Charles Emlet

Charles Emlet
University of Washington Tacoma | UW Tacoma · Faculty of Social Work

Ph.D., MSW

About

118
Publications
20,019
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Introduction
Charles Emlet is Professor Emeritus of Social Work at the University of Washington Tacoma. HIs research has focused on vulnerable populations of older adults. He is co-investigator on the National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS). Charles has conducted both qualitative and quantitative research and has taught courses in research methods, gerontological social work and spirituality and social work practice.
Additional affiliations
February 2013 - May 2013
McMaster University
Position
  • Fulbright Visiting Research Chair in Science & the Environment
Description
  • Qualitative study on resilience among older Canadians living with HIV
February 2013 - May 2013
University of Toronto
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Qualitative study on resilience among older Canadians living with HIV.
September 1999 - present
University of Washington Tacoma
Position
  • Professor
Education
June 1994 - August 1998
Case Western Reserve University
Field of study
  • Social Welfare
September 1976 - May 1979
California State University, Fresno
Field of study
  • Social Work

Publications

Publications (118)
Article
Objectives Utilizing Iridescent Life Course, we examine life events among three generations of lesbian and gay adults: Invisible (born 1920–1934), Silenced (born 1935–1949), and Pride (born 1950–1964) Generations. Methods: We utilized a subsample ( n = 2079) from the 2014 wave of Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study...
Article
Background and Objectives Prior research has shown informal caregiving among older adults can negatively impact the caregiver’s physical and psychological health. However, little is known about protective and risk factors associated with the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) caregivers....
Article
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This past year, the lives of vulnerable older adults, including those within the older LGBTQ+ community have been disrupted dramatically, as has the research agendas designed to improve their lives. Older people, including LGBTQ+ older adults with dementia, have been placed at increased risk for social isolation and mental health issues during COVI...
Article
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In the Covid-19 context, researchers and policy makers have turned their attention to long-standing disparities in health equity, including by race, ethnicity, poverty, sexuality, and gender. Yet, scholarship to date does not conceptualize age as a critical aspect of difference requiring an equity lens. In this presentation, we utilize an Age Equit...
Article
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LGBTQ+ older adults face significant health disparities with higher rates of cognitive impairment and social isolation. Yet, the cognitive health needs of LGBTQ+ adults and caregivers have not been adequately addressed in clinical trials and services. In this presentation, we will share findings from Aging with Pride: IDEA (Innovations in Dementia...
Article
Background: The cognitive health needs of LGBT older adults have not been adequately addressed in mainstream clinical trials. Aging with Pride: IDEA (Innovations in Dementia Empowerment and Action), is the first intervention worldwide designed to improve physical functioning and quality of life of LGBT adults living with dementia and caregivers....
Article
Background: Caregivers experience chronic stress that can negatively affect their health, resulting in lower quality of life. This study aims to understand the physical and mental health of caregivers by examining modifiable risk and protective factors. Life experiences of LGBT older adults are considered. Method: In the longitudinal study, Agin...
Article
Objectives: This is the first national population-based study to examine cognitive impairment disparities among sexual minority mid-life and older adults. Methods: Using the National Health Interview Survey (2013–2018), we compared weighted prevalence of subjective cognitive impairment by sexual orientation and gender, among those aged 45 plus, app...
Article
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The HIV and Aging Interest Group at GSA begin30 years ago. At that time, Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatments (HAART) did not exist. The Ryan White CARE act was newly enacted and older adults living with HIV/AIDS were primarily infected in later life. HIV was considered a life threatening disease. This Interest Group‘s existence has paralleled t...
Presentation
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Shifting historical, political, and social times have impacted transgender older adults in experiences and development. Examining how gender identities interact with life events within a historical context elucidates differences by generations and gender. Using a transgender subsample (n=205) from the National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender St...
Article
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I was fortunate to serve at the HIV and Aging Interest Convener from 2000 until 2008 and co-convener from 2009 until 2012. During this period, we began to see the full and positive impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatments creating highly sought longevity for older adults. During that time, the numbers of people over the age of 50, living w...
Article
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We do not live in a stagnant world, politically, historically or socially - neither are the life experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBTQ) older adults. Their physical, psychological and social lives are impacted by their present and past historical contexts and generational identity, as well as the sociopolitical environment,...
Article
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Kimberlé Crenshaw introduced the term “intersectionality” in the late 1980s to highlight the experience discrimination and marginalization of Black and African-American women originating from the confluence of their racial/ethnic and gender identities. Since that time the focus on intersectionality has broadened to consider other communities and in...
Article
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), nearly half a million people aged fifty years and older have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the US. This population will continue to grow and some estimates suggest that approximately 70% of all persons with HIV (PWH) in the US will be 50 and over by 2030. This pattern is fou...
Article
Although the number of older people living with HIV (PLWH) is growing, prior research has focused on older PLWH as care recipients and psychosocial factors (e.g., stigma, social support) associated with their HIV care. Literature on HIV caregiving mainly focuses on family members providing care to PLWH or children of parents with HIV. There is a ga...
Article
Full-text available
Background: People living with HIV are living longer, and can experience physical, mental and social health challenges associated with aging and multimorbidity. Rehabilitation is well positioned to address disability and maximize healthy aging. An international collaborative network, called the Canada-International HIV and Rehabilitation Research...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background People living with HIV are living longer, and can experience physical, mental and social health challenges associated with aging and multimorbidity. Rehabilitation is well positioned to address disability and maximize healthy aging. An international collaborative network, called the Canada-International HIV and Rehabilitation Research Co...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: People living with HIV are living longer, and can experience physical, mental and social health challenges associated with aging and multimorbidity. Rehabilitation is well positioned to address disability and maximize healthy aging. An international collaborative network, called the Canada-International HIV and Rehabilitation Research C...
Presentation
Panelists at this interactive symposium will discuss why HIV/AIDS is an important topic in gerontology, how co-morbid conditions create complexities in delivery of care, whether models of successful aging are relevant for older adults with HIV/AIDS, what strategies can enhance this population’s mental health, and how community-based programs can pr...
Article
Full-text available
Caregivers experience chronic stress that can negatively affect their health, resulting in lower quality of life. This study aims to understand the physical and mental health of caregivers by examining modifiable risk and protective factors. Life experiences of LGBT older adults are considered. In the longitudinal study, Aging with Pride: National...
Article
Full-text available
The cognitive health needs of LGBT older adults have not been adequately addressed in mainstream clinical trials. Aging with Pride: IDEA (Innovations in Dementia Empowerment and Action), is an intervention designed to improve physical functioning and quality of life of LGBT adults with dementia and caregivers. We evaluate the processes and effectiv...
Presentation
Full-text available
Describes health disparities between gay and bisexual men with and without HIV and reviews strategies for successful and health aging from 30 long term survivors.
Article
Objective: This study examines whether disparities exist in poor health and depressive symptomatology among older gay/bisexual men (50+) with ( n = 371) and without ( n = 973) HIV. If so, what risk/promoting factors account for those disparities? Method: These cross-sectional analyses used 2014 data from the Aging With Pride: National Health, Ag...
Article
According to Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) data, 36.9 million people are living with HIV worldwide. Older adults, those aged 50 years and older, with HIV are increasing worldwide; however, the prevalence and incidence differ substantially across regions. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of how HIV is impac...
Article
Background: Sex plays an important role in aging successfully. Aging with HIV may complicate later life sexuality and intimacy. This qualitative study explored the sexual changes, challenges, and concerns associated with living into older adulthood with HIV. Methods: We conducted 30 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with women and men 50 years a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The number of adults age 50+ living with HIV continues to increase and their social and healthcare engagement is increasingly important. Health literacy can improve healthcare engagement and health through late adulthood, yet little is known about the relationship between social support and health literacy in this population. We draw upon data (age...
Article
Objectives: Successful aging has been identified as an important emphasis for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Little is known about how this population conceptualizes aging successfully and how this relates to generativity. This qualitative study examined the importance of generativity among 30 HIV-positive older adults to d...
Presentation
Cross national and cross paradigm review of social support and community engagement among older adults living with HIV.
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing population of older adults living with HIV/AIDS, few studies have examined this population in terms of timing of HIV diagnosis. This study explores resilience and protective factors among HIV-positive older adults, 17 of whom were diagnosed prior to the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and...
Article
Despite accumulating evidence of health disparities, there exists limited translational research to enhance optimal health and aging of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer-identified (*) (LGBTQ) older adults. Based on the Health Equity Promotion Model that addresses the distinct needs and strengths of LGBTQ older adults, we underscore th...
Conference Paper
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Article
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Worldwide approximately 3.6 million people age 50 and older are living with HIV. Few studies have explored successful ageing from the insider perspective of those living well with HIV infection. This study draws upon the lived experience and wisdom of older, HIV-positive adults from Ontario, Canada to understand their strategies for successful agei...
Article
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Purpose of the Study: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults comprise a diverse and growing health disparate population. In the present study, using the Health Equity Promotion Model, we investigated pathways by which LGBT older adults experience resilience, risk, and marginalization and their relationship to attaining positive...
Article
Purpose of the Study: Adults with HIV infection are living into old age. It is critical we investigate positive constructs such as resilience and mastery to determine factors associated with psychological well-being. We examine HIV-related factors, adverse conditions, and psychosocial characteristics that are associated with resilience (the ability...
Chapter
Both the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS and the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy identify HIV stigma as a barrier to care, a barrier to service access, and deleterious to personal and social well-being. This chapter discusses the topic of HIV stigma from a conceptual basis, including the mechanisms of prejudice and discrimination, and defini...
Article
The National Institutes of Health human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Aging Working Group identified spirituality as a research emphasis. This qualitative study examines the importance of religion and spirituality among 30 HIV-positive older adults. Using modified grounded theory, adults 50+ were recruited in Ontario, Canada, through AIDS servic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The NIH HIV and Aging Working Group identified successful aging as an important emphasis of research. This qualitative study examines the importance of generativity among 30 HIV-positive older adults. Using modified grounded theory; men and women 50+ were recruited in Ontario, Canada through AIDS organizations and community agencies. Three themes w...
Article
Worldwide approximately . million people aged  and older are living and ageing with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Few studies have explored successful ageing from the insider perspective of those living well and ageing with HIV. This study draws upon the lived experience and wisdom of older, HIV-positive adults living in Ontario, Cana...
Article
Full-text available
LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities...
Poster
Full-text available
Social support is an important part of aging well with HIV, contributing to quality of life and resilience. While larger and more inclusive social networks are often seen as beneficial, individuals in this study emphasized the importance of quality. They suggested the quality of their social relationships was more important than quantity in helping...
Presentation
Full-text available
Presented at the Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences, Case Western Reserve University Centennial Speaker Series, April 8, 2016
Article
Full-text available
LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities...
Conference Paper
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“THE JOURNEY I HAVE BEEN THROUGH” EXPERIENCES WITH RELIGION AND SPIRITUALITY AMONG HIV-POSITIVE OLDER ADULTS C.A. Emlet1,2, L. Harris3, 1. Social Work, University of Washington Tacoma, Tacoma, WA, 2. McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 3. University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky The NIH HIV and Aging Working Group identified spiri...
Conference Paper
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I CONSIDER MYSELF A SURVIVOR: RESILIENCE AMONG OLDER HIV-POSITIVE ADULTS DIAGNOSED IN THE PRE AND POST HAART ERAS C.A. Emlet1,2, K.I. Fredriksen-Goldsen2, C.K. Shiu2, H. Kim2, 1. Social Work, University of Washington Tacoma, Tacoma, WA, 2. University of Washington, Seattle, Washington Older adults living with HIV is a rapidly growing population. Th...
Conference Paper
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WHEN LESS IS MORE: THE PRUNING OF SOCIAL NETWORKS BY HIV –POSITIVE OLDER ADULTS C.A. Emlet1,2, L. Harris3, C. Furlotte2, D.J. Brennan4, C. Pierpaoli5, 1. Social Work, University of Washington Tacoma, Tacoma, WA, 2. McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 3. University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, 4. University of Toronto, Toronto, O...
Chapter
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This chapter presents an overview of social work practice considerations that arise when HIV disease and aging intersect.
Article
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This study investigates how internalized sexual minority stigma and enacted sexual minority stigma in health care settings are associated with sexual health risk behaviors (SRBs) and the mediating role of infrequent routine health care and perceived stress among older gay and bisexual (G/B) men living with HIV disease. Survey responses from 135 sex...
Article
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This study examines global social networks-including friendship, support, and acquaintance networks-of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Utilizing data from a large community-based study, we employ multiple regression analyses to examine correlates of social network size and diversity. Controlling for background character...
Article
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Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical a...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the independent influence of age on levels of HIV-related stigma experienced by adults living with HIV/AIDS. To accomplish this, cross-sectional data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study were used to determine whether older age is associated with overall stigma among HIV-positive adults living...
Article
Full-text available
Persons aged 50 years and over will soon disproportionately represent the future of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It is estimated that by 2015 older adults will represent 50% of persons living with HIV in the United States. Despite the HIV/AIDS growing population among older adults, attitudes, beliefs, and stereotypes toward older adults that exist in gen...
Article
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Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/rBQy434fqwyGSziiVhDI/full
Conference Paper
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Background: Older adults constitute an increasing proportion of those living with HIV. While some face serious medical and psychosocial issues, many others report they are doing well. This qualitative study aimed to understand characteristics associated with aging well with HIV and to understand factors that hinder this process. Methods: Using a m...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Sexual orientation and gender identity are not commonly addressed in health and human service delivery, or in educational degree programs. Based on findings from Caring and Aging with Pride (CAP), the first national federally-funded research project on LGBT health and aging, this paper outlines 10 core competencies and aligns them with spe...
Article
The Physical and Mental Health of Lesbian, Gay Male, and Bisexual (LGB) Older Adults: The Role of Key Health Indicators and Risk and Protective Factors Abstract Purpose: Based on resilience theory, this paper investigates the influence of key health indicators and risk and protective factors on health outcomes (including general health, disability,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: While extensive research has been conducted on HIV stigma, few studies have examined HIV stigma across age groups. These studies have had small numbers of older adults and report divergent findings regarding aging and HIV stigma. Some suggest stigma is worse for older adults, while others show stigma diminishes with age. Methods: Cross...
Article
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Purpose: This study is one of the first to examine the physical and mental health of transgender older adults and to identify modifiable factors that account for health risks in this underserved population. Design and methods: Utilizing data from a cross-sectional survey of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults aged 50 and older (...
Article
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RÉSUMÉ Utilisant des données recueillies par Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study (OCS), l’objectif principal de cette étude était de décrire les caractéristiques socio-demographiques d’un échantillon de personnes âgées (50 ans et plus) de l’Ontario (n = 1 129) vivant avec le VIH /SIDA. L’objectif secondaire était de comparer quatre sous-echa...
Article
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Abstract Although the deleterious effects of HIV stigma are well documented, less is known about how various types of stigma impact older adults living with HIV disease and what factors exacerbate or lessen the effects of HIV stigma. Using cross-sectional data from the OHTN cohort study (OCS), we undertook multiple linear regression to determine th...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To identify risk and protective factors associated with mental and physical health-related quality of life, after controlling for key background characteristics, in a population of older gay and bisexual men living with HIV disease. Previous research examining quality of life among persons living with HIV rarely includes older adults. De...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Based on resilience theory, this paper investigates the influence of key health indicators and risk and protective factors on health outcomes (including general health, disability, and depression) among lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) older adults. Design and methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with LGB older adults, a...
Conference Paper
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: HIV incidence and prevalence continues to grow among older adults living with HIV/AIDS. HIV treatments have extended the lives of those living with HIV, while there has been a concurrent increase in new HIV infections among adults over age 50 (CDC, 2011). Older adults living with HIV face a myriad of physical and mental heal...
Conference Paper
Background and Purpose: Advances in HIV treatment has extended the life expectancy of persons living with HIV disease. Data from the CDC (2011) indicate that the number of persons, age 50 and over living with HIV continues to increase. Between 2006 and 2008 the number of persons, 50 and over, living with HIV disease in the United States increased b...
Conference Paper
Background and Purpose: Advances in HIV treatment and therapy has extended the life expectancy of persons living with HIV disease. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) indicate that the number of persons, age 50 and over living with HIV disease continues to increase. Canada has seen similar patterns including an increase...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to further elucidate the importance of social relationships and social connectedness with aging in place and in developing elder-friendly communities. The process used in this study was inclusive of younger adults (age 40-65) as well as older adults (65+) in order to further understand how they envision a community that...
Article
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It is estimated that by the year 2015, at least half of those living with HIV disease in the United States will be 50years of age or older. Older adults with HIV disease are living longer than ever before and are living healthier and more normal lives. They continue to be involved in intimate and sexual relationships. This paper provides an overvie...
Article
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Adults aging with HIV/AIDS can experience resilience in spite of the deleterious affects of the disease. This study seeks to examine the lived experiences of older adults with HIV/AIDS as it relates to strengths and resilience in dealing with this devastating disease. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 adults, 50 years and ol...
Conference Paper
Background: Adults aged >50 years (older adults by CDC definition) represent a growing proportion of the U.S. population living with HIV/AIDS. Adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART), required to improve immune system function, is especially important for older adults living with HIV/AIDS due to increased likelihood of additional medical conditi...
Article
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The rapid increase in the number of older adults in the United States, coupled with new accreditation standards based on competencies, requires social workers to show competence in working with older clients. This teaching note reports on the development and use of a standardized patient (SP) role-play to teach and evaluate the ability of graduate...
Article
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This chapter presents an overview of social work practice implications that can arise when the experience of HIV and aging intersect. It is important to consider HIV and aging together for two reasons. First, medical and/or social service practitioners still frequently fail to identify and serve HIV-infected midlife and older adults; thus, HIV-infe...