Charles Stangor

Charles Stangor
University of Maryland, College Park | UMD, UMCP, University of Maryland College Park · Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology

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59
Publications
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6,321
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Publications

Publications (59)
Article
Full-text available
Significant gendered performance differences are signals of systemic inequity in higher education. Understanding of these inequities has been hampered by the local nature of prior studies; consistent measures of performance disparity across many disciplines and institutions have not been available. Here, we report the first wide-ranging, multi-inst...
Article
Summarizes the state of thinking about stereotypes that existed in 1996. From a social cognitive perspective, the authors address the ways that stereotypes are mentally represented (as schemas, prototypes, and exemplars). The authors consider the stereotypes held by both individuals and groups and argue that there are similar functions for each. (P...
Chapter
Allport's Views on ConformityDevelopments Since AllportA New Framework: Consensus, Groups, Individuals, and ConformityHas Allport Been Supported?Future Directions in Conformity and Prejudice Research
Article
Two studies examined the extent to which individuals' attitudes toward familiar and unfamiliar social groups are differentially related to perceptions of the attitudes held by other people about those groups. In Study 1, participants indicated their own attitudes, as well as their perceptions of the attitudes of relevant ingroup members, toward nin...
Article
Research suggests that children's developing knowledge about traditional gender roles has a substantial influence on how they process information pertaining to gender. Evidence also shows that as children attain gender constancy, their behaviors become especially responsive to gender-related information.
Article
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We compared the subtlety of four measures of sexism and sources of variation in male and female psychology students' judgments that beliefs from these scales and everyday behaviors were sexist. Participants judged traditional gender role and hostile sexist beliefs as more sexist than benevolent and modern sexist beliefs, indicating the latter were...
Article
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Two experiments examined how the goals of self-presentation and maintenance of control over one's outcomes influence women's tendencies to make or to avoid making attributions to discrimination. Demonstrating the importance of self-presentational goals, Experiment 1 showed that targets of discrimination were just as likely as similar others to make...
Article
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This research investigated the contextual nature of decisions about racial exclusion by analyzing why individuals might be willing to accept members of other racial groups into some types of social relationships but nevertheless exclude them from other types of relationships. Our analysis examined the underlying reasoning processes used to make suc...
Article
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In the present research we examined the association between Modern Sexist beliefs and identifying and engaging in subtle sexist behavior. In Study 1, we found that those who endorsed Modern Sexist beliefs were less likely to detect the occurrence of normative sexist behavior (i.e., the use of sexist language), and this oversight was a function of t...
Article
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Four experiments examined how an actor's intent and the harm experienced by a target influence judgments of prejudice and discrimination. The presence of intent increased the likelihood that participants judged an actor as prejudiced and the actor's behavior as discriminatory. When intent was uncertain, harm influenced judgments of the behavior, wh...
Article
Full-text available
Discrimination towards members of low-status groups takes a variety of forms, and results in a variety of negative consequences for its victims. Furthermore, discrimination may influence its targets either directly (for instance, when housing discrimination makes insurance, mortgage rates, or rents higher for African Americans than for whites) or i...
Article
This research tested the extent to which two motivations commonly assumed to predict prejudice—needs for cognitive economy and needs for self-enhancement—were simultaneously able to predict two underlying components of prejudice—social categorization and ingroup favoritism. Across three studies, diverse measures of the two motivations showed them t...
Article
Children's and adolescents' social reasoning about exclusion was assessed in three different social contexts. Participants (N = 294) at three ages, 10 years (4th grade), 13.7 years (7th grade), and 16.2 years (10th grade), fairly evenly divided by gender, from four ethnic groups, European-American (n = 109), African-American (n = 96), and a combine...
Article
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The authors tested the hypothesis that members of stigmatized groups would be unwilling to report that negative events that occur to them are the result of discrimination when they are in the presence of members of a nonstigmatized group. Supporting this hypothesis, women and African Americans were more likely to report that a failing grade assigne...
Article
Past research has demonstrated the powerful influence other people have on the thoughts and behaviors of individuals. However, the study of intergroup attitudes has focused primarily on the influence of direct exposure to out-group members as determinants of stereotypes and prejudice. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that learning that others...
Article
In two experiments, the authors found that providing feedback to European American participants that others held different beliefs about African Americans than they originally estimated significantly changed the beliefs that they held about that group. The observed changes were stronger for people who were exposed to information about the opinions...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated how 50 preschool children (25 girls, 25 boys) evaluated the appropriateness of excluding boys and girls from two types of activities (doll play, truck play) and two types of future roles (playing a teacher, playing a firefighter) across different exclusion contexts. Children judged straight-forward exclusion from activities...
Article
This study investigated whether children's and adolescents' judgments about exclusion of peers from peer group activities on the basis of their gender and race would differ by both age level and the context in which the exclusion occurred. Individual interviews about exclusion in several different contexts were conducted with 130 middle-class, Euro...
Article
Introduces the articles appearing in this issue of the Swiss Journal of Psychology. Current research into the nature of stereotypes has broadened from the topics considered important earlier in the decade. For one, the role of social identity as a determinant of intergroup beliefs has increasingly become a focus for research (Spears, Oakes, Elleme...
Article
Full-text available
Tested the hypothesis that women would vary in their sensitivity to the occurrence of sexism directed at themselves and others, and that this sensitivity would influence their estimations of the frequency of occurrence of sexism-related behaviors that they were exposed to. The study included 33 women. The results show that women who indicated that...
Article
This book turns the tables on the way prejudice has been looked at in the past. Almost all of the current information on prejudice focuses on the person holding prejudiced beliefs. This book, however, provides a summary of research focusing on the intended victims of prejudice. The 1st part discusses how people identify prejudice, what types of pre...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose for this study was to investigate adolescents’judgments about the appropriate punishment of other adolescents for accused transgressions in situations where stereotype information was present or absent. Ninety-two male and 85 female, predominantly European-American, ninth-grade adolescents made judgments about the appropriateness of pun...
Article
This chapter reviews current models of how young adults make academic choices, and corresponding models of academic performance, with a particular concern for explaining differences across social groups. The review will show that in large part these models propose, and empirical data confirm, that such outcomes are determined by social expectations...
Article
Full-text available
According to the theory of stereotype threat (C. M. Steele, 1997; C. M. Steele & J. Aronson, 1995), activating stereotypes about a group's typical underperformance on a task can undermine a group member's performance on that task. The goal of the present research was to more fully delineate the contexts that activate task-performance stereotypes an...
Article
The present research studied changes in stereotypes, attitudes and perceived variability of national groups within a sample of U.S. college students who spent one year studying in either West Germany1 or Great Britain. Subjects' stereotypes and attitudes toward host country members changed significantly during their stay, whereas attitudes and ster...
Article
L. Wallach and M. A. Wallach (1994) argued that many hypotheses tested by social psychologists are either "near-tautologies" or derivable from "near-tautologies" and thus are of little interest. The authors of this article applaud their concern but find that their conclusions are based on flawed analyses and arguments. Their conceptualization of "n...
Article
The author reviews the current state of empirical and theoretical approaches to the issue of stereotype accuracy. This review has led him to question the utility of an approach that is based primarily on assessing the content accuracy of social stereotypes. Although it is the theme of this book that there is merit to assessing group differences and...
Article
It has frequently been proposed that stereotypes are self-maintaining at least in part because people tend to better remember expectancy-confirming (versus expectancy-disconfirming) information about social groups. This memory bias is assumed to occur because stereotype-consistent behaviours and traits are more easily associated with the social gro...
Article
Investigated the effects of thinking about a category label on the ease with which 72 female undergraduates could process stereotype-related information on subsequent tasks. Exp 1 investigated the ease with which Ss could detect degraded stereotypic traits, Exp 2 the ease with which these traits could be located in a complex stimulus array, and Exp...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments investigated the effects of priming either a social category label or category-associated traits on the categorization of individuals who could be considered members of either of two competing social categories. It was hypothesized that priming a social category label would increase the use of the primed category in categorization j...
Article
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Three experiments tested the hypotheses that while forming stereotypes of social groups, people abstract the central tendency and variability of different attribute dimensions to determine which ones best differentiate the groups and that more differentiating dimensions are more likely to become stereotypical in the sense of becoming strongly assoc...
Article
Five experiments used a name-matching paradigm developed by S. E. Taylor et al (1978) to investigate how people use the immediately apparent features of others as a basis of social categorization. Ss were more likely to categorize targets according to their sex than their race but also tended to categorize using a single subordinate category that r...
Article
A meta-analysis of 54 experiments investigated the influence of social expectations on memory for information that is congruent and incongruent with those expectations. Results showed that, overall, memory was better for expectancy-incongruent than expectancy-congruent information on recall and recognition sensitivity measures. Recognition measures...
Article
A meta-analysis of 54 experiments investigated the influence of social expectations on memory for information that is congruent and incongruent with those expectations. Results showed that overall, memory was better for expectancy-incongruent than expectancy-congruent information on recall and recognition sensitivity measures. Recognition measures...
Article
Full-text available
According to traditional theories, prejudice toward national, racial, and ethnic groups was considered to consist largely of a negative affective response toward the group or toward members of the group. More recently, however, the general approach to the study of prejudice within social psychology has been to emphasize its cognitive determinants,...
Article
Two experiments tested the hypothesis that memory for trait information describing social groups would be more congruent with prevailing expectations about those groups when group impressions are formed under conditions in which the perceiver is required to engage in multiple concurrent tasks. In Experiment 1, subjects read behaviors describing mem...
Article
On the basis of a theory proposed by Clark, Milberg, and Erber (1984), it was hypothesized that arousal would prime evaluatively extreme constructs from memory and that those constructs would be used in interpreting information about social targets, resulting in polarized person judgments. In support of this hypothesis, in Experiment 1 aroused subj...
Article
Different ways of conceptualizing and measuring change in attitudes during transition to motherhood are examined. A series of analyses was performed on data from a cross-sectional sample (N = 667) and a smaller longitudinal sample (n = 48) to demonstrate sound psychometric properties for 2 new scales and to show construct comparability across diffe...
Article
Fiske and her colleagues have argued that impression formation begins with the perceiver's attempt to match a new target person's personal attributes to those that characterize a familiar social category in memory. Results of a study testing this model found general support for it, but results for subjects who saw partial matches (the target was ne...
Article
The self-definitional processes accompanying the transition to motherhood were examined in this study. A cross-sectional sample of more than 600 women who were planning to get pregnant within 2 years, pregnant, or in the postpartum stage completed extensive questionnaires pertaining to their experiences of pregnancy and motherhood. On the basis of...
Article
This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses to evaluate the hypothesis that violated expectations with respect to sharing child care and housekeeping responsibilities contribute to women's dissatisfactions with their marital relationships after the birth of their first child. The cross-sectional sample consisted of 670 women wh...
Article
We conducted three studies that tested a "change-of-standard" perspective on the relations among context, judgment, and recall. Each study consisted of two or three sessions held a few days apart. All subjects read about the sentencing decisions of one or two target trial judges and of six nontarget trial judges who consistently gave either higher...
Article
purpose of the present chapter is to consider the extent to which "theory-driven" processing is itself "context-driven" the nature of context effects / context effects on the target versus context effects on the perceiver / data-driven versus theory-driven effects of perceiver context / phenomenological differences between context effects and tar...
Article
Weighted least squares (WLS) analysis of categorical data is used to provide a general framework for the analysis of brand switching data. As in an earlier approach described by Urban, Johnson, and Hauser (Urban, G. L., P. L. Johnson, J. R. Hauser. 1984. Testing competitive market structures. (2, Spring) 83–112.), a forced switching matrix of first...
Article
The majority of theories about the effects of schemata (or generic knowledge structures) on information processing share two fundamental assumptions. It is assumed, first, that schema-based inferences about unobserved features of an event are generated, and, second, that such inferences are stored in long-term memory and thereby confused with trace...
Article
When faced with the task of making a prediction or estimating a likelihood, it is argued that people often reason about the presence or absence and relative strength of possible causal mechanisms for the production of relevant outcomes. In so doing people rely on “causal cues” or properties of an inferential problem which indicate the nature of the...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter discusses the model of the influence of stereotypes on interpersonal impressions, judgments, and behaviors presented by G. V. Bodenhausen and C. N. Macrae (see record 1998-04011-001). The difficulty with the model, as proposed, is that it is too limiting. For instance, although there is much existing evidence for the impact of persona...
Article
autobiographical essay accompanying Chapter 8
Article
Typescript. Thesis (Ph.D.)--New York University, Graduate School of Arts and Science, 1986. Bibliography: leaves 92-100.

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