Charles A Downs

Charles A Downs

PhD

About

61
Publications
13,037
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585
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Emory University
January 2009 - December 2011
The University of Arizona
Education
August 2011
Emory University
Field of study
  • Cell Physiology--Ion Transport
August 2011

Publications

Publications (61)
Article
This cross-sectional study examined colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors’ symptom and symptom cluster characteristics (occurrence, frequency, and severity), positive psychology (benefit-finding and post-traumatic growth), and quality of life (QoL), and determined whether positive psychology moderates symptoms and QoL relationship during acute cancer s...
Preprint
Background SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has caused over 80 million infections and 973,000 deaths in the United States, and mutations are linked to increased transmissibility. This study aimed to determine the effect of SARS-CoV-2 variants on respiratory features and mortality and to determine the effect of vaccination status. Method A retrospective revie...
Preprint
Long-haul COVID-19, also called Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), is a new illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and characterized by the persistence of symptoms. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify a distinct and significant temporal pattern of PASC symptoms (symptom type and onset) among a nationwide sample of PASC...
Article
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by neuroinflammation and structural damage leading to symptoms and altered brain function. Biomarkers are useful in understanding neuroinflammation and correlations with TBI sequalae. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss biomarkers of neuroinflammation used to study TBI and its sequalae....
Article
Purpose Colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors are living longer; therefore, factors that improve outcomes, like symptom management and quality of life (QoL), have increasingly become important. This study examined CRC survivors' symptom(s) characteristics, positive psychology (benefit finding and post-traumatic growth), and QoL, and determined whether...
Article
Full-text available
Postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV2 (PASC) infection is an emerging global health crisis, variably affecting millions worldwide. PASC has no established treatment. We describe 2 cases of PASC in response to opportune administration of over-the-counter antihistamines, with significant improvement in symptoms and ability to perform activities of daily li...
Article
Depressive symptoms, feelings of sadness, anger, and loss that interfere with a person’s daily life, are prevalent health concerns across populations that significantly result in adverse health outcomes with direct and indirect economic burdens at a national and global level. This article aims to synthesize known mechanisms of depressive symptoms a...
Conference Paper
The world has been affected by COVID-19 coronavirus. At the time of this study, the number of infected people in the United States is the highest globally (31.2 million infections). Within the infected population, patients diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are in more life-threatening circumstances, resulting in severe respi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Caregivers of children with asthma demonstrate higher levels of anxious and depressive symptoms when compared to caregivers of healthy children. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to: 1) Evaluate feasibility and acceptability of two nurse-led, remotely offered interventions for caregivers of children with asthma; 2) Compare e...
Article
Adenocarcinoma accounts for about 40% of all lung cancers. Histological studies indicate a loss of expression of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE) in lung adenocarcinoma cells compared to neighboring non-malignant tissue. Gene silencing of RAGE in human lung adenocarcinoma cells was performed and then cells were subjected to L...
Article
Purpose Music-based interventions can provide non-pharmacological, low-cost treatment for symptoms. This meta-analysis's purpose is to examine music-based interventions' effectiveness on psychological distress symptoms (anxiety, stress, and depressive symptoms), aspects of positive psychology (benefit-finding and resilience), and quality of life (Q...
Preprint
Full-text available
IMPORTANCE: Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection (PASC) is a major public health concern since studies suggest that 1 in 3 infected with SARS-CoV-2 may develop PASC, including those without initial symptoms or with mild COVID-19 disease.1, 2 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the timing, duration, and health impacts of PASC reported by a large group of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Emerging data suggest that the effects of infection with SARS-CoV-2 are far reaching extending beyond those with severe acute disease. Specifically, the presence of persistent symptoms after apparent resolution from COVID-19 have frequently been reported throughout the pandemic by individuals labeled as long-haulers. The purpose of this study was t...
Preprint
The world has been affected by COVID-19 coronavirus. At the time of this study, the number of infected people in the United States is the highest globally (7.9 million infections). Within the infected population, patients diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are in more life-threatening circumstances, resulting in severe respir...
Article
Problem identification: More than 40% of cancer survivors experience a symptom cluster of pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances, which can greatly reduce quality of life. Literature search: A literature search was performed using CINAHL®, Google ScholarTM, PubMed®, PsycINFO®, and Web of Science. Articles included randomized controlled trials of...
Article
Background: Preterm birth is a risk factor for elevated blood pressure in childhood and the development of hypertension and cardiometabolic disease in adulthood; however, mechanisms for the development of both are poorly understood. Rapid weight gain early in childhood may serve as a driver directly and indirectly through cortisol levels found to...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is a compelling unmet medical need for biomarker-based models to risk-stratify patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Effective stratification would optimize participant selection for clinical trial enrollment by focusing on those most likely to benefit from new interventions. Our objective was to develop a prognostic...
Article
Background: Precision health is a population-based approach that incorporates big-data strategies to understand the complex interactions between biological, environmental, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors that influence health. Purpose: A promising tool to facilitate precision health research and its dissemination is the ConNECT Framework. M...
Article
Purpose Long-term consequences of prematurity are a public health concern. A pattern of slow initial weight gain followed by a period of rapid weight gain has been associated with poor cardiometabolic health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between infant feeding practices and weight gain in a sample of 18-to-24-...
Article
Significance statement: In the present study, we undertook the first proteomic evaluation of RAGE-dependent processes in alveolar epithelial cells. The alveolar epithelium is a primary target during acute lung injury, and our data support a role for RAGE in gene transcription, protein transport, and response to stimuli. More over our data suggest...
Chapter
Appropriate lung fluid balance is requisite for healthy lung function. Maintenance of lung fluid balance occurs through coordinated events involving a variety of ion channels, pumps, and pores. These ion transporting proteins are regulated by a variety of proteins, enzymes, and second messengers. Altered regulation of ion transporter proteins in th...
Article
The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) has been characterized in a variety of non-epithelial tissues. In the current study we sought to understand the effect of angiotensin II on δ ENaC function using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The δ ENaC subunit is found in humans, but notably absent in rat and most mouse ep...
Article
Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles that are secreted into the extracellular environment. These vesicles contain various biological effector molecules that can regulate intracellular signaling pathways in recipient cells. The aim of this study was to examine a correlation between exosomal cathepsin B activity and the receptor for advanced glycation en...
Chapter
All segments of the upper and lower pulmonary epithelium have the capacity for transcellular ion transport. Net movement of solute across the alveolar epithelium, however, plays an especially important role in lung fluid homeostasis and appropriate oxygenation of the body. Apically located epithelial sodium channels alongside the coordinated action...
Article
Diabetes affects at least 382 million people worldwide and the incidence is expected to reach 592 million by 2035. The incidence of diabetes in youth is skyrocketing as evidenced by a 21% increase in type 1 diabetes and a 30.5% increase in type 2 diabetes in the United States between 2001 and 2009. The effects of toxic stress, the culmination of bi...
Article
Pregnancy is a particularly vulnerable time for exposure to indoor air pollutants, such as formaldehyde (FA), which is linked to spontaneous abortion, congenital malformations, and premature birth. To determine personal exposure to FA during pregnancy, and to identify the relationship between FA exposure levels and potential residential sources of...
Article
Amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC) regulate fluid balance in the alveoli, and are regulated by oxidative stress. Since glutathione (GSH) is the predominant antioxidant in the lungs, we proposed that changes in glutathione redox potential (Eh) would alter cell signaling and have an effect on ENaC open probability (Po). In the prese...
Article
In vivo imaging is an important tool for pre-clinical studies of lung function and disease. The widespread availability of multimodal animal imaging systems and the rapid rate of diagnostic contrast agent development has empowered researchers to non-invasively study lung function and pulmonary disorders. Investigators can identify, track, and quant...
Article
The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), a multi-ligand member of the immunoglobulin family, may play a crucial role in the regulation of lung fluid balance. We quantified soluble RAGE (sRAGE), a decoy isoform, and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) from the BAL fluid of smokers and non-smokers, and tested the hypothesis that AG...
Article
Full-text available
Ion channels perform a variety of cellular functions in lung epithelia. Oxidant- and antioxidant-mediated mechanisms (that is--redox regulation) of ion channels are areas of intense research. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of redox regulation of ion channels since the last Experimental Biology report in 2003. Advancements i...
Article
Full-text available
Nadph oxidase 4 is an important cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the kidney. Novel anti-oxidant drugs, such as Nox4-inhibitor compounds, are being developed. There is however, very little experimental evidence for the biological role and regulation of Nadph oxidase isoforms in the kidney. Herein, we show that Fulvene-5...
Article
Full-text available
Cigarette smoke contains high levels of reactive species. Moreover, cigarette smoke can induce cellular production of oxidants. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-derived oxidants on epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity in alveolar type 1(T1) and type 2 (T2) cells and to measure corresponding...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased incidence of ICU-related morbidity and mortality, primarily from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. One explanation is that alcohol regulates epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) via oxidant signaling to promote a pro- injury environment. We...
Article
Full-text available
Redundancies in both the ubiquitin and epithelial sodium transport pathways allude to their importance of proteolytic degradation and ion transport in maintaining normal cell function. The classical pathway implicated in ubiquitination of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) involves Nedd4-2 regulation of sodium channel subunit expression and has b...
Article
Full-text available
Similar to effects of alcohol on the heart, liver, and brain, the effects of ethanol (EtOH) on lung injury are preventable. Unlike other vital organ systems, however, the lethal effects of alcohol on the lung are underappreciated, perhaps because there are no signs of overt pulmonary disorder until a secondary insult, such as a bacterial infection...
Conference Paper
Background: Cigarette smoke (CS) is the single greatest factor in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). CS may affect telomeres, structures at the ends of chromosomes that shorten with each cell division, by accelerating telomere shortening which critically impacts cell function and cell division and ultimately leads to d...
Article
Full-text available
β-Adrenergic receptors (β-AR) increase epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity to promote lung fluid clearance. However, the effect of selective β-AR agonist on highly selective cation (HSC) channels or nonselective cation (NSC) channels in alveolar type 1 (T1) and type 2 (T2) cells is unknown. We hypothesized that stimulation with β(1)-AR agonis...
Article
Cigarette smoke causes oxidative stress in the lung resulting in injury and disease. The purpose of this study was to determine if there were age-related differences in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced production of reactive species in single and co-cultures of alveolar epithelial type I (AT I) cells and microvascular endothelial cells harvest...
Article
There is a lack of cell culture models using primary alveolar type I (AT I) cells. The purpose of this study was to develop cell culture models using rat AT I cells and microvascular endothelial cells from the lung (MVECL). Two types of model systems were developed: single and co-culture systems; additionally a 3-dimensional model system was develo...
Article
To describe available methods for assessing functional capacity in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). An extensive literature review is used to provide pertinent information. COPD disease affects millions of Americans and is physically and psychologically distressing. The hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is...
Article
Full-text available
Scientists and clinicians frequently use immunological methods (IMs) to investigate complex biological phenomena. Commonly used IMs include immunocytochemistry (IC), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and flow cytometry. Each of these methodologies exploits a common principle in IMs -the binding of an antibody to its antigen. Scientists con...
Article
Despite known advantages, the use of biobehavioral approaches in nursing research remains limited. The purposes of this article are to (1) present applications of stress and inflammation in various health conditions as examples of biobehavioral concepts and (2) stimulate similar applications of biobehavioral concepts in future nursing research. Und...
Conference Paper
Purpose: Our laboratory uses cell culture models to study aging-related phenomena. It is becoming increasing apparent that reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a role in aging and age-related diseases. The purpose of this paper is to describe plate-based assays in our laboratory to assess ROS in cell culture models of aging. Background: Excessive ROS...
Article
Full-text available
Postdoctoral training is vital to a successful career for nurse researchers with a biological or biobehavioral focus. Such training provides structured time to devote to gaining substantive knowledge, expanding one's biological-methods repertoire, and writing grants. However, for unknown reasons, relatively few nurses pursue postdoctoral training....
Conference Paper
Problem and Rationale: Although chronological age in years is commonly used as a measure of age in human subjects, it is not necessarily the best marker of age in all investigations. In biological studies, telomere length is one of many emerging aging markers. Telomeres are structures that are found at chromosome ends and that shorten with cell div...
Article
Although adults with HIV are at risk of developing cognitive impairments, the literature suggests that nurses and clinicians should be cautious about relying on patients' perceptions of their mental abilities. However, these findings are based on a questionnaire of cognitive complaints that may not lend itself easily to a clinical setting. In this...
Article
Find out how to interpret values and steady a disturbed equilibrium in an acutely ill patient.
Article
The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the current modalities employed in diagnosing and treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Special emphasis is placed on current guidelines, as defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. A comprehensive literature review for COPD serves as...

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