Charles Griswold

Charles Griswold
California Academy of Sciences · Department of Entomology

PhD, University of California, Berkeley

About

263
Publications
65,751
Reads
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4,390
Citations
Introduction
Spider taxonomy, including: Revision of Madagascar Udubidae World Phyxelididae World Cyatholipidae World Macrobunidae
Additional affiliations
October 2014 - present
California Academy of Sciences
Position
  • Retired
Description
  • Collaborate, teach and complete research projects
July 2007 - present
University of California, Berkeley
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
June 2006 - December 2015
University of California, Berkeley
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (263)
Article
Full-text available
The Indo-Pacific Phyxelididae, all members of the genus Vytfutia Deeleman-Rein-hold, 1986, are revised. Vytfutia bedel Deeleman-Reinhold, 1986 from Sumatra and Vytfutia pallens Deeleman-Reinhold 1989 from Borneo are redescribed, and V. labalaba, n. sp from Borneo and V. halandrefana, n. sp. from Madagascar are described. Vytfutiini remain in Phyxel...
Article
Full-text available
Leptonetidae are rarely encountered spiders, usually associated with caves and mesic habitats, and are disjunctly distributed across the Holarctic. Data from ultraconserved elements (UCEs) were used in concatenated and coalescent-based analyses to estimate the phylogenetic history of the family. Our taxon sample included close outgroups, and 90% of...
Article
Full-text available
The common ancestor of spiders likely used silk to line burrows or make simple webs, with specialized spinning organs and aerial webs originating with the evolution of the megadiverse "true spiders" (Araneomorphae). The base of the araneomorph tree also concentrates the greatest number of changes in respiratory structures, a character system whose...
Article
Full-text available
The eight‐eyed haplogyne spider family Plectreuridae Simon, 1893 is one of the oldest of spider families, currently comprising two genera (Kibramoa and Plectreurys), 30 extant species and one subspecies. Plectreuridae have not been rigorously examined since 1958, with only three new species added to Plectreurys. This study revisited a subset of tax...
Article
Full-text available
Aim As a continental island, much of the biota of New Zealand was initially thought to have been shaped by vicariance. Recent studies, however, have highlighted the role of dispersal, with some even suggesting that the entire biota is the product of dispersal events following emergence of the islands. This study focuses on the interplay between dis...
Article
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The new zoropsid spider genus Chinja Polotow & Griswold is diagnosed and described and the following two new species are described: C. chinja sp. nov. and C. scharffi sp. nov. The species were collected in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and appear to be endemic to this region. The genus belongs to the oval-calamistrum clade (OC Clade), which...
Article
Full-text available
Silk is the most recognizable trait of spiders, and silk use has changed throughout spider evolutionary history. While morphology of the adult silk spigot has been a useful character for systematics, few studies have examined the ontogeny of the spinning apparatus, and none of these included cribellate spiders. Here, we report the first published f...
Article
Spiders may be good models for studying the evolution of genitalia given their peculiar copulatory mechanism. Gnaphosidae, in particular, have remarkable diversity in copulatory apparatus. The family contains species with bipartite and tripartite palps. Previous studies suggest intermediate palp complexity as the ancestral condition, with an evolut...
Article
Full-text available
Spiders are well known for their silk and its varying use across taxa. Very few studies have examined the silk spigot ontogeny of the entire spinning field of a spider. Historically the spider phylogeny was based on morphological data and behavioral data associated with silk. Recent phylogenomics studies have shifted major paradigms in our understa...
Data
Full ontogeny dataset of twenty-two species comprising thirteen spider families This includes average numbers of each spigot for each instar, as well as categorical data of foraging strategies, silk used, maximum number of instars and a score of the diversity of silk spigots each species possesses. 1, Wąsowska, 1977; 2, Hajer, 1991; 3, RE Alfaro, 2...
Data
Model selection results for modes of evolution AICc and ΔAICc values for Model Selection for modes of evolution for PGLS Model, using Instar as the predictor variable, as Model Selection found Instar to be most important or significantly most important.
Data
Model selection AICc and ΔAICc results for all independent variables AICc and ΔAICc values for all model iterations for each independent variable, by response variable.
Data
PGLS results for Female data Full results of the PGLS and ANOVA analyses of adult female spigot numbers.
Data
Scaled likelihood values for the nodes on each ACE phylogram The scaled likelihoods of each possible character state at each node, starting from the root towards to the tips. These correspond to the pie charts at each node in Fig. 3. Scaled likelihood at the nodes for each of the ancestral character state estimation analyses for the four independen...
Data
Females dataset Raw data for adult Female spigot numbers, as well as the categorical codes for the independent variables: Foraging, Specific, Instar, Type, and Silk.
Data
Second Instars dataset Raw data for second instar spiderling numbers, as well as the categorical codes for the independent variables: Foraging, Specific, Instar, Type, and Silk.
Data
PGLS results for Second Instar data Full results of the PGLS and ANOVA analyses of second instar spigot numbers.
Data
Substitution rate matrices for ACE of independent variables The substitution rate matrices for the four independent variables: Foraging (foraging strategy), Specific (specific foraging strategy), Silk (main type of silk used), and Type (variety of spigot types possessed) used as the models for the ancestral character estimation analyses. The rows a...
Data
Final R codes All R codes for tests for phylogenetic signal, model selection, PGLS analyses, ACE analyses and creating and labelling the resulting phylograms.
Article
Gnaphosidae Pocock are a very diverse spider family with remarkable spinning organ morphology. Although the family has received intense taxonomic attention in recent years, its intergeneric relationships remain obscure. A phylogenetic analysis of Gnaphosidae genera was performed to untangle the evolutionary history of the family. A matrix of 324 mo...
Article
Full-text available
Rapa Nui is one of the most remote islands in the world. As a young island, its biota is a consequence of both natural dispersals over the last ~1 million years and recent human introductions. It therefore provides an opportunity to study a unique community assemblage. Here, we extract DNA from museum-preserved and newly field-collected spiders fro...
Article
The family Drymusidae includes 16 cryptic spiders that build irregular webs in dark places. The family is distributed in South Africa, the Neotropical and Andean regions. Here, we use a molecular approach to infer the relationships of Drymusidae using three mitochondrial (COI, 16S, 12S) and three nuclear (H3, 28S, 18S) markers. Our preferred analys...
Article
Full-text available
The fauna of Udubidae and Zoropsidae of Sri Lanka is reviewed, the families are diagnosed and a distribution map is provided. The udubid genus Campostichomma Karsch, 1892 is diagnosed and redescribed, C. manicatum Karsch, 1892 is redescribed, and we propose three new species, based on females: C. harasbedda sp. nov., C. mudduk sp. nov. and C. alawa...
Article
Full-text available
The tip of the legs concentrates the interactions that a spider has with the substrate where it lives. We review the morphology and evolution of spider feet, discussing the functional anatomy of their articulations and proposing a coherent terminology. All spiders consistently have two tendons to operate their feet and show a stereotyped sequence o...
Article
Full-text available
We present a phylogenetic analysis of spiders using a dataset of 932 spider species, representing 115 families (only the family Synaphridae is unrepresented), 700 known genera, and additional representatives of 26 unidentified or undescribed genera. Eleven genera of the orders Amblypygi, Palpigradi, Schizomida and Uropygi are included as outgroups....
Article
Full-text available
The American gnaphosid genus Apopyllus Platnick & Shadab is found from southern Mexico to southern Argentina. It can be diagnosed by the complex shape of the RTA, by the membranous tegular extension, the long coiled embolus, the retrolateral incision on the cymbium, the long convoluted copulatory duct extending anteriorly to the copulatory openings...
Article
Full-text available
We test the limits of the spider superfamily Araneoidea and reconstruct its interfamilial relationships using standard molecular markers. The taxon sample (363 terminals) comprises for the first time representatives of all araneoid families, including the first molecular data of the family Synaphridae. We use the resulting phylogenetic framework to...
Article
Small animals possess intriguing morphological and behavioral traits that allow them to capture prey, including innovative structural mechanisms that produce ballistic movements by amplifying power [1-6]. Power amplification occurs when an organism produces a relatively high power output by releasing slowly stored energy almost instantaneously, res...
Article
We evaluate the phylogenetic and biogeographical relationships of the members of the family Pettalidae (Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi), a textbook example of an ancient temperate Gondwanan taxon, by means of DNA sequence data from four markers. Taxon sampling is optimized to cover more than 70% of the described species in the family, with 117 ingroup sp...
Article
Full-text available
Spiders (Order Araneae) are massively abundant generalist arthropod predators that are found in nearly every ecosystem on the planet and have persisted for over 380 million years. Spiders have long served as evolutionary models for studying complex mating and web spinning behaviors, key innovation and adaptive radiation hypotheses, and have been in...
Data
Clustering/heatmap analysis depicting degree of shared data between each species pair Missing data reduction (matrix 3, Table 2). Degree of positive data overlap indicated by a color-coded heatmap (yellow = low, red = high); species order from right to left in the same order as listed from top to bottom on right side of figure. Lack of phylogenetic...
Data
Clustering/heatmap analysis depicting degree of shared data between each species pair Missing data reduction (matrix 2, Table 2). Degree of positive data overlap indicated by a color-coded heatmap (yellow = low, red = high); species order from right to left in the same order as listed from top to bottom on right side of figure. Lack of phylogenetic...
Data
Clustering/heatmap analysis depicting degree of shared data between each species pair BaCoCa reduced matrix (matrix 4, Table 2). Degree of positive data overlap indicated by a color-coded heatmap (yellow = low, red = high); species order from right to left in the same order as listed from top to bottom on right side of figure. Lack of phylogenetic...
Data
Clustering/heatmap analysis depicting degree of shared data between each species pair Full spider ortholog matrix (matrix 1, Table 2). Degree of positive data overlap indicated by a color-coded heatmap (yellow = low, red = high); species order from right to left in the same order as listed from top to bottom on right side of figure. Lack of phyloge...
Data
Clustering/heatmap analysis depicting degree of shared data between each species pair MARE matrix (matrix 7, Table 2). Degree of positive data overlap indicated by a color-coded heatmap (yellow = low, red = high); species order from right to left in the same order as listed from top to bottom on right side of figure. Lack of phylogenetic clustering...
Data
Gene occupancy of matrix 3 (see Table 2) Colored squares represent partitions present in matrix for each OTU (y-axis, in descending order of OTU representation from bottom to top) and each partition or gene (x-axis, in descending order of partition representation from left to right).
Data
Gene occupancy of matrix 7 (see Table 2) Colored squares represent partitions present in matrix for each OTU (y-axis, in descending order of OTU representation from bottom to top) and each partition or gene (x-axis, in descending order of partition representation from left to right).
Data
Gene occupancy of matrix 5 (see Table 2) Colored squares represent partitions present in matrix for each OTU (y-axis, in descending order of OTU representation from bottom to top) and each partition or gene (x-axis, in descending order of partition representation from left to right).
Data
Graph Level 2 Pie Chart of Molecular Function Gene Ontology molecular functions, levels 2 for OGs shared by Arthropod and Spider Core sets. Figures generated by Blast2GO analysis.
Data
Latex source for supplemental material—including figure legends and Tables 1 and 2
Data
Supplemental Table 3 Spider Core Ortholog Annotations. BLASTP (top hit, evalue 1E–10) of Spider Core OGs found in reference taxon (Acanthoscurria geniculata) against either (1) custom BLAST database of Stegodyphus mimosarum proteins downloaded from GenBank (BioProject Accession PRJNA222714; 27,135 protein sequences) or (2) nr, the non-redundant pro...
Data
Clustering/heatmap analysis depicting degree of shared data between each species pair Arthropod core ortholog matrix (matrix 5, Table 2). Degree of positive data overlap indicated by a color-coded heatmap (yellow = low, red = high); species order from right to left in the same order as listed from top to bottom on right side of figure. Lack of phyl...
Data
Gene occupancy of matrix 1 (see Table 2) Colored squares represent partitions present in matrix for each OTU (x-axis, in descending order of OTU representation from left to right) and each partition or gene (y-axis, in ascending order of partition representation).
Data
Gene occupancy of matrix 2 (see Table 2) Colored squares represent partitions present in matrix for each OTU (x-axis, in descending order of OTU representation from left to right) and each partition or gene (y-axis, in ascending order of partition representation). Figure
Data
Gene occupancy of matrix 4 (see Table 2) Colored squares represent partitions present in matrix for each OTU (y-axis, in descending order of OTU representation from bottom to top) and each partition or gene (x-axis, in descending order of partition representation from left to right).
Data
Graph Level 3 Pie Chart of Molecular Function Gene Ontology molecular functions, level 3 for OGs shared by Arthropod and Spider Core sets. Figures generated by Blast2GO analysis.
Data
Supplemental figures with legends (Table 2 omitted due to length)
Article
Full-text available
Spiders (Order Araneae) are massively abundant generalist arthropod predators that are found in nearly every ecosystem on the planet and have persisted for over 380 million years. Spiders have long served as evolutionary models for studying complex mating and web spinning behaviors, key innovation and adaptive radiation hypotheses, and have been in...
Article
Spider-hunting wasps Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure, 1867 and T. (Trypargilum) menkeanum Coville, 1982 were studied at the Organization for Tropical Studies fi eld station at La Selva, Costa Rica. The wasps nested in trap-nests with tube of 6.4, 8.0, or 9.5 mm diameter. Nest structure, cocoon morphology, and differences between male a...
Article
Full-text available
Four new species of oonopid spiders are described from Madagascar, divided between the genera Silhouettella and Noideattella: S. perismontes, sp. nov., S. perisalma, sp. nov., N. omby, sp. nov., and N. sylvnata, sp. nov. A new diagnosis for Silhouettella is provided, its type species, S. curieusei, from the Seychelles is redescribed, and its morpho...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Emmenomma is revised and now includes three species from Southern Chile, Argentina and Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). The type species Emmenomma oculatum is redescribed and considered a senior synonym of E. beauchenicum. Emmenomma oculatum obscurum is removed from synonymy with E. oculatum, raised to the species level and redescribed;...
Article
Full-text available
A new genus of goblin spider from Madagascar, Volborattella Saucedo and Ubick, is proposed and its five included species newly described and illustrated: V. teresae, the type species, V. guenevera, V. nasario, V. paulyi, and V. toliara. These species differ from other oonopids in several unusual characters, especially the variously modified setae:...
Article
Full-text available
Phylogenetic relationships within the superfamily Lycosoidea are investigated through the coding and analysis of character data derived from morphology, behaviour and DNA sequences. In total, 61 terminal taxa were studied, representing most of the major groups of the RTA-clade (i.e. spiders that have a retrolateral tibial apophysis on the male palp...
Article
Although Madagascar is an ancient fragment of Gondwana, the majority of taxa studied thus far appear to have reached the island through dispersal from Cenozoic times. Ancient lineages may have experienced a different history compared to more recent Cenozoic arrivals, as such lineages would have encountered geoclimatic shifts over an extended time p...
Article
We revise the relationships of the spider genus Cryptothele after reexamination of the morphology of the spinnerets, leg tarsal claws and maxillae with scanning electron microscopy. Cryptothele species have a particular conformation of the spinning field of the anterior lateral spigots that is typical of zodariids and close relatives: the field of...
Chapter
Full-text available
Ilodesmus margaritiferus (Gervais), 1836 is redescribed based on several male and female specimens from Mount Makiling, Laguna Province, Luzon Island, Philippines. Detailed illustrations of the head, antennae, gnathochilarium, mandibles, rings, spiracles, legs, gonopods and eggs are provided. Platyrhacus philippinorum Chamberlin, 1921 and Polydesmu...
Chapter
Full-text available
A new genus of Theridiosomatidae from the Philippines is described based on male and female characters: Tagalogonia gen. nov. Two new species are described for the genus: Tagalogonia banahaw sp. nov. and Tagalogonia isarog sp. nov. A new species of Coddingtonia Miller, Griswold & Yin, 2009 is described based on males and females from Malaysia: C. a...
Article
Full-text available
The orb-weaving spiders (Orbiculariae) comprise more than 25% of the approximately 44,000 known living spider species and produce a remarkable variety of webs. The wheel-shaped orb web is primitive to this clade, but most Orbiculariae make webs hardly recognizable as orbs. Orb-weavers date at least to the Jurassic. With no evidence for convergence...
Article
The genus Dolomedes Latreille, 1804 present a very wide range of distribution on every continent except Antarctica (Platnick 2013) However, only one species has been reported from Madagascar, Dolomedes saccalavus Strand, 1907, which is unfortunately based on a juvenile specimen and was destroyed in wartime. We consider this a nomen dubium.
Article
Full-text available
Spiders, like other Madagascan organisms, exhibit remarkable richness and endemism (Griswold 2003). Whereas there are only just over 550 species known from Madagascar (Platnick 2013), the rate of new species discovery suggests that the total may be much higher. In a comprehensive study of the Madagascar spider fauna, Griswold (2003) found that 29%...
Article
Phylogenetic relationships among archaeid spider lineages, as well as the placement of archaeids within the Araneomorphae, present a problem in the systematics of spiders. We investigate these relationships by broadly sampling taxa from the Araneomorphae and superfamily Palpimanoidea, as well as from extant and fossil archaeid lineages. Using parsi...
Article
Full-text available
Incorporation of fossils into biogeographic studies can have a profound effect on the conclusions that result, particularly when fossil ranges are non-overlapping with extant ranges. This is the case in archaeid spiders, where there are known fossils from the Northern Hemisphere, yet all living members are restricted to the Southern Hemisphere. To...
Conference Paper
The forest biota of Africa is a biological diversity hotspot reflecting a heterogeneous landscape, suggesting centers of endemism and strong selective gradients in species richness. The existence of a disjunct, cool-temperate and tropical montane region has been described as ‘archipelago-like’, which has led to high endemic diversity across many or...
Article
Full-text available
The new spider genus and species Trogloraptor marchingtoni Griswold, Audisio & Ledford is described as the type of the new family Trogloraptoridae. The oblique membranous division of the basal segment of the anterior lateral spinnerets of Trogloraptor suggests that this haplogyne family is the sister group of the other Dysderoidea (Dysderidae, Oono...