Charles Godfray

Charles Godfray
University of Oxford | OX · Oxford Martin School

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508
Publications
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Publications

Publications (508)
Preprint
Mosquitoes are responsible for more human deaths than any other animal, yet we still know relatively little about their ecology. Mosquito lifespan is a key determinant of the force of transmission for the diseases they vector, but the field experiments and dissection methods used to determine this quantity produce estimates with high uncertainty. I...
Article
Opius pulicariae Fischer (Braconidae: Opiinae) is added to the British list based on a specimen reared from Ophiomyia pulicaria (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Devon, England in 2021. Means of distinguishing this species from other Opiinae are given and its host range discussed.
Technical Report
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This brief presents results from the Food, Agriculture, Biodiversity, Land-Use, and Energy (FABLE) Consortium, a collaborative initiative that brings together independent researchers from 20 countries. Using the FABLE modelling framework30, this brief analyzes baseline conditions for biodiversity and potential pathways to meeting three of the CBD p...
Article
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Many insect herbivores engage in apparent competition whereby two species interact through shared natural enemies. Upon insect attack, plants release volatile blends that attract natural enemies, but whether these volatiles mediate apparent competition between herbivores is not yet known. We investigate the role of volatiles that are emitted by bea...
Article
New distributional and biological records are provided for wasps in the subfamily Miscogasterinae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), reared from Diptera in Scotland and northern England. Thektogaster chrysis (Förster, 1861) is added to the British list based on specimens reared from Gimnomera tarsea (Fallén) (Scathophagidae), a first host record for the...
Article
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In recent decades there has been a sustained and substantial shift in human diets across the globe towards including more livestock-derived foods. Continuing debates scrutinize how these dietary shifts affect human health, the natural environment, and livelihoods. However, amidst these debates there remain unanswered questions about how demand for...
Article
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A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43016-021-00224-w
Article
Many insects host vertically‐transmitted microbes, which can confer benefits to their hosts but are costly to maintain and regulate. A key feature of these symbioses is variation: for example, symbiont density can vary among host and symbiont genotypes. However, the evolutionary forces maintaining this variation remain unclear. We studied variation...
Article
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Multiple national and international trends and drivers are radically changing what biological security means for the United Kingdom (UK). New technologies present novel opportunities and challenges, and globalisation has created new pathways and increased the speed, volume and routes by which organisms can spread. The UK Biological Security Strateg...
Preprint
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A bstract Many insects host vertically-transmitted microbes, which can confer benefits to their hosts but are costly to maintain and regulate. A key feature of these symbioses is variation: for example, symbiont density can vary among host and symbiont genotypes. However, the evolutionary forces maintaining this variation remain unclear. We studied...
Article
Chorebus cyparissa (Nixon) is added to the British list based on a specimen caught in a Malaise trap in Norfolk, England in 1983. It is also recorded from Bulgaria and, based on DNA sequence data, from Belarus & Turkey. Chorebus navicularis (Nees) is deleted from the British list; its inclusion was probably due to a misidentification and the status...
Article
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Background: Gene drives based on CRISPR-Cas9 technology are increasingly being considered as tools for reducing the capacity of mosquito populations to transmit malaria, and one of the most promising options is driving endonuclease genes that reduce the fertility of female mosquitoes. In particular, there is much interest in constructs that target...
Article
Many microbial symbionts have multiple phenotypic consequences for their animal hosts. However, the ways in which different symbiont-mediated phenotypes combine to affect fitness are not well understood. We investigated whether there are correlations between different symbiont-mediated phenotypes. We used the symbiont Spiroplasma, a striking exampl...
Article
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African swine fever is a deadly porcine disease that has spread into East Asia where it is having a detrimental effect on pork production. However, the implications of African swine fever on the global pork market are poorly explored. Two linked global economic models are used to explore the consequences of different scales of the epidemic on pork...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mosquito control remains a central pillar of efforts to reduce malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa. However, insecticide resistance is entrenched in malaria vector populations, and countries with high malaria burden face a daunting challenge to sustain malaria control with a limited set of surveillance and intervention tools. Here we report on the...
Article
Full-text available
Animals are host to a community of microbes, collectively referred to as their microbiome, that can play a key role in their hosts' biology. The bacterial endosymbionts of insects have a particularly strong influence on their hosts but despite their importance we still know little about the factors that influence the composition of insect microbial...
Article
A promising strategy for reducing the transmission of dengue and other arboviral human diseases by Aedes aegypti mosquito vector populations involves field introductions of the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. Wolbachia infections inhibit viral transmission by the mosquito, and can spread between mosquito hosts to reach high frequencies in the vec...
Article
Full-text available
Background The persistence of malaria in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa has motivated the development of novel tools to complement existing control programmes, including gene-drive technologies to modify mosquito vector populations. Here, we use a stochastic simulation model to explore the potential of using a driving-Y chromosome to suppress ve...
Article
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The nitrogen cycle has been radically changed by human activities1. China consumes nearly a third of the world’s nitrogen fertilizers. The excessive application of fertilizers2,3 and increased nitrogen discharge from livestock, domestic and industrial sources have resulted in pervasive water pollution. Quantifying a nitrogen ‘boundary’4 in heteroge...
Article
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Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are substances that alter the function of the endocrine system and consequently cause adverse effects to humans or wildlife. The release of particular EDCs into the environment has been shown to negatively affect certain wildlife populations and has led to restrictions on the use of some EDCs. Current chemical...
Article
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New research prepared by the Oxford Martin School, Oxford University for the World Economic Forum’s Meat: the Future dialogue series finds that balancing meat consumption with alternative sources of protein can lead to significant health and environmental benefits.
Preprint
Full-text available
A promising strategy for reducing the transmission of dengue and other arboviral human diseases by Aedes aegypti mosquito vector populations involves field introductions of the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia . Wolbachia infections inhibit viral transmission by the mosquito, and can spread between mosquito hosts to reach high frequencies in the ve...
Article
Full-text available
Background The consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with increased mortality from chronic diseases, and as a result, it has been classified by the World Health Organization as carcinogenic (processed meat) and probably carcinogenic (red meat) to humans. One policy response is to regulate red and processed meat consumption simil...
Article
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Human activities may weaken or destroy reproductive isolation between young taxa, leading to their fusion with consequences for population and community ecology. Pea aphid host races are adapted to different legume taxa, providing a degree of pre-mating isolation mediated by habitat choice. Yet, all races can feed and reproduce on the broad bean (V...
Article
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The food system is a major driver of climate change, changes in land use, depletion of freshwater resources, and pollution of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems through excessive nitrogen and phosphorus inputs. Here we show that between 2010 and 2050, as a result of expected changes in population and income levels, the environmental effects of the...
Article
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Many global challenges, though interconnected, have been addressed singly, at times reducing one problem while exacerbating others. Nexus approaches simultaneously examine interactions among multiple sectors. Recent quantitative studies have revealed that nexus approaches can uncover synergies and detect trade-offs among sectors. If well implemente...
Article
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The sustainable intensification of agricultural systems offers synergistic opportunities for the co-production of agricultural and natural capital outcomes. Efficiency and substitution are steps towards sustainable intensification, but system redesign is essential to deliver optimum outcomes as ecological and economic conditions change. We show glo...
Article
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Both the global average per capita consumption of meat and the total amount of meat consumed are rising, driven by increasing average individual incomes and by population growth. The consumption of different types of meat and meat products has substantial effects on people’s health, and livestock production can have major negative effects on the en...
Article
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Gene drive technology offers the promise for a high-impact, cost-effective, and durable method to control malaria transmission that would make a significant contribution to elimination. Gene drive systems, such as those based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated protein, have the potential to sprea...
Article
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Background: The use of gene drive systems to manipulate populations of malaria vectors is currently being investigated as a method of malaria control. One potential system uses driving endonuclease genes (DEGs) to spread genes that impose a genetic load. Previously, models have shown that the introduction of DEG-bearing mosquitoes could suppress o...
Article
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Background: Populations of the Anopheles gambiae complex are found during the rainy season throughout West Africa, even in arid areas with long dry seasons during which mosquitoes appear to be absent. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this apparent paradox, including aestivation, dispersal between neighbouring settlements, and long...
Article
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The sustainability of malaria control in Africa is threatened by rising levels of insecticide resistance, and new tools to prevent malaria transmission are urgently needed. To gain a better understanding of the mosquito populations that transmit malaria, we sequenced the genomes of 765 wild specimens of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii samp...
Article
Full-text available
The sustainability of malaria control in Africa is threatened by the rise of insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes, which transmit the disease. To gain a deeper understanding of how mosquito populations are evolving, here we sequenced the genomes of 765 specimens of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii sampled from 15 locations across...
Article
Full-text available
Plants respond to insect attack by releasing blends of volatile chemicals that attract their herbivores’ specific natural enemies, while insect herbivores may carry endosymbiotic microorganisms that directly improve herbivore survival after natural enemy attack. Here we demonstrate that the two phenomena can be linked. Plants fed upon by pea aphids...
Article
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Higher pathogen and parasite transmission is considered a universal cost of colonial breeding due to the physical proximity of colony members. However, this has rarely been tested in natural colonies, which are structured entities, whose members interact with a subset of individuals and differ in their infection histories. We use a population of co...
Article
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Exposure to ionizing radiation is ubiquitous, and it is well established that moderate and high doses cause ill-health and can be lethal. The health effects of low doses or low dose-rates of ionizing radiation are not so clear. This paper describes a project which sets out to summarize, as a restatement, the natural science evidence base concerning...
Article
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Driving endonuclease genes (DEGs) spread through a population by a non-Mendelian mechanism. In a heterozygote, the protein encoded by a DEG causes a double-strand break in the homologous chromosome opposite to where its gene is inserted and when the break is repaired using the homologue as a template the DEG heterozygote is converted to a homozygot...
Article
Microbial symbionts commonly protect their hosts from natural enemies, but it is unclear how protective symbionts influence the evolution of host immunity to pathogens. One possibility is that ‘extrinsic’ protection provided by symbionts allows hosts to reduce investment in ‘intrinsic’ immunological resistance mechanisms. We tested this idea using...
Article
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Microbial symbionts can play an important role in defending their insect hosts against natural enemies. However, researchers have little idea how the presence of such protective symbionts impacts food web interactions and species diversity. 2. This study investigated the effects of a protective symbiont (Hamiltonella defensa) in pea aphids (Acyrtho...
Article
1.Most animals host communities of symbiotic bacteria. In insects, these symbionts may have particularly intimate interactions with their hosts: many are intracellular and can play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including protection against natural enemies. 2.We investigated how interactions between different species or strains of e...
Article
Animal-associated microbial communities have important effects on host phenotypes. Individuals within and among species differ in the strains and species of microbes that they harbour, but how natural selection shapes the distribution and abundance of symbionts in natural populations is not well understood. Symbionts can be beneficial in certain en...
Data
Figure S1. GS x GP data, shown as a bar graph, with percent sporulation on the y‐axis. Figure S2. GH x GS data, shown as a bar graph, with percent sporulation on the y‐axis. Figure S3. Correlation between symbiont‐mediated protection and the costs of harboring a symbiont across Regiella genotypes. Table S1. Information on the aphid genotypes use...