Charles M Judd

Charles M Judd
University of Colorado Boulder | CUB · Department of Psychology and Neuroscience

About

216
Publications
165,339
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32,038
Citations
Citations since 2016
25 Research Items
12637 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000

Publications

Publications (216)
Article
One of the most difficult and important decisions in power analysis involves specifying an effect size. Researchers frequently employ definitions of small, medium, and large that were proposed by Jacob Cohen. These definitions are problematic for two reasons. First, they are arbitrary, based on non-scientific criteria. Second, they are inconsistent...
Article
Theories of social perception argue that there are two underlying dimensions of social judgment, variously labeled competence/agency and warmth/communality. How these relate to each other has been the focus of extensive empirical work with research showing both a ‘halo” relation (targets rated more positively on one dimension are rated more positiv...
Article
Full-text available
Repeated investigations of the same phenomenon typically yield effect sizes that vary more than one would expect from sampling error alone. Such variation is even found in exact replication studies, suggesting that it is not only because of identifiable moderators but also to subtler random variation across studies. Such heterogeneity of effect siz...
Article
In light of current concerns with replicability and reporting false-positive effects in psychology, we examine Type I errors and power associated with 2 distinct approaches for the assessment of mediation, namely the component approach (testing individual parameter estimates in the model) and the index approach (testing a single mediational index)....
Article
Full-text available
Traditional methods of analyzing data from psychological experiments are based on the assumption that there is a single random factor (normally participants) to which generalization is sought. However, many studies involve at least two random factors (e.g., participants and the targets to which they respond, such as words, pictures, or individuals)...
Article
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We explored the consequences of ignoring the sampling variation due to stimuli in the domain of implicit attitudes. A large literature in psycholinguistics has examined the statistical treatment of random stimulus materials, but the recommendations from this literature have not been applied to the social psychological literature on implicit attitud...
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Two studies examined whether subtle variations in feminine appearance erroneously convey a woman’s likelihood of being a scientist. Eighty photos (half women) of tenured/tenure-track science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) faculty at elite research universities were selected from the Internet. Participants, naïve to the targets’ occupatio...
Article
Group polarization occurs when people's attitudes become more extreme following discussion with like-minded others. We hypothesized that people underestimate how much a relatively brief group discussion polarizes their own attitudes. People often perceive their own attitudes as unbiased and stable over time. Therefore, people's polarized post-discu...
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Research on interethnic relations has focused on two ideologies, asking whether it is best to de-emphasize social-category differences (colorblind) or emphasize and celebrate differences (multicultural). We argue each of these can manifest with negative outgroup evaluations: Assimilationism demands that subordinate groups adopt dominant group norms...
Article
Measurement invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was examined in probability samples of adults 50-79 years of age living in the United States, England, and Japan. Confirmatory factor analysis modeling was used to test for multigroup measurement invariance of a single-factor structure of the SWLS. Results support a single-factor str...
Article
Perceivers usually recognize the faces of members of their own racial group more accurately than the faces of other races --- a difference which is called the Cross-Race Effect (CRE). When showing this effect, research has typically used facial stimuli with neutral emotional expressions. A few studies have examined the effect with faces showing ang...
Chapter
Given a causal hypothesis that one variable X affects another Y, the question of mediation refers to the mechanism that produces that causal affect. A meditational analysis is conducted by identifying plausible mediating variables (M) and controlling for these statistically. The question of moderation is whether a causal effect differs in magnitude...
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An important component of political polarization in the United States is the degree to which ordinary people perceive political polarization. We used over 30 years of national survey data from the American National Election Study to examine how the public perceives political polarization between the Democratic and Republican parties and between Dem...
Article
The current work sought to test the moderating role of a multicultural ideology on the relationship between categorisation salience and ingroup bias. Accordingly, in one experimental study, we manipulated categorisation salience and the accessibility of a multicultural ideology, and measured intergroup attitudes. Results show that categorisation sa...
Article
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Researchers designing experiments in which a sample of participants responds to a sample of stimuli are faced with difficult questions about optimal study design. The conventional procedures of statistical power analysis fail to provide appropriate answers to these questions because they are based on statistical models in which stimuli are not assu...
Article
Three experiments demonstrate that in the context of U.S. foreign policy decision making, people infer informational quality from secrecy. In Experiment 1, people weighed secret information more heavily than public information when making recommendations about foreign political candidates. In Experiment 2, people judged information presented in doc...
Article
In a direct replication, the typical goal is to reproduce a prior experimental result with a new but comparable sample of participants in a high-powered replication study. Often in psychology, the research to be replicated involves a sample of participants responding to a sample of stimuli. In replicating such studies, we argue that the same criter...
Article
Two rather surprising anomalies relating to statistical power occur in testing mediation. First, in a model with no direct effect for which the total effect and indirect effect are identical, the power for the test of the total effect can be dramatically smaller than the power for the test of the indirect effect. Second, when there is a direct effe...
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Full-text available
Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes....
Article
Two experiments demonstrated that power leads to dehumanizing others, adding to our understanding of how power affects interpersonal perception. Undergraduate participants in dyads were assigned to unequal power roles before interacting cooperatively in a mock hiring-task for Experiment 1 and competitively in a game for Experiment 2. After interact...
Article
The study uses data collected in the American National Election Studies between 1970 and 2004 to examine Americans’ perceptions of polarization between Democrats and Republicans. Respondents reported their own attitudes on partisan issues, such as whether the government should increase spending and provide more services, and they estimated the atti...
Article
The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder, u...
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Studies have shown that allowing people to answer questionnaires completely anonymously yields more reports of socially inappropriate attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors, and researchers have often assumed that this is evidence of increased honesty. But such evidence does not demonstrate that reports gathered under completely anonymous conditions are...
Article
This chapter focuses on persuasion and attitude change in negotiation, bargaining, and conflict resolution. Persuasion is defined as the principles and processes by which people's attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors are formed, are modified, or resist change in the face of others' attempts at influence. The authors present an integrative discussion o...
Article
The purpose of this chapter is to set forth a very general approach to data analysis, using multiple regression, that has the flexibility of including all shapes and sizes of independent variables, just as they are studied in social psychology. These independent variables may be manipulated or measured, they may be continuous or discrete, and they...
Article
Measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II) across gender, race, and ethnic groups was evaluated in a large sample of college students, using pooled data from 11 universities from diverse geographical regions in the United States (N = 7,369). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the fit of several possib...
Article
Few empirical studies have investigated the role of sleep impairment in the course of adolescent bipolar spectrum disorders (BSD). The present study examined the longitudinal associations between sleep disruption, mood symptom severity, and psychosocial functioning in a 2-year follow-up of patients with adolescent BSD. Fifty-three adolescents with...
Article
We examined implicit race biases in the decision to shoot potentially hostile targets in a multiethnic context. Results of two studies showed that college‐aged participants and police officers showed anti‐Black racial bias in their response times: they were quicker to correctly shoot armed Black targets and to indicate “don't shoot” for unarmed Lat...
Article
Throughout social and cognitive psychology, participants are routinely asked to respond in some way to experimental stimuli that are thought to represent categories of theoretical interest. For instance, in measures of implicit attitudes, participants are primed with pictures of specific African American and White stimulus persons sampled in some w...
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Full-text available
What influences perceptions of political polarization? The authors examine the polarization of people's own political attitudes as a source of perceived polarization: Individuals with more extreme partisan attitudes perceive greater polarization than individuals with less extreme partisan attitudes. This "polarization projection" was demonstrated i...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to critically review the research conducted on the relationship between intergroup similarity/ dissimilarity and intergroup attitudes and present an integrative explanation for competing theoretical approaches and empirical results. Jetten, Spears and Postmes (2004) found ingroup identification to be the moderator solvi...
Chapter
This chapter investigates perceptions of policy and partisan polarization through the use of an interactive histogram procedure (in which respondents were asked to raise and lower bars to reflect what they perceived to be the distribution of the public on some issue). The chapter discusses how respondents handled this task, as well as the reliabili...
Article
Two studies used a round-robin design to examine whether the observers made consensual judgments of targets' degree and quality of intergroup contact, and whether these consensual judgments were correlated with the targets' own self ratings, and moderated by the observability of the contact. Study 1 revealed projection/assumed similarity, with part...
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The empirical and theoretical literature on group polarization has concentrated on the persuasive arguments and normative positions that one receives from others in group settings. The research that we review in this article suggests that individuals polarize in group discussions in part because they frequently express their own opinions and argume...
Article
Research has found the dimensions of warmth and competence to be subject to a negative relation when two targets are compared, a phenomenon which has been called the compensation effect. However, all the available empirical evidence rests on direct traits ratings. The aim of the present work is to test whether compensation is merely a response stra...
Article
After a rigorous review process, involving a large set of extremely thorough reviews by distinguished experts in social cognition, we are publishing the following article by Daryl J. Bem, entitled "Feeling the Future: Experimental Evidence of Anomalous Retroactive Influences on Cognition and Affect." We have also decided to publish a commentary by...
Article
Research shows that participants shoot armed Blacks more frequently and quickly than armed Whites, but make don't-shoot responses more frequently and quickly for unarmed Whites than unarmed Blacks. We argue that this bias reflects the perception of threat - specifically, threat associated with Black males. Other danger cues (not just race) may crea...
Chapter
In this line of his landmark speech, Martn Luther King Jr expressed the troubling reality faced by thousands of people who are judged by the "color of their skin" instead of by more valid attributes. His reference to a specific, seemingly innocuous physical feature makes the injustice of the situation all the more apparent. Why would anyone use ski...
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Inherarticle“DiversityScience:WhyandHowDif-ference Makes a Difference,” Plaut (this issue) arguesthat social psychology should put a stronger emphasisonsocioculturalnormsthatguidebehaviorandpercep-tion. One such cultural norm is how ethnic and racialdiversity is construed. Plaut discusses colorblind andmulticultural ideologies as distinctly differe...
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In the present chapter we first review research that has identified two fundamental dimensions of social perception. Having defined these two dimensions, we then present the results of a research program conducted to explore the relationship between them. In general, using both experimental and correlational data, we find evidence of a compensation...
Article
The present study used a multi-method, multi-measure, multi-group approach to investigate the discriminant validity of prejudice-related Implicit Association Tests (IATs). Community members from three ethnic/racial groups in the US completed IATs and explicit measures of attitudes toward African Americans and Latinos, with Whites used as the compar...
Article
Social cognition research on social categorization and stereotyping has traditionally assumed that outgroup prejudice follows from stereotyping and the categorization process. Consequently, prejudice reduction strategies typically involve efforts to reduce the salience of category boundaries. Challenging this perspective, this chapter argues that n...
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This research examines the impact of the compensation effect between the fundamental dimensions of warmth and competence on behavioral confirmation. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with 2 groups that varied on 1 of the 2 dimensions and asked to select the questions that they wanted to pose to learn more about the groups. Participants p...
Article
Full-text available
In two experiments the authors examined the effect of vocal cues on warmth and competence judgments when other competing information was concurrently available. In Experiment 1, using male and female speakers posing as job applicants, the authors investigated how applicants' vocal cues and résumé information impacted judgments of competence and war...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies tested whether the boundaries separating groups could be strengthened without increasing intergroup bias. Using a modified minimal group paradigm, the salience of the group distinction was manipulated through instructions that either called attention to the division between the two groups (high salience), or to dimensions orthogonal to...
Book
This completely rewritten classic text features many new examples, insights, and topics including mediational, categorical, and multilevel models. Substantially reorganized, this edition provides a briefer, more streamlined examination of data analysis. Noted for its model comparison approach and unified framework based on the general linear model,...
Article
In two experiments we show that the context in which groups are perceived influences how they are judged in a compensatory manner on the fundamental dimensions of social judgment, that is, warmth and competence. We manipulate the type of country (high in competence and low in warmth vs. high in warmth and low in competence) to which a target countr...
Article
Morphine-induced glial proinflammatory responses have been documented to contribute to tolerance to opioid analgesia. Here, we examined whether drugs previously shown to suppress glial proinflammatory responses can alter other clinically relevant opioid effects; namely, withdrawal or acute analgesia. AV411 (ibudilast) and minocycline, drugs with di...
Article
a b s t r a c t Using the two fundamental dimensions of social judgment, warmth and competence, we show that, con-trary to general models of impression formation, negative information on one dimension has positive consequences on the way a target is judged on the other dimension. Participants learned about two groups which were either congruent on...
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Full-text available
Recent work on the relations between the two dimensions of social judgment, that is, warmth and competence, evidenced compensation such that a group seen more positively than another group on one dimension is seen less positively on the second. The authors examine the status of this compensatory relation by introducing a third dimension in the judg...
Article
Spinal proinflammatory cytokines are powerful pain-enhancing signals that contribute to pain following peripheral nerve injury (neuropathic pain). Recently, one proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1, was also implicated in the loss of analgesia upon repeated morphine exposure (tolerance). In contrast to prior literature, we demonstrate that the a...
Article
Given the dramatic shifts in societal norms to curb overt stereotyping and prejudice, these biases may leak out in more subtle ways than were apparent in the past. Accordingly, we examined how the suppression of stereotypes might affect post-suppression category-based stereotyping and the more subtle feature-based stereotyping. In support of our pr...
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Full-text available
In a simple mediation model, the effect of a manipulated variable X on a dependent variable Y over and above the effect of the mediator Me can be estimated by regressing Y on X and Me. The impact of X on Y in such a model is adjusted for the relationship both between X and Me and between Me and Y. The authors examine the adjustment function in the...
Chapter
Allport's (and Other Early) Views on the Perception of Group DifferencesDevelopments Since Allport: The Study of Actual and Perceived Group DifferencesForms of Inaccuracies in Beliefs about Group DifferencesGroup Differences and Prejudice Reduction