Charles M. Eastman

Charles M. Eastman
Georgia Institute of Technology | GT · College of Architecture

About

223
Publications
161,023
Reads
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13,413
Citations
Citations since 2017
23 Research Items
7001 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,0001,200

Publications

Publications (223)
Conference Paper
Building information modeling integrates information from multiple disciplines and significantly improves design coordination based on its visualization and parameterization, especially through detecting clashes. However, the process to solve these clashes is still manual and time-consuming. Some studies have tried to address this field, but they r...
Article
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Following decades of research, the potential of automated rule-checking applications for building models to boost the productivity in the AECO industry has yet to fully materialize. Most efforts have been dedicated to dealing with the complexities associated with formalizing rules related to building designs for computability. To make automated rul...
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Diverse industries have recognized the significance of a neutral data standard for seamless building information modeling (BIM) data exchanges and adopted commonly agreed schemes such as the industry foundation classes (IFC) schema for enhancing BIM data interoperability. To selectively employ domain-specific data exchange requirements, the AEC-FM...
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Building information modeling has demonstrated its advantage to support design coordination, specifically for automatic clash detection. Detecting clashes helps us identify problems, but the process for solving these problems is still manual and time-consuming. This paper proposes using network theory to improve clash resolution by optimizing the c...
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Smart buildings are the trend of the next generation's commercial buildings that link different building systems together with the Building Automation System (BAS). Building information modeling (BIM) assists in data exchange and information flow. Previous research has explored BAS and BIM integration for energy management, building design optimiza...
Conference Paper
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A new era of information and communication technology (ICT) is shaping communication and information flows within the built environment and the Architecture, Engineering, Construction, and Operation (AECO) Industry. The Internet of Things (IoT), Cyber-Physical-Systems (CPS), and Big Data are among the new transformative changes enabling Smart and S...
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The complicated requirements of projects and the increasing number of project participants have resulted in numerous, iterative BIM data exchange processes for diverse domain professionals. When BIM data are imported into and exported from BIM authoring tools, the seamless sharing and consistent maintenance of BIM data throughout a building project...
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Over the last few decades, the built environment and the architecture, engineering, construction, and operation (AECO) industry have grown in the amount of computer software, technologies, and automation to help improve all facets of the industry. This new era of smart and sustainable urban systems is enabling transformative change in the way urban...
Article
The integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM) with real-time data from the Internet of Things (IoT) devices presents a powerful paradigm for applications to improve construction and operational efficiencies. Connecting real-time data streams from the rapidly expanding set of IoT sensor networks to the high-fidelity BIM models provides nume...
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Industry domains require distinct data and structures of building information models developed and tailored for their disciplines. To seamlessly exchange the building information models, Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), which is one of neutral formats, has been broadly used in the architecture, engineering and construction, and facility managemen...
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Industry domains require distinct data and structures of building information models developed and tailored for their disciplines. To seamlessly exchange the building information models, Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), which is one of neutral formats, has been broadly used the architecture, engineering and construction, and facility management i...
Article
With the rising adoption of BIM in the AECO (Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Owner-operator) industry, BIM content is increasingly more complete and valuable. Unfortunately, the data is largely locked inside the respective BIM authoring tool with limited facility for users to perform queries beyond simple queries on objects and their pr...
Article
Collaboration within Building Information Modeling process is mainly based on the manual transfer of document files in either vendor-specific formats or neutral format using Industry Foundation Classes. However, since the web enables Cloud-based Building Information Modeling services, it provides an opportunity to exchange data with web technologie...
Conference Paper
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With the future becoming more technologically advanced with the modeling of all types of information across varying domains, it is imperative that the information contained in the models can be shared and exchanged seamlessly and effortlessly by the end user. The purpose of this research is to develop a methodology that would enable the interoperab...
Article
In the building industry, building data such as objects and processes are described in Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) data model schema to support a neutral data exchange format for BIM tools interoperability. While IFC specification has been encoded in ifcXML format by buildingSMART to support XML-based data transmission, there is a lack of stu...
Article
We propose an approach using multiple representations to achieve high-performance spatial queries on 3D BIM data. The geometry data is first stored as a simple polyhedron representation inside a relational database supporting the storage of 3D geometry polyhedra. Additional representations are derived from the main geometry for ready use in many ap...
Conference Paper
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Extracting the right information from Building Information Models (BIM) and Regulatory Knowledge Models (RKM) is a core activity in computer-aided compliance audit processes. Despite many research attempts, however, this has remained a challenging task. One reason is that BIM is necessarily a highly complex model. Representing all components of suc...
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Specifications of the exact requirements for BIM-based rules are often much more complex than it appears from their direct language interpretation. It is because the complete rule interpretation involves knowledge from human experts. Therefore, detailed interpretation process of rules for the purpose of automated rule checking implementation must b...
Conference Paper
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Collaboration within Building Information Modeling process is mainly based on file transfer while BIM data being exchanged in either vendor specific file formats or neutral format using Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). However, since the Web enables Cloud-based BIM services, it provides an opportunity to exchange data via Web transfer services. T...
Conference Paper
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Today's BIM models are increasingly complex and large. There are at least two trends that will make BIM several magnitudes larger in size. The two trends are the integration of building sensor data that can be used to optimize the operations of the building, and the increasing demand to consolidate multiple projects into one easily accessed model s...
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Each domain industry requires the detailed specifications for sharing and exchanging building information models throughout the design, construction, and operation phases. Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) Model View Definitions (MVDs) specify required information for exchanges of building model data among building project experts. The data involve...
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The paper introduces a new approach for the representation of masonry walls in Building Information Modeling applications. The proposed representational scheme addresses the different types and levels of information required to support the design and construction of masonry walls. In particular, the paper proposes the concept of masonry wall “regio...
Conference Paper
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The US National BIM Standard proposes facilitating information exchanges through Model View Definitions (MVDs). An MVD, defines a subset of the IFC schema that is needed to satisfy one or many exchange requirements of the AEC industry. In the MVD definition for precast concrete domain specified in precast concrete Information Delivery Manual (IDM),...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry model-based data exchange methods are mainly based on manual file transfer, data conversion, and data-merge. File-based Building Information Model (BIM) data exchange is either in vendor specific file formats or neutral format using Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). IFC Model View De...
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The nature of building projects necessitates building models to be designed by various parties representing disciplines in the Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Owner-operator (AECO) Industries. The federated model emerges as the most practical approach to deal with the various models, especially during design stage, construction coordina...
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Building classification systems have established standard terminology and semantics for the construction sector. It is critical to use classification systems when dealing with specifications, structuring of documents and cost estimation. Classifying building product models in a standard way is a major step in organizing building product libraries....
Article
Diverse domain experts have defined the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) Model View Definition (MVD), which encompasses their specialized requirements for building data exchanges and reflects practical construction processes. However, once an IFC file, a neutral format, is mapped with the specifications of the MVD through the export and import fea...
Conference Paper
Model views are recognized as a fundamental component of Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) based model exchange. Such model views and their validation are imperative to ensure the effective interoperability of IFC data because such data must reflect the level of development, the needed types of geometry, the appropriate properties, and relational s...
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During the design and construction phases of building projects, domain experts iteratively exchange building information models. One of their goals is to ensure that the requirements and objectives of a proposed project are satisfied. In addition, most building information modeling software currently implements heterogeneous mapping processes in th...
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Robust knowledge sharing frameworks between different stakeholders in a building project is of high priority. Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) provides a rich schema for interoperability through object-based transactions. However, IFC lacks semantic clarity in mapping entities and relationships, resulting in multiple definitions to map the same in...
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Designers' actions are high-level mechanisms based on heuristics and assumptions learned from professional experience. Significant research has been devoted to understanding these actions as well as finding ways to aid, automate, or augment them with computational support. However, representing and manipulating such tacit knowledge in computational...
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The use of IFC as a standard format in exchange processes has been increasing as the industry begins to address the need of interoperability. A current problem with the use of IFC is in the quality of product models. Much effort has addressed this issue in the form of certifications to ensure a minimum quality of exchange requirements for an IFC fi...
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Client-developed building programs are increasingly burdened with a number of requirements such as building codes, safety, and programming requirements. Managing these requirements ensures the successful performance of subsequent procedures and the high quality of a project. However, because assessing a building design relies primarily on the compe...
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Automated rule checking has been identified as potentially providing significant value to the AEC industry from both regulatory and industry perspectives. Key challenges to a successful rule checking implementation are the complexities inherent in the rules themselves and the breadth of conditions to which they need to apply. Due to the large numbe...
Conference Paper
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BIM Content Libraries are performing as online sources for building product models. In order to effectively use the product models, it is important to organize them systematically within these databases. But currently there is no standard or guideline for this purpose. Products in these libraries are being categorized based on different criteria su...
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This paper describes an implementation process for a domain-specific computer programming language: the Building Environment Rule and Analysis (BERA) Language. As the growing area of Building Information Modeling (BIM), there has been a need to develop highly customized domain-specific languages for handling issues in building models in the archite...
Conference Paper
This paper reports on the first part of ongoing research with the goal of designing a framework and a knowledge-based system for 3D parametric model-based quantity take-off and cost estimation in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. The authors have studied and analyzed current cost estimation methods used in both the AEC...
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The precast concrete National BIM Standard (NBIMS) initiative is an industrywide effort encompassing the major building model exchanges dealing with precast concrete and addressing a range of contracting and procurement methods. The standard was developed according to the guidelines described within the NBIMS for facilitating information exchanges...
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An important set of information provided through Building Information Modeling (BIM) platforms are quantitative properties of design elements and assemblies. The capability to extract or deduce such quantitative properties from explicit and implicit model information is essential for bidding, procurement, production planning, and cost control activ...
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Despite increasing adoption of Building Information Modeling for reinforced concrete, there is a lack of research to identify system requirements for BIM platforms to efficiently perform various activities throughout reinforcement supply chain. In this study, we evaluate current tools' capabilities and performance from this perspective. We first de...
Conference Paper
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The applications of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in building design, construction production planning, and 4D simulation are growing rapidly. BIM-based modeling and simulation has brought many benefits to safety and logistic applications. However, tedious manual work is still required to model and schedule protective equipment in current BIM...
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Construction safety is a national and worldwide issue. This paper contributes in solving this problem by applying automated safety rule checking to Building Information Models (BIM). Algorithms that automatically analyze a building model to detect safety hazards and suggest preventive measures to users are developed for different cases involving fa...
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Concrete reinforcing requires coordination among many roles: structural engineer, estimator, detailer, fabricator, installer and others. The methods used to define and represent concrete reinforcement elements and assemblies in building information models is crucial in determining the efficiency of sharing data among BIM platforms and the effective...
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This paper presents the design and implementation of space database for developing automated building design review systems. We have developed a set of four software modules for reviewing different aspects of a specific building type — US Courthouses. IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) provides the common building model schema from which these analy...
Conference Paper
The Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) provides a rich and redundant schema for interoperability. However, IFC lacks semantic clarity in mapping entities and relationships resulting in multiple methods to map the same information. This research explores a software engineering methodology based on engineering ontologies to develop a formal, consisten...
Conference Paper
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Using Building Information Modeling (BIM) for design, detailing, fabrication and erection of concrete reinforcement and automating information exchange throughout AEC projects potentially improves productivity of the reinforcement supply chain. This study first develops an information flow process map documenting the reinforcement supply chain acti...
Conference Paper
Model View Definition (MVD) procedures are accepted by buildingSMARTTM as the de facto industry standard in AEC/FM for specifying information exchanges between software applications using Industry Foundation Class (IFC) schema. However, current model view development approaches are time consuming, lack semantic clarity, are expensive to test and va...
Conference Paper
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In the past two decades more than 26,000 U.S. construction workers have died at work. Of these fatalities, 40% involved falls. It is indicated that safety in construction remains a big problem. Safe construction requires planning throughout the project lifecycle, from design, planning, through construction execution and extending into operations an...
Conference Paper
Building Information Modeling realm is expanding with the advent of new technologies, processes and software for Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Facility Management industry. The importance of robust knowledge sharing between different stakeholders in a project is of highest priority in such scenarios. model diew definitions provides an...
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One of the significant benefits of Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the ability to effectively use analysis and evaluation programs during design, as feedback. However, the current dominant approach to analysis and evaluation of design proposals requires the creation of a separate building model for each kind of evaluation. This typically inv...
Conference Paper
Empirical approaches to define Model View Definitions (MVD) for exchange specifications exist and are expensive to build, test, and maintain. This paper presents the novel idea of developing modular and reusable MVDs from IFC Product Modeling Concepts. The need and application for defining model views in a more logical manner is illustrated with ex...
Conference Paper
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Design activities vary from high-degree of freedom in early concept design stages to highly constrained solution spaces in late ones. Such late developments entail large amount of expertise from technical domains. Multiple parallel models handle different aspects of a project, from geometric master models to specific building components. This varie...
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The Rosewood experiment examined building information modeling (BIM) and product data exchange in the design and fabrication of architectural precast façades. The façade panels of a 16 story office building were designed and fabricated using traditional CAD, while a parallel workflow was performed independently using BIM tools. No limitations were...
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In this paper we define a computational method for measuring walking distances within buildings based on a length-weighted graph structure for a given building model. We name it the universal circulation network (UCN) and it has been implemented as plug-in software in Solibri Model Checker using building information modeling technologies. It provid...
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This study proposes usability principles for the user interfaces (UI) design of complex 3D parametric architectural design and engineering tools. Numerous usability principles have been developed for generic desktop or web applications. The authors tried to apply existing usability principles as guidelines for evaluating complex 3D design and engin...
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The industry foundation class IFC standard building model schema is a necessary but not sufficient condition for achieving full interoperability between building information modeling BIM tools. Unless each information exchange within construction project workflows has its specific contents and level of detail defined, the breadth and flexibility of...
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This paper surveys rule checking systems that assess building designs according to various criteria. We examine five major industrial efforts in detail, all relying on IFC building models as input. The functional capabilities of a rule checking system are organized into four stages; these functional criteria provide a framework for comparisons of t...
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Data exchanges between building information modeling (BIM) tools have been tested in a structured set of detailed benchmark tests using a small but complex building model. The tests have shown that despite progress in developing and implementing Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), much work is still needed to achieve fully effective interoperability...
Article
The building information modeling (BIM) tools that have matured for structural steel and precast concrete construction are not suitable for production modeling of cast-in-place (CIP) reinforced concrete structures. The main reason is that CIP structures are monolithic in nature, as opposed to the discrete objects that are typical of steel and preca...
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This paper presents the development of an automated energy analysis for GSA and the results of a case study comparing two courthouse design options in the Preliminary Concept Design stage. The purpose of this study is to understand the issues around a BIM-driven concept design process that integrates building simulation for design evaluation. The s...
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This paper compares the relative productivity of construction industry sectors with significant off-site fabrication with more traditional on-site sectors. The off-site sectors, such as curtainwall, structural steel, and precast concrete fabrication, consistently show higher productivity growth than on-site sectors. Furthermore, the value-added con...
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A product model is a formal and structured definition of product information. The most common procedure for defining a product data model is to first describe the business and/or engineering process in a formal process model, then to create a product data model based on the process model. However, there is a logical gap between process modeling and...
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The Georgia Tech Process to Product Modeling (GTPPM) is a formal process-centric product modeling method. It enables capture of domain-specific information and work processes through process modeling. The method was initially developed in response to the need to integrate multiple use-cases with differing data definitions from different companies....
Conference Paper
Across contexts, researchers have most recently applied content analysis -an unobtrusive scientific method originated to draw social inferences from mass media contents-to studying weblogs and social media (WSM). In this paper, we look at the classic and contemporary definitions of content analysis and identify the methodology's key premises and us...
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This article reviews a method for generating a product model from user data and introduces 12 de- sign patterns for resolving conflicts that may occur in the integration and normalization process. The generat- ing method and design patterns were evaluated during a project to integrate the product models collected from three different precast concre...
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A neutral product model facilitates data exchange and integration. Particularly in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction product domains, neutral product models have been developed to support integration across segments of the product lifecycle and thus support a range of applications. Because of this, only subsets of the neutral data stru...
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Parametric modeling has been proposed as an effective means to embed domain expertise in models of buildings. As information technology becomes more powerful in terms of the ability to manipulate large parametric models, the potential grows to build increasingly sophisticated functional systems for designing, modeling and fabricating buildings. Imp...