Charles Melnyk

Charles Melnyk
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | SLU · Department of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics

BSc Hons, PhD

About

51
Publications
15,392
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,049
Citations
Introduction
Charles Melnyk is a group leader at the Department of Plant Biology in the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. His group studies vascular regeneration during plant grafting and parasitic plant infections.
Additional affiliations
March 2017 - March 2022
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Position
  • Lecturer
January 2012 - December 2016
University of Cambridge
Position
  • PostDoc Position
October 2010 - December 2011
University of Cambridge
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (51)
Article
Full-text available
Parasitic plants are globally prevalent pathogens that withdraw nutrients from their host plants using an organ known as the haustorium. The external environment including nutrient availability affects the extent of parasitism and to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the role of nutrients and found that nitrogen is sufficient to repress h...
Article
Full-text available
Wound healing is a fundamental property of plants and animals that requires recognition of cellular damage to initiate regeneration. In plants, wounding activates a defense response via the production of jasmonic acid and a regeneration response via the hormone auxin and several ethylene response factor (ERF) and NAC domain-containing protein (ANAC...
Article
Cellular regeneration in response to wounding is fundamental to maintain tissue integrity. Various internal factors including hormones and transcription factors mediate healing, but little is known about the role of external factors. To understand how the environment affects regeneration, we investigated the effects of temperature upon the horticul...
Article
Full-text available
Grafting is possible in both animals and plants. Although in animals the process requires surgery and is often associated with rejection of non-self, in plants grafting is widespread, and has been used since antiquity for crop improvement¹. However, in the monocotyledons, which represent the second largest group of terrestrial plants and include ma...
Article
Root meristem controls The plant meristem, a small cluster of stem cells generates all of the cell types necessary for the plant’s indeterminate growth pattern. Roszak et al . use single-cell analyses to follow development from the stem cell to the enucleated cell of the phloem vasculature. In the root of the small mustard plant Arabidopsis , this...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cellular regeneration in response to wounding is fundamental to maintain tissue integrity. Various internal factors including hormones and developmental pathways affect wound healing but little is known about how external factors influence regeneration. To better understand how the environment affects regeneration, we investigated the effects of te...
Preprint
The mechanisms that allow cells in the plant meristem to coordinate tissue-wide maturation gradients with specialized cell networks are critical for indeterminate growth. Here, we reconstructed the protophloem developmental trajectory of 19 cells from cell birth to terminal differentiation at single cell resolution in the Arabidopsis root. We found...
Article
Full-text available
Plant grafting, the ancient practice of cutting and joining different plants, is gaining popularity as an elegant way to generate chimeras that combine desirable traits. Grafting was originally developed in woody species, but the technique has evolved over the past century to now encompass a large number of herbaceous species. The use of plant graf...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cotyledon micrografting represents a useful tool for studying the central role of cotyledons during early plant development, especially their interplay with other plant organs with regard to long distance transport. While hypocotyl micrografting methods are well-established, cotyledon micrografting is still inefficient. By optimizing c...
Article
Full-text available
Multicellular organisms rely on the movement of signaling molecules across cells, tissues, and organs to communicate among distal sites. In plants, localized leaf damage activates jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent transcriptional reprogramming in both harmed and unharmed tissues. Although it has been indicated that JA species can translocate from damage...
Article
Full-text available
The capacity of organisms to tune their development in response to environmental cues is pervasive in nature. This phenotypic plasticity is particularly striking in plants, enabled by their modular and continuous development. A good example is the activation of lateral shoot branches in Arabidopsis, which develop from axillary meristems at the base...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multicellular organisms rely upon the movement of signaling molecules across cells, tissues and organs to communicate among distal sites. In plants, herbivorous insects, necrotrophic pathogens and mechanical wounding stimulate the activation of the jasmonate (JA) pathway, which in turn triggers the transcriptional changes necessary to protect plant...
Article
Full-text available
Apical growth in plants initiates upon seed germination, whereas radial growth is primed only during early ontogenesis in procambium cells and activated later by the vascular cambium¹. Although it is not known how radial growth is organized and regulated in plants, this system resembles the developmental competence observed in some animal systems,...
Article
Parasitic plants are widespread pathogens that infect numerous plant species and cause devastating agricultural losses. They efficiently withdraw water, nutrients and sugars from their hosts by fusing tissues and connecting their vasculature to the host vasculature. This ability to parasitize is found in a wide range of species and has evolved at l...
Article
Full-text available
he ability for cut tissues to join and form a chimeric organism is a remarkable property of many plants; however, grafting is poorly characterized at the molecular level. To better understand this process, we monitored genome-wide gene expression changes in grafted Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls. We observed a sequential activation of genes associ...
Article
Full-text available
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is responsible for the generation of all the aerial parts of plants. Given its critical role, dynamical changes in SAM activity should play a central role in the adaptation of plant architecture to the environment. Using quantitative microscopy, grafting experiments, and genetic perturbations, we connect the plant en...
Article
The cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) regulate diverse cellular processes in all eukaryotes. CRL activity is controlled by several proteins or protein complexes, including NEDD8, CAND1, and the CSN Recently, a mammalian protein called Glomulin (GLMN) was shown to inhibit CRLs by binding to the RING BOX (RBX1) subunit and preventing binding to the ubiqu...
Article
Full-text available
For millennia, people have cut and joined different plant tissues together through a process known as grafting. By creating a chimeric organism, desirable properties from two plants combine to enhance disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, vigour or facilitate the asexual propagation of plants. In addition, grafting has been extremely inform...
Chapter
Generating chimeric organisms is an invaluable way to study cell-to-cell movement and non-cell-autonomous actions of molecules. Plant grafting is an ancient method of generating chimeric organisms and recently has been used to study the movement of hormones, proteins, and RNAs. Here, I describe a simple and efficient way to graft Arabidopsis thalia...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ability for cut tissues to join together and form a chimeric organism is a remarkable property of many plants, however, grafting is poorly characterized at the molecular level. To better understand this process we monitored genome-wide temporal and spatial gene expression changes in grafted Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls. Tissues above and bel...
Preprint
Full-text available
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is responsible for the generation of all of the aerial parts of plants ¹ . Given its critical role, dynamical changes in SAM activity should play a central role in the adaptation of plant architecture to the environment ² . Using quantitative microscopy, grafting experiments and genetic perturbations, we connect the...
Article
Full-text available
Parasitic plants share a common anatomical feature, the haustorium. Haustoria enable both infection and nutrient transfer, which often leads to growth penalties for host plants and yield reduction in crop species. Haustoria also reciprocally transfer substances, such as RNA and proteins, from parasite to host, but the biological relevance for such...
Chapter
Plants have a remarkable ability to regenerate vascular tissue after damage or wounding. A striking example of this phenomenon is the cutting and rejoining of plants during the process of grafting, which humans have used for millennia. Here, I describe how to graft Arabidopsis seedlings and how to monitor the vascular reconnection process during wo...
Article
Full-text available
For millennia, people have cut and joined different plants together through a process known as grafting. The severed tissues adhere, the cells divide and the vasculature differentiates through a remarkable process of regeneration between two genetically distinct organisms as they become one. Grafting is becoming increasingly important in horticultu...
Article
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: The plant vasculature transports water, sugars, hormones, RNAs and proteins. Such critical functions need to be protected from attack by pests and pathogens or from damage by wounding. Plants have developed mechanisms to repair vasculature when such protections fail and to even initiate new vasc...
Article
Full-text available
RNA silencing at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels regulates endogenous gene expression, controls invading transposable elements (TEs), and protects the cell against viruses. Key components of the mechanism are small RNAs (sRNAs) of 21-24 nt that guide the silencing machinery to their nucleic acid targets in a nucleotide sequence-s...
Article
Full-text available
Higher plant vasculature is characterized by two distinct developmental phases. Initially, a well-defined radial primary pattern is established. In eudicots, this is followed by secondary growth, which involves development of the cambium and is required for efficient water and nutrient transport and wood formation. Regulation of secondary growth in...
Article
Full-text available
Auxin produced by an active primary shoot apex is transported down the main stem and inhibits the growth of the axillary buds below it, contributing to apical dominance. Here we use Arabidopsis thaliana cytokinin (CK) biosynthetic and signalling mutants to probe the role of CK in this process. It is well established that bud outgrowth is promoted b...
Article
Plant grafting is a biologically important phenomenon involving the physical joining of two plants to generate a chimeric organism. It is widely practiced in horticulture and used in science to study the long-distance movement of molecules. Despite its widespread use, the mechanism of graft formation and vascular reconnection is not well understood...
Article
Since ancient times, people have cut and joined together plants of different varieties or species so they would grow as a single plant - a process known as grafting (Figures 1 and 2). References to grafting appear in the Bible, ancient Greek and ancient Chinese texts, indicating that grafting was practised in Europe, the Middle East and Asia by at...
Chapter
The discovery of RNA silencing has greatly expanded the understanding of gene regulation. Present in nearly all Eukaryotes, RNA silencing has emerged as a potent method to regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Some of the earliest observations and discoveries associated with RNA silencing were made in plan...
Article
Full-text available
In plants, RNA silencing is a fundamental regulator of gene expression, heterochromatin formation, suppression of transposable elements, and defense against viruses. The sequence specificity of these processes relies on small noncoding RNA (sRNA) molecules. Although the spreading of RNA silencing across the plant has been recognized for nearly two...
Article
RNA silencing in flowering plants generates a signal that moves between cells and through the phloem [1, 2]. Nucleotide sequence specificity of the signal is conferred by 21, 22, and 24 nucleotide (nt) sRNAs that are generated by Dicer-like (DCL) proteins [3]. In the recipient cells these sRNAs bind to Argonaute (AGO) effectors of silencing and the...
Article
Full-text available
In most eukaryotes, double-stranded RNA is processed into small RNAs that are potent regulators of gene expression. This gene silencing process is known as RNA silencing or RNA interference (RNAi) and, in plants and nematodes, it is associated with the production of a mobile signal that can travel from cell-to-cell and over long distances. The sequ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research shows that short RNA molecules act as mobile signals that direct mRNA cleavage and DNA methylation in recipient cells.
Article
Full-text available
JMJ14 is a histone H3 Lys4 (H3K4) trimethyl demethylase that affects mobile RNA silencing in an Arabidopsis transgene system. It also influences CHH DNA methylation, abundance of endogenous transposon transcripts, and flowering time. JMJ14 acts at a point in RNA silencing pathways that is downstream from RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2) and Ar...
Article
To understand how DNA sequence is translated to phenotype we must understand the epigenetic features that regulate gene expression. Recent research illuminates the complex interactions between DNA methylation, small RNAs, silencing of transposable elements, and genomic imprinting in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed. These studies suggest...
Article
A silencing signal in plants with an RNA specificity determinant moves through plasmodesmata and the phloem. To identify the mobile RNA, we grafted Arabidopsis thaliana shoots to roots that would be a recipient for the silencing signal. Using mutants that block small RNA (sRNA) biogenesis in either source or recipient tissue, we found that transgen...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to dietary wheat proteins in genetically susceptible individuals has been associated with increased risk for the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Recently, a wheat protein encoded by cDNA WP5212 has been shown to be antigenic in mice, rats and humans with autoimmune T1D. To investigate the genomic origin of the identified wheat protei...
Data
Summary of ESTs resulting from Triticum BLAST analysis. A table providing information about all of the available wheat EST sequences that have similarities to Glo-3 sequence.
Data
Glo-3 gene specific primers designed using consensus sequences from Glo-3A, Glo-3B, Glo-3C, full length Beg1 (barley), maize Glb1 (M24845) and cDNA clone WP5212. The list of all of the primers used for sequencing.
Data
Putative cis elements present in the promoter sequence of Glo-3A. A table listing all of the cis elements present within Glo-3A promoter sequence.
Article
Endosperm texture in wheat is controlled by the Pina and Pinb genes that comprise the Hardness (Ha) locus. Studies have shown that soft and hard varieties differ in the amount of starch bound polar lipids but have not addressed whether PINs are directly involved and whether the presence of one particular PIN affects seed polar lipid levels and cell...
Article
Full-text available
Most eukaryotes produce small RNA (sRNA) mediators of gene silencing that bind to Argonaute proteins and guide them, by base pairing, to an RNA target. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) that normally target messenger RNAs for degradation or translational arrest are the best-understood class of sRNAs. However, in Arabidopsis thaliana flowers, miRNAs account for on...