Charles Simenstad

Charles Simenstad
University of Washington Seattle | UW · School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences

About

219
Publications
49,390
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9,604
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1971 - March 2021
University of Washington Seattle
Position
  • Professor Emeritus

Publications

Publications (219)
Chapter
Many complex factors determine the role of estuarine habitats and landscapes in fish growth and survival that ultimately contribute individuals to adult populations. In this chapter, we recognise the diversity of habitats, both those frequently (e.g. submerged aquatic vegetation, mangroves) and infrequently (e.g. shellfish beds, woody debris) evalu...
Article
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Seascape ecology, the marine-centric counterpart to landscape ecology, is rapidly emerging as an interdisciplinary and spatially explicit ecological science with relevance to marine management, biodiversity conservation and restoration. While important progress in this field has been made in the past decade, there has been no coherent prioritisatio...
Article
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While Pacific salmon are economically and culturally important worldwide, Alaska, USA is one of the few remaining places on earth where sustainable management of salmon is possible, even in the face of wide-ranging threats, including overharvesting and the impacts of climate change. A continuing challenge that we face is to understand the ecologica...
Article
Tidal marshes (including saltmarshes) provide remarkable value for many social (cultural, recreational) and environmental (fish production, water quality, shoreline protection, carbon sequestration) services. However, their extent, condition, and capacity to support these services are threatened by human development expansion, invasive species, ero...
Article
Coastal salt marshes are distributed widely across the globe and are considered essential habitat for many fish and crustacean species. Yet, the literature on fishery support by salt marshes has largely been based on a few geographically distinct model systems, and as a result, inadequately captures the hierarchical nature of salt marsh pattern, pr...
Article
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https://science.sciencemag.org/content/370/6517/670.1
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On 1 March 2019, the United Nations (UN) General Assembly (New York) declared 2021–2030 the “UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration.” This call to action has the purpose of recognizing the need to massively accelerate global restoration of degraded ecosystems, to fight the climate heating crisis, enhance food security, provide clean water and protect b...
Article
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Domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxin produced by certain species within the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, has caused numerous persistent harvest closures for razor clam Siliqua patula along the outer coast of Washington State (USA) over the last three decades. In comparison, bivalve harvest closures for DA have only occurred three times in Washington's...
Article
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The Trump administration has proposed replacing the Clean Water Rule, a 2015 regulation that defined the statutory term “waters of the United States” to clarify the geographic jurisdiction of the Clean Water Act. Since its promulgation, the Clean Water Rule has been subjected to numerous judicial challenges. We submitted an amici curiae brief to th...
Chapter
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Seagrass meadows and salt marshes are some of the most productive coastal habitats. With their global distribution they provide an important function for society through the provision of a number of goods and services. Both habitat types form geographically extensive seascapes commonly consisting of complex mosaics of vegetated patches interspersed...
Article
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We measured the influence of landscape setting on estuarine food web connectivity in five macrotidal Pacific Northwest estuaries across a gradient of freshwater influence. We used stable isotopes (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(34) S) in combination with a Bayesian mixing model to trace primary producer contributions to suspension- and deposit-feeding bivalve...
Article
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Many coastal estuaries in Mediterranean climates are susceptible to inlet closures resulting from barrier beach formation. These closures are ecologically important because they eliminate tidal exchange and connectivity of nekton movement to the coastal ocean and, depending on closure duration, can convert a dynamic estuary into a quiescent lagoon....
Article
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The eighth in a series of workshops on fish feeding ecology (“Gutshops”) was held in 2015, continuing a tradition started in 1976 that expanded in scope and participation. Topics in early Gutshops focused on methodology and analysis, and evolved to include niche overlap, competition, nutrition, and community trophic interactions. Major accomplishme...
Technical Report
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Estuaries along the California coast are recognized as critical rearing habitat for juvenile salmonids, particularly because they provide abundant feeding opportunities that support rapid growth. However, these estuaries exhibit a high degree of spatial and temporal variability in both food availability and elements of risk such as predation risk a...
Article
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To evaluate the role of restoration in the recovery of the Delta ecosystem, we need to have clear targets and performance measures that directly assess ecosystem function. Primary production is a crucial ecosystem process, which directly limits the quality and quantity of food available for secondary consumers such as invertebrates and fish. The De...
Article
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Life history variation in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) supports species resilience to natural disturbances and fishery exploitation. Within salmon species, life-history variation often manifests during freshwater and estuarine rearing, as variation in growth. To date, however, characterizing variability in growth patterns within and among ind...
Data
The distribution of size (mm), timing and genetic group of juvenile Chinook salmon over space and time in the Columbia River estuary (adapted from Teel et al. 2014). The inner grid represents space: the intersection of each line is one of the 18 locations from which we sampled. The outer grid represents time: each larger grid cell is a combination...
Article
Protection of places important for aesthetic, ecological, and cultural values has been a goal of conservationists for over 150 years. Cornerstones of place-based conservation include legal designations, international agreements, and purchase by public or non-profit organizations. In the Salmon River catchment, Oregon, protections were initially dev...
Article
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Compared to benthic and water-column invertebrate assemblages, considerably less is known about terrestrial arthropods inhabiting estuarine wetlands despite their importance to tidal wetland biodiversity and productivity. We also need to know more about how human modification of estuaries, including efforts to restore estuarine wetlands, affects th...
Article
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Ecological Engineering (or Ecoengineering) is increasingly used in estuaries to re-create and restore ecosystems degraded by human activities, including reduced water flow or land poldered for agricultural use. Here we focus on ecosystem recolonization by the biota and their functioning and we separate Type A Ecoengineering where the physico-chemic...
Chapter
While the basic photosynthetic production processes supporting all but extremophile-based food webs do not differ among most ecosystems, from an energy flow perspective (see Food Web/Trophic Dynamics), the pathways whereby organic compounds reach metazoan consumer organisms can be both intricate and often confusing. This is especially the case in e...
Article
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During the transition of juveniles from fresh water to estuarine and coastal environments, the survival of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can be strongly size selective and cohort abundance is partly determined at this stage. Because quantity and quality of food influence juvenile salmon growth, high rates of prey and energy acquisition during...
Article
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Estuarine rearing has been shown to enhance within watershed biocomplexity and support growth and survival for juvenile salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.). However, less is known about how growth varies across different types of wetland habitats and what explains this variability in growth. We focused on the estuarine habitat use of Columbia River Chinook s...
Article
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In this paper, we focus on 2 mechanisms of cross-boundary food web connectivity in Puget Sound estuaries: passive transport of water-advected organic matter (OM) and active movement of organisms. Both mechanisms serve as potential vectors of food web connectivity, but little research has investigated whether landscape setting changes the dominance...
Article
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We evaluated whether restoring tidal flow to previously diked estuarine wetlands also restores foraging and growth opportunities for juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Several studies have assessed the value of restored tidal wetlands for juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., but few have used integrative measures of salmon perf...
Article
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Zooplankton are important trophic intermediaries between aquatic primary producers and higher level consumers such as fish, but to date they have been little studied in intertidal marshes. This is particularly true in the San Francisco Estuary (SFE), which is heavily impacted by human activities and is being targeted for restoration of its native w...
Article
This study provides evidence of the importance of tributary tidal wetlands to local coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch populations and life-history diversity. Sub-yearling and, to a lesser extent, yearling O. kisutch life histories utilized various estuary habitats within the Grays River, a tidal freshwater tributary of the Columbia Estuary, includin...
Article
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Estuarine detritus-based food webs typically rely on diverse sources and timing of organic matter (OM) delivery. Access to detritus requires adequate hydraulic connectivity for consumer migration into productive locations and the transfer of allochthonous detritus into consumer habitats. These processes are particularly important to the patterns an...
Article
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Extensive efforts are underway to restore and conserve nearshore shallow water habitats in the Columbia River estuary with the intent of increasing the estuary's capacity to provide food, refuge, and other crucial ecosystem functions for juvenile salmon. Juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, including those from the five Evolutionarily...
Article
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Tidal marsh wetlands provide important foraging habitat for a variety of estuarine fishes. Prey organisms include benthic/epibenthic macroinvertebrates, neustonic arthropods, and zooplankton. Little is known about the abundance and distribution of interior marsh macroinvertebrate communities in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary). We describe seaso...
Article
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Tidal marsh restoration is an important management issue in the San Francisco Estuary (estuary). Restoration of large areas of tidal marsh is ongoing or planned in the lower estuary (up to 6,000 ha, Callaway et al. 2011). Large areas are proposed for restoration in the upper estuary under the Endangered Species Act biological opinions (3,237 ha) an...
Article
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Tidal freshwater forested wetlands are dynamic, complex ecosystems that typically occur in large, floodplain river estuaries throughout the world. The estuarine portion of the Columbia River, in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, is exceptionally large and extends from the Pacific Ocean to the head of tide at Bonneville Dam, located at...
Article
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ABSTRACT: Deep subtidal coastal food webs are increasingly a focus among coastal researchers, largely due to the reliance of these systems on subsidies of organic detritus donated from allochthonous sources. To better understand the dynamics of these food webs, researchers have frequently employed multiple stable isotope (MSI; δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) ana...
Article
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Studies that use biomarkers to elucidate consumer diets often must assume that these signatures are relatively invariant in space and time. We tested this assumption for multiple stable isotopes (MSI: δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) and fatty acids in 10 marine macrophytes (macroalgae and seagrass) on 3 different dates, and also quantified MSI at 3 sites in the...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Recent studies in estuarine detritus-based food webs have documented strong gradients in the sources of organic matter assimilated by consumers across diverse landscape scales. These results challenge prior concepts (i.e., estuarine outwelling paradigm) regarding the scale of food web connections across estuarine ecoto...
Chapter
To introduce this volume on the Classification of Estuarine and Nearshore Coastal Ecosystems, we describe the diverse approaches that scientists and managers have taken to classify estuaries and nearshore coasts. Classification of estuaries and coasts is motivated by different perspectives (e.g., landform geomorphology, evolutionary origins, and fo...
Conference Paper
Sub-yearling, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) downstream migrants or “nomads” represent an alternative life history to the “stream-type” freshwater-rearing yearling smolt life history that was traditionally thought to dominate coho salmon populations. Recent studies suggest that nomad coho salmon may contribute substantially to an adult populati...
Conference Paper
Classification of diverse scale-dependent and scale-independent ecosystem structures and processes can be a valuable tool for research, monitoring and management of across complex estuarine gradients and process scales. Current estuarine classification approaches often do not address tidal-freshwater ecosystems or lack sufficient resolution to dist...
Conference Paper
A new focus has been placed on estuaries as a potential rearing habitat for juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss, once thought only to be utilized as a corridor for migrating to the ocean. Previous research (2008) by Hayes and Bond has found that steelhead rearing in an intermittently closed small estuary had greater growing opportunities and thus were mor...
Conference Paper
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Cross-ecosystem transfer of materials, energy and organisms often controls population, community and food web structure, highlighting the importance of connectivity at the landscape level. However, ecosystem-scale changes that affect lateral transfer, such as disruptions to boundary permeability or habitat fragmentation, can alter or destabilize fo...
Conference Paper
Marine shorelines worldwide are being increasingly modified with armoring as coastal populations grow and the risk of sea level rise increases. Seawalls are the least complex armoring structure, typically built of smooth vertical concrete. Compared to natural rocky intertidal shorelines they reduce surface area, lack microhabitats that provide refu...
Conference Paper
While Alaska’s salmon populations are generally strong, habitat degradation and uncertainties from climate change may bring challenges for their continued success. As a defining ecotone between river and ocean environments, estuaries have been shown to provide vital habitat for juvenile salmon during their outmigration. However, comparatively littl...
Article
We compared the extent to which ancient and restoring wetlands in three estuary regions of San Francisco Bay support estuarine ecosystems through food web contributions. In comparison to mature marshes, we hypothesized that food webs of increasingly younger restoration sites would display increased dependency upon allochthonous subsidies due to nom...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation planning often occurs only after a species has been extirpated from portions of its historical range and limited information is available on life history diversity prior to development. To provide information on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) life history before and after local extirpation, we examined the chemical (87Sr:86S...
Article
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We review the progress made in the emerging field of coastal seascape ecology, i.e. the application of landscape ecology concepts and techniques to the coastal marine environment. Since the early 1990s, the landscape ecology approach has been applied in several coastal subtidal and intertidal biogenic habitats across a range of spatial scales. Emer...
Article
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Landscape ecology concepts developed from terrestrial systems have recently emerged as theoretical and analytical frameworks that are equally useful for evaluating the ecological consequences of spatial patterns and structural changes in the submerged landscapes of coastal ecosystems. The benefits of applying a spatially-explicit perspective to res...
Article
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Experiments on fish feeding behavior, field measures of fish sizes, migration rate, and prey resources, and an energetic growth model are used to evaluate the growth of juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) during outmigration in an estuary. Fish growth is defined as the difference between energy intake and metabolic costs. Energy intake is esti...
Article
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Juvenile Pacific salmon utilizing the recently restored Lincoln Avenue wetland system in the Puyallup River estuary, Tacoma, Washington, were studied during their spring seaward migration in 1987 and 1988. Mark/recapture experiments indicated that 0.06% of the outmigrating juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and 0.59% of the outmigrating juven...
Article
Effects of different prey taxa and daily ration levels on fish growth and the relationship between fish growth rate and mean otolith increment width were investigated for juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in saltwater aquaria. Growth was positively correlated with ration, and food conversion efficiency was much higher for fish fed the harpac...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation planning often occurs only after a species has been extirpated from portions of its historical range and limited information is available on life history diversity prior to development. To provide information on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) life history before and after local extirpation, we examined the chemical (87Sr:86S...
Article
Full-text available
The use of stable isotopes has recently grown in studies of trophic structure and the recruitment and migration patterns of consumers. This type of analysis allows the flow of organic matter and trophic relationships to be outlined within complex systems. Although multiple stable isotope analysis is useful in distinguishing linkages between sources...
Article
Full-text available
Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) residing in Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A., in 1990 and 1991 created feeding pits on littoral sand flats dominated by ghost shrimp (Callianassa californiensis). The whales removed an extensive biomass of shrimp from the pits. Ghost shrimp standing stock was 2–5 times lower inside than outside feeding pits, equiv...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to determine if exploitative competition between between juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) reduces the foraging opportunity of juvenile Chinook salmon in tidal channels of the Columbia River estuary. We sampled Chinook salmon and stickleback diets m...
Article
Full-text available
Landscape ecology concepts developed from terrestrial systems have recently emerged as theoretical and analytical frameworks that are equally useful for evaluating the ecological consequences of spatial patterns and structural changes in the submerged landscapes of coastal ecosystems. The benefits of applying a spatially-explicit perspective to res...
Data
Our studies in the lower 100-km of the Columbia River estuary quantified historical habitat changes and provided new information about contemporary abundance patterns, life histories, and habitat associations of Chinook salmon. The conceptual framework for this research defined salmon performance in the estuary as the product of three factors: habi...
Chapter
Fishery management programs designed to control Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) for optimum production have failed to prevent widespread fish population decline and have caused greater uncertainty for salmon, their ecosystems, and the people who depend upon them. In this special feature introduction, we explore several key attributes of ecosyste...
Article
Full-text available
In coastal environments, the supratidal zone bridges marine and terrestrial ecosystems and is important for energy exchange. However, it is also subject to extensive anthropogenic disturbance, such as armoring of shorelines. Shoreline armoring is extensive along many coasts, but the impacts on biota are comparatively unknown. Between 2000 and 2002,...
Article
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Many estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems have increasingly experienced degradation caused by multiple stressors. Anthropogenic pressures alter natural ecosystems and the ecosystems are not considered to have recovered unless secondary succession has returned the ecosystem to the pre-existing condition or state. However, depending upon the scale...