditory cues and visual stimuli on inhibitory control (IC). Fifty-eight participants completed a Go/No-Go Task, with alcohol-related and neutral visual stimuli presented with or without short or continuous auditory bar cues. P...