Charles R. Hall

Charles R. Hall
Texas A&M University | TAMU · Department of Horticultural Sciences

Ph.D.

About

185
Publications
54,526
Reads
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2,023
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2007 - present
Texas A&M University
Position
  • Professor & Ellison Chair in International Floriculture
February 2002 - July 2007
University of Tennessee
Position
  • Professor
Education
June 1986 - December 1988
Mississippi State University
Field of study
  • Agricultural Economics
August 1984 - May 1986
University of Tennessee
Field of study
  • Ornamental Horticulture & Landscape Design
August 1980 - May 1984
University of Tennessee
Field of study
  • Agricultural Economics

Publications

Publications (185)
Article
Variation in floral characteristics and growth habits within the native range of the North American wildflower Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Wooton & Standl. suggests potential for breeding and selection efforts to develop improved cultivars for commercial and residential landscapes. Experiments in seed propagation were performed to enable perpetuat...
Article
Variation in floral characteristics and growth habits within the native range of the North American wildflower Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Wooton & Standl. suggest potential for breeding and selection efforts to develop improved cultivars for commercial and residential landscapes. Toward that end, experiments in vegetative propagation were perform...
Article
Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) are deployed in nursery and greenhouse water retention reservoirs to help manage and mitigate nutrient contaminants within irrigation return flow. One management issue for FTWs is the need for plant harvest to avoid releasing nutrients back into the water column when plant tissues begin to senesce. Some researcher...
Article
Plant purchases experienced a surge during the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine of 2020. Researchers used an online survey instrument completed by 1,211 U.S. respondents to investigate the diverse motivations for making plant purchases. Researchers compared three age cohorts to understand which plant benefits they derived from their plant purchases. Mi...
Article
Conjoint analysis can be used to simultaneously investigate consumer preferences on multiple attributes and levels. Our objective was to gain insight regarding consumer preferences for attributes and levels attributed to Ratibida columnifera , a wildflower of potential commercial interest. A ratings-based conjoint analysis using petal color (bicolo...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to examine the changes in the sales of boxwood (Buxus spp.) that have occurred in boxwood production states. We theorize that some of the shifts in production areas over the period from 2009 to 2019 have been impacted by the introduction of boxwood blight into the United States. Boxwood blight (Calonectria pseudonavicul...
Article
As a result of the latest economic recession (2007 to 2009), the U.S. green industry suffered significant economic losses, leading to major industry structural changes. To be competitive and effectively manage risk, nursery and greenhouse operators need reliable and up-to-date information. However, the availability of such data from federal governm...
Article
This study is a continuation of the series of summaries by the Green Industry Research Consortium examining the regional trade flows in the U.S. nursery industry. This detailed analysis of green industry regional trade flows in eight U.S. regions compares 2018 data with those of the 2008 and 2013 national survey estimates of origin and destination...
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This paper examines the impact of intrinsic consumer attributes on decision consistency in houseplant purchasing intentions. Subjects reported their likelihood to buy (LTB) for themselves and as a gift at perceived bargain and getting expensive price levels. The sample was analyzed according to those who switched their LTB ratings to relatively low...
Article
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Flower species is one of the key determinants of the aesthetic and economic value of floral products. This research study sought to evaluate whether consumer perceptions of the aesthetic appeal and monetary valuations of floral arrangements change by substituting high-cost species with low-cost species of similar appearance. In addition, the resear...
Article
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As more of the U.S. population urbanizes, freshwater resources will become more partitioned and scarcer. Live plants need water to become established and survive, but water demands vary by taxa. Additionally, outdoor household water use is becoming a greater target for watering restrictions, particularly landscape irrigation. Yet, how important is...
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The goal of this study was to better understand consumers' likelihood to buy a plant when the word “sale” was presented in red font on a white sign, with a range of font sizes, showing an equivalent discounted price in three ways (dollar amount, 25% percent off, and buy-3-get-1-free), with the sale sign location either on the left or right side of...
Article
The economic contributions of the green industry in the United States were estimated for 2018 using information on industry employment and wages, and economic multipliers from a U.S. IMPLAN economic model. Direct industry output for all sectors was estimated at $159.57 billion (B), and total output contributions, including indirect and induced regi...
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This paper provides an overview of the key resources available to green industry firms that provide evidence of the health and well-being benefits associated with plants and improved landscaped areas and how they influence the physiological, psychological, cognitive, and social well-being constructs affecting quality of life. These benefits may per...
Conference Paper
Three taxa of trees, Vitex agnus-castus L. (an unnamed white flowering clone), Acer rubrum L. var. drummondii (Hook. & Arn. ex Nutt.) Sarg. ‘Maroon’, and Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. (test clone TX8DD38) were propagated clonally in a sequential manner over two growing seasons and transplanted to consecutively larger containers to obtain five diffe...
Article
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This paper provides evidence from the literature regarding the social benefits associated with plants and how they influence the physiological, psychological, and cognitive well-being constructs affecting quality of life. These benefits are segmented and discussed using the following categories: place or community attachment, reduced crime, disaste...
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Understanding human behavior is a complicated and complex endeavor. Academicians and practitioners need to understand the underlying beliefs and motivations to identify current trends and to effectively develop means of communication and education that encourage change in attitudes and behavior. Sociological research can provide information about h...
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Nursery, floriculture, and propagation production accounted for 79% ($13.3 Billion) of 2017 ornamental specialty crop production in the United States. Access to high quality water sources is increasingly limited for irrigating these economically significant crops. Given the production, environmental, and economic issues associated with the use of w...
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Activity level, or the amount of action/interaction with a product, can be an indication of interest in a product category and influences purchases. Our goal was to assess the overall market for landscape plants using consumers’ activity level from the active/passive continuum proposed by Pine and Gilmore (2011). An online survey instrument was adm...
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Floriculture value exceeds $5.8 billion in the United States. Environmental challenges, market trends, and diseases complicate breeding priorities. To inform breeders’ and geneticists’ research efforts, we set out to gather consumers’ preferences in the form of willingness to pay (WTP) for different rose attributes in a discrete choice experiment....
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The understanding, calculation, and comparison of water footprint (WF) among specialty crop growers are confounded by geography, species, and process. This study builds on published models of representative plant production systems developed using life cycle assessment. These models include container production using recycled water in the mid-Atlan...
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This paper focused on providing evidence from the literature regarding the physiological health benefits associated with plants, thereby influencing the physiological, psychological, and cognitive well-being constructs affecting quality of life. These benefits are segmented and discussed using the following categories: better sleep, increased birth...
Article
Final Report to the National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Committee. Revised June 3, 2005.
Article
This study analyzed the effects of two ranges of drying down of substrate moisture content (SMC) before re-watering on plant growth and development, postproduction quality, and economic value of bedding plants grown in 1.67-L containers during greenhouse production. The two SMC treatments were wide-range (WR) SMC (WR-SMC) for dry-down from containe...
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Consumers have historically shown an inclination to purchase plants that enhance their quality of life, meaning they will purchase items that positively influence their social, physical, psychological, cognitive, environmental, and spiritual well-being. Plants in native and improved landscapes (and interiorscapes) have been documented to influence...
Article
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In the past few decades, Rose rosette disease (RRD) has spread from its source in western North America through the Mid-West to the East coast. It now threatens to decimate the US rose industry. Garden roses, which form the cornerstone of the multi-billion dollar landscape industry, annually generate wholesale US domestic bare root and container pr...
Article
A model production system for a 15.2-cm poinsettia ( Euphorbia pulcherrima ) in the north Atlantic region of the United States was developed through grower interviews and best management practices and analyzed using a life cycle assessment (LCA). The model system involved direct sticking of unrooted cuttings. The propagation phase was 4 weeks, foll...
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Understanding carbon footprint (CF) terminology and the science underlying its determination is important to minimizing the negative impacts of new product development and assessing positive or negative cradle-to-grave life-cycle impacts. Life cycle assessment has been used to characterize representative field-grown and container-grown landscape pl...
Article
The objective was to determine the effect of substrate moisture content (SMC) during poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) greenhouse production on plant quality, postproduction longevity, and economic value. Two experiments were conducted, one in 2016 with ‘Freedom Red’ and the other in 2017 with ‘Christmas Eve Red’. Treatments included two SMC level...
Article
This article estimates the effects of advertising expenditures on annual gross sales of green industry firms using a quasi-experimental framework. In order to account for potential selection bias, a generalized propensity score and a dose-response function are used to estimate advertising treatment effects. The method used allows us to investigate...
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In the U.S., container plant growers use high-quality water sources which can be expensive. The use of recycled irrigation runoff water could save growers money. The objective of this study was to compare the cost of recycled irrigation water with the cost of untreated municipal water at a nursery in Southern California over multiple years. Water c...
Article
Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to analyze the production system components of a 20-cm Chrysanthemum grown for the fall market in the north Atlanta region of the United States. The model system consisted of 2 weeks of mist in a greenhouse followed by 9 weeks on an outdoor gravel bed equipped with drip irrigation. The carbon footprint, or globa...
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The strain on potable water supplies heightens the competition for water resources and potentially reduces the demand for outdoor plantings and landscaping. We conducted an online survey with 1543 respondents in 2016 to ascertain their water conservation and plant expertise, their involvement in water conservation and plant issues, and the importan...
Article
Retail environments are rarely optimal for ornamental plants, and wilting caused by water stress is a major cause of postproduction shrinkage. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of two levels of substrate moisture content (SMC) applied during greenhouse production on angelonia (Angelonia angustifolia) ‘Angelface Blue’ and helio...
Article
Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to analyze the global warming potential (GWP) and variable costs of production system components for an 11.4-cm container of wax begonia (Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum Hort) modeled in a gutter-connected, Dutch-style greenhouse with natural ventilation in the northeastern United States. A life cycle inventory...
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Buying impulsiveness is frequently triggered by point-of-sale information. In order to impact consumer behavior, this information must be visually noticed. In this study, researchers propose that consumers’ level of buying impulsiveness impacts their visual attention to point-of-sale information (i.e., signs, displays). Specifically, individuals sc...
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Water is becoming scarcer as world population increases and will be allocated among competing uses. Some of that water will go toward sustaining human life, but some will be needed to install and support landscape plants. Thus, future water resource availability may literally change the American landscape. Recent research suggests that consumers’ a...
Article
Horticultural crop producers and marketers are increasingly adopting sustainable practices. A sustainable system is often described as being environmentally, economically, and socially sustainable. With a maturing nursery industry, economic sustainability is important and the industry has traditionally sought ways to minimize environmental impacts...
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In the coming decades, no natural resource may prove to be more critical to human health and well-being than water. There is abundant evidence that the condition of water resources in many parts of the United States is deteriorating. In some regions of the country, the availability of sufficient water to meet growing domestic uses, and the future s...
Article
With increasing market potential due to consumer interest in locally sourced foods, state marketing promotional campaigns are becoming increasingly popular. We quantify consumers’ perceptions of local production benefits and assess the impact of Florida's state agricultural promotional campaign on consumer preferences for and visual attention to fr...
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The self-control literature suggests two main short-run models with contradictory predictions. By perceiving self-control as a knowledge or perishable resource, those models report a positive and negative impact, respectively, of an initial self-control act on subsequent self-control ability. Using biometric data to monitor compliance enabled us to...
Article
The components for two production systems for young foliage plants in 72-count propagation trays were analyzed using life cycle assessment (LCA) procedures. The systems differed by greenhouse type, bench size and arrangement, rainwater capture, and irrigation/fertilization methods. System A was modeled as a gutter-connected, rounded-arch greenhouse...
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Recent declines in pollinator populations have led to widespread concern due to their impact on food/crop production and the environment. Contrary to growing interest in the use of insecticides in urban landscapes, the relationship between pollinator-related eco-labels, visual attention, and preferences for plants is less understood. The present st...
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The benefits and costs of varying container sizes have yet to be fully evaluated to determine which container size affords the most advantageous opportunity for consumers. To determine value of the tree following transplant, clonal replicates of Vitex agnus-castus L. [Chaste Tree], Acer rubrum L. var. drummondii (Hook. & Arn. ex Nutt.) Sarg. [Drumm...
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Brands differentiate products from each other and help create the perception of added value. They influence product choice at the point of purchase with >70% of all buying decisions made in the store. Brands are often one of a few pieces of information consumers use to make product choices. Prior research showed that consumers had a greater likelih...
Article
Three scenarios for production of Buxus microphylla var. japonica [(Mull. Arg.) Rehder & E.H. Wilson] ‘Green Beauty’ marketed in a no. 3 container on the west coast of the United States were modeled based on grower interviews and best management practices. Life cycle inventories (LCIs) of input products, equipment use, and labor were developed from...
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Uncertainty about the cost of water treatment is a potential barrier to adoption of irrigation treatment and recycling. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost of irrigation-water filtration and sanitation based on a survey of 11 greenhouse operations. Screen filtration of ebb-and-flood irrigation water cost ($0.02–$0.17 per 1000 gal)...
Article
The strategic value of organic production and origin promotions may vary based on product end-use. Conjoint analysis and eye-tracking technology were used to investigate consumers’ purchase likelihood (PL) and visual search behavior for esthetic and food-producing ornamental plants. Organic production methods, in-state, and domestic origins positiv...
Article
The floral industry has experienced declining sales in the past few decades, causing many to speculate as to the underlying causes. To identify consumers’ spending patterns for fresh flowers and potted plants, we extracted and analyzed quarterly expenditure interview data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey, 1996 to 2013. Our analysis revealed con...
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The production components of an evergreen shrub (Ilex crenata ‘Bennett’s Compacta’) grown in a no.3 container in an east coast U.S.nursery were analyzed for their costs and contributions to carbon footprint, as well as the product impact in the landscape throughout its life cycle.A life cycle inventory was conducted of input materials, equipment us...
Article
Every industry undergoes changes, but structural changes can abruptly and radically alter business for many firms in that industry. Identifying the substantial shifts in the green industry with regard to consumer spending can help the industry better understand its history. Using an econometric model of that same consumer spending data to look forw...
Article
The objective of this study was to examine the differences in global warming potential (GWP) and variable cost structure of a 5-cm-caliper red maple tree grown using two alternative production methods including a traditional field [balled and burlapped (BNB)] production system and a containerized, pot-in-pot (PIP) production system. Feedback from n...
Article
Crop shrinkage represents the difference between the value or unit number of crops planted versus crops sold. Our objective in this pilot study was to benchmark three broad categories of crop losses, including internal production losses, unsold product, and credits on shipped product. Surveyed growers provided more detailed loss codes within these...
Article
This study summarizes regional trade flows in the U.S. nursery industry by incorporating origin and destination (OD) sales data from a national survey of ornamental plant growers and dealers conducted in 2014. Specifically, we discuss: 1) regional annual sales reported by the green industry firms in 2013, 2) percentage distribution of OD trade flow...
Article
Eye-tracking was used to identify potential location ‘premiums’ in discrete choice experiments for certain positions in the computer screen in terms of increasing the visibility, general interest and attention of respondents. The search dynamics to choose the optimal alternative closely resembled the natural process of reading in a ‘Z’ motion going...
Article
In order to compare the effect of polarization on linear sampling method, a comprehensive comparison is carried out. Several recoveries based on TE and TM polarization are done and different aspects of linear sampling including minimum number for needed Tx and Rx, optimum value for decision making threshold and resonance phenomena are considered. F...
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A rating-based conjoint experiment combined with eye-tracking analysis was used to investigate the effect of plant attributes on consumer purchase likelihood for indoor foliage plants. The experiment assessed the effects of plant type (Dracaena marginata Lam., Guzmania lingulata, or Spathiphyllum wallisii Regel), volatile organic compound (VOC) rem...
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Researchers received funding for the Specialty Crops Research Initiative (SCRI) Coordinated Agricultural Project “Clean WateR3 —Reduce, Remediate, Recycle—Enhancing Alternative Water Resources Availability and Use to Increase Profitability in Specialty Crops” in September 2014. This project stemmed from a coordinated effort by scientists through a...
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In September 2014, researchers received funding for a SCRI Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) entitled “Clean WateR3—Reduce, Remediate, Recycle Enhancing Alternative Water Resources Availability and Use to Increase Profitability in Specialty Crops.” This project was initiated as a coordinated effort among a number of scientists through a multis...
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Sustainability is one of the most important topics facing today's Green Industry. Consumers are increasingly savvy, but previous studies have shown some misperceptions concerning new terminology in the agricultural lexicon. With the recent focus on water issues in large portions of the United States, water conservation is a facet of sustainability...
Article
A national survey of 32,000 U.S. ornamental plant grower and dealer-retail firms was conducted to collect information on business practices and operating results for calendar year 2013. A total of 2,657 valid respondent firms reported annual sales of $3.957 billion, and employment of 38,657 fulltime, part-time, seasonal and foreign H2A workers. Abo...
Article
Component input materials and activities of a model pot-in-pot (PIP) production system were analyzed using life cycle assessment methods. The impact of each component on global warming potential (GWP; kilograms of CO2-equivalent), or carbon footprint, and variable production costs was determined for a 5 cm caliper Acer rubrum L. ‘October Glory’ in...
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Due to cut flowers perishable nature, postharvest longevity and quality are very important traits to consumers. One means of communicating quality to consumers is through the use of guarantees. The aim of the present study was to investigate the importance of guarantees for different occasions and retail outlets. A survey was used to investigate co...
Article
The relationship between consumers' environmental concerns (EC) and willingness to pay (WTP) for sustainable plant attributes was investigated using 2012 data from a representative panel of US and Canadian consumers. The study linked three orientations of the EC scale (egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric) to WTP premiums for plant attributes such...
Article
Federal regulation of terms like local and organic ensure consistency in the marketplace, but unregulated terms such as eco-friendly and sustainable vary widely in use. A survey of representative US and Canadian consumers with questions including demographic, purchasing behavior, and attitude questions revealed varying perceptions of local, organic...
Article
Experimental auctions were employed to investigate U.S. and Canadian consumers’ willingness to pay for sustainable attributes in plants. The results show consumers are willing to pay a price premium for energy and water savings in plant production of $0.15 and $0.12, respectively. Consumers are only willing to pay $0.08 more for sustainably labeled...
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Common marketing strategies include emphasizing products' "green" or environmentally friendly attributes and characteristics to appeal to a growing market of environmentally conscious consumers. While previous studies have used product labels such as "eco-friendly," "environmentally friendly," and "sustainable" to investigate consumer preferences,...
Article
This research uses a life cycle analysis and economic engineering approach to determine the costs and global warming potential (GWP) of production and postproduction practices associated with Taxus ×media ‘Densiformis’, which is often grown using a more capital-intensive regime during the propagative and harvesting stages than the typical field-gro...
Article
Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) studies regarding the global warming potential (GWP) of tree production have shown that the carbon footprint during the cradle-to-grave life cycle of a tree can reduce atmospheric CO2. This study provides another unique contribution to the literature by considering other potential midpoint environmen...
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Plants are often merchandised with minimal packaging; thus, consumers have only the plant (intrinsic cue) or information signs (extrinsic cues) on which to assess the product and base their purchase decision. Our objective was to segment consumers based on their preferences for certain plant display attributes and compare their gaze behavior when v...