Charles Carver

Charles Carver
University of Miami | UM · Department of Psychology

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445
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (445)
Article
Poor sleep and different patterns of marital status among Hispanics/Latinos have been documented, yet the extent to which marital status is associated with sleep health and the moderating role of gender in this association among Hispanics/Latinos is poorly understood. Demographic and sleep data were obtained from the Hispanic Community Health Study...
Article
Objective: The experience of cancer not only elicits turmoil but also resilience in the family, which has been related to psychological adjustment and physical health of family caregivers. The biological pathways linking family cancer caregiving to health, however, remain poorly understood. This study examined the extent to which psychological ris...
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Dispositional optimism refers to the generalized and stable expectation that future outcomes will be positive in nature. Ways of assessing dispositional optimism are discussed, and research relating dispositional optimism to physical health is presented. The review highlights the beneficial associations that have been found between optimism and bot...
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This chapter reviews models of personality and coping, explores relationships between them, and discusses how they influence mental and physical health outcomes. Aspects of personality outlined include the five‐factor model, optimism, and expectancy‐value motivational processes. Subsets of coping responses are addressed, including problem‐focused v...
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Background: Identifying and addressing caregivers' unmet needs have been suggested as a way of reducing their distress and improving their quality of life. However, the needs of family cancer caregivers are complex in the period of long-term survivorship in particular because they may diverge as the patients' survivorship trajectory does, and that...
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Objective To investigate the extent to which age and specific sources of caregiving stress are associated with cancer caregivers’ health. Methods: New colorectal cancer caregivers (n = 88; age M = 49) reported caregiving stress (i.e., disrupted schedule, lacking family support, financial strain) and mental and physical health, and collected saliva...
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Trait-like tendencies to respond impulsively to emotion, labelled emotion-related impulsivity, are robustly related to aggression. We developed and tested an online intervention to address emotion-related impulsivity and aggression. The 6-session intervention focused on behavioral techniques shown to decrease arousal and aggression, supplemented wi...
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Although aggression is related to manic symptoms among those with bipolar disorder, new work suggests that some continue to experience elevations of aggression after remission. This aggression post-remission appears related to a more general tendency to respond impulsively to states of emotion, labelled emotion-related impulsivity. We recently deve...
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Background: Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) has been associated with cancer screening behaviors among cancer survivors, but to the authors' knowledge, the question of whether the same is true for caregivers is unknown. The current study investigated the extent to which FCR among caregivers predicted their cancer screening behaviors years after the...
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Purpose/Background Accumulating evidence shows that bereaved family caregivers report elevated distress for an extended period, which compromises their quality of life. A first step in the development of programs to enhance bereaved caregivers’ quality of life should be determining the needs they experience to manage the loss, and the needs that ar...
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Purpose To identify demographic and caregiving characteristics associated with caregivers’ unmet needs and to examine associations of caregivers’ unmet needs with their quality of life at 2 years and 5 years since their patients’ initial diagnosis. Methods Family cancer caregivers completed prospective longitudinal surveys at 2 years (T1) and 5 ye...
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Carver and Scheier’s (1990) account of goal striving predicts that unexpectedly fast goal progress leads to reduced effort at that goal (coasting) and to shifting focus toward other goals (shifting). Although these hypotheses are key to this goal-striving account, empirical evidence of coasting and shifting is scarce. Here we demonstrate coasting a...
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Theory about the conceptual basis of psychiatric disorders has long emphasized negative emotionality. More recent ideas emphasize roles for positive emotionality and impulsivity as well. This review examines impulsive responses to positive and negative emotions, which have been labeled as urgency. Urgency is conceptually and empirically distinct fr...
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Objectives: To review the family caregivers' unmet needs in the long-term phase of survivorship to identify unique challenges faced by family caregivers. Data sources: Research-based articles and published reports. Conclusion: Family caregivers diverge into three distinct groups in the long-term survivorship phase: those remaining in care, tho...
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Objective: Survivors of breast cancer experience stress and are at risk for depressive symptoms following primary treatment. Group-based interventions such as cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) delivered postsurgery for nonmetastatic breast cancer (BCa) were previously associated with fewer depressive symptoms over a 12-month follow-up;...
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Introduction Family caregivers of adult cancer patients are at risk for elevated psychological distress and poorer sleep quality, compared with non-caregivers. While psychological distress is known to be a predictor of poor sleep, unknown is the specificity of the distress/mood to which poor sleep is most attributable. This study aimed to investiga...
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Exposure to adverse environments during childhood is robustly linked to future aggressive behavior. In this study we tested a model of emotional and neurocognitive mechanisms related to aggressive behavior in the context of childhood adversity. More specifically, we used path analysis to assess the distal contribution of childhood adversity and the...
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This article considers self and self-concept in bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder, defined on the basis of manic symptoms, is a highly debilitating psychopathology. It is heavily grounded in biology but symptom course is still very responsive to psychological and social forces in the lives of persons who have the disorder. This review assumes an o...
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Introduction Breast cancer (BCa) patients revealing poorer psychological adaptation after surgery show greater inflammation and have poorer long-term outcomes. Our 10-wk group cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention showed concomitant 12-month improvements in adaptation and downregulated leukocyte pro-inflammatory and pro-metasta...
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Introduction The link between anxiety and breast cancer outcomes has recently been a topic of interest in behavioral medicine, and threat-associated distress states may be associated with increased inflammation, which is relevant for breast cancer recurrence. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between post-surgical anxiety le...
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Dispositional optimism is the generalized, relatively stable tendency to expect good outcomes across important life domains. This article provides a representative review of 30 years of research on dispositional optimism and physical well-being. Assessment of optimism is described, along with data regarding its stability. A review of the research l...
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Impulsiveness has been studied as an aspect of personality and psychopathology for generations. There are longstanding disagreements about how to define it and whether it should be viewed as one construct or several. This article begins by briefly reviewing some earlier and some more recent work on impulsiveness. Several approaches have recently co...
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Acetaminophen has been shown to influence cognitive and affective behavior possibly via alterations in serotonin function. This study builds upon this previous work by examining the relationship between acetaminophen and dual-learning systems, comprising reflective (rule-based) and reflexive (information-integration) processing. In a double-blind,...
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Prior research suggests that a traitlike tendency to experience impulsivity during states of high emotion is robustly associated with many forms of psychopathology. Several studies tie emotion‐related impulsivity to response inhibition deficits, but these studies have not focused on the role of emotion or arousal within subjects. The present study...
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Background Although spirituality has been identified as a psychological resource relevant to coping with caregiving stress, little is known about the differential roles of spirituality’s facets in bereaved caregivers’ adjustment. Purpose This study examined this question with regard to bereavement-specific and general distress in cancer caregivers...
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Objective: Cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) improves adaptation to primary treatment for breast cancer (BCa), evidenced as reductions in distress and increases in positive affect. Because not all BCa patients may need psychosocial intervention, identifying those most likely to benefit is important. A secondary analysis of a previous r...
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Purpose: This study tested a theory linking a marker of low serotonergic function to both depression and impulsivity in a sample of advanced breast cancer patients, among whom elevated depressive symptoms and difficulty regulating emotions are commonly reported. Methods: A total of 95 patients provided blood samples for serotonin transporter pol...
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More than a dozen recent studies have shown that bipolar disorder and key outcomes within bipolar disorder are related to heightened willingness to pursue extremely ambitious life goals, as measured by the Willingly Approached Set of Statistically Unlikely Pursuits (WASSUP). Although it has been argued that this willingness to pursue difficult life...
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Purpose: Satisfaction with social resources, or "social well-being," relates to better adaptation and longer survival after breast cancer diagnosis. Biobehavioral mechanisms linking social well-being (SWB) to mental and physical health may involve inflammatory signaling. We tested whether reports of greater SWB were associated with lower levels of...
Chapter
Optimism and pessimism – generalized expectancies that the future will be positive or negative – cause broad and diverse differences between people in subjective well-being and how they achieve it. People who are more optimistic cope with adversities by addressing rather than avoiding them and their feelings about them; they engage with and accompl...
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Background: Cancer caregiving has been associated with worsening health among caregivers themselves, yet demographic and psychosocial predictors of their long-term health decline are less known. This study examines changes in caregivers' physical health 2 to 8 years after their family members' cancer diagnosis and prospective predictors of that ch...
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Objective: Cancer caregiving burden is known to vary across the survivorship trajectory and has been linked with caregivers' subsequent health impairment. Little is known, however, regarding how risk factors during long-term survivorship relate to vulnerability to caregivers' health during that period. This study examined effects of caregiving sta...
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Evidence indicates the existence of a superordinate factor of general psychopathology, which has been termed p. Among the issues raised by this discovery is whether this factor has substantive meaning or not. This article suggests a functional interpretation of the p factor, based in part on a family of dual process models, in which an associative...
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Objectives: A growing empirical literature indicates that emotion-related impulsivity (compared to impulsivity that is unrelated to emotion) is particularly relevant for understanding a broad range of psychopathologies. Recent work, however, has differentiated two forms of emotion-related impulsivity: A factor termed Pervasive Influence of Feeling...
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Objective Physical activity (PA) following surgery for breast cancer may improve depressive symptoms and quality of life (QoL) via reduction in fatigue-related daily interference (FRDI). Less is known about how change in PA may relate to these psychosocial factors throughout the course of treatment. In a secondary analysis of a previous psychosocia...
Chapter
Self-regulation entails attempts to approach desired conditions and escape from threats. We have long argued that these functions, and the affects that accompany them, reflect feedback processes. These processes form a hierarchy of behavioral goals and monitoring functions, with affect playing a key role in priority management. An alternative const...
Chapter
Optimism is a trait that reflects the extent to which people hold generalized favorable versus unfavorable expectancies for their future. Higher optimism has been related prospectively (i.e., controlling for previous well-being) to higher subjective well-being in times of adversity. Optimism has also been linked to greater engagement coping and les...
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Purpose: Cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) is an empirically-validated group-based psychosocial intervention. CBSM is related to decreased self-reported indicators of psychological adversity during breast cancer treatment and greater disease-free survival (DFS) vs. a control condition. This study examined relationships between CBSM, DF...
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A growing body of research suggests that impulsive responses to emotion more robustly predict suicidality than do other forms of impulsivity. This issue has not yet been examined within bipolar disorder, however. Participants diagnosed with bipolar I disorder (n = 133) and control participants (n = 110) diagnosed with no mood or psychotic disorder...
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Objective: Many treatment-seeking smokers have difficulty quitting and maintaining abstinence. Trait impulsivity versus self-control is relevant to this problem. However, impulsivity is a multifaceted construct, and different measures emphasize different parts of it. This study compared 2 self-report measures of self-control versus impulsiveness a...
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Positive urgency, the tendency to respond impulsively to positive affective states, has been linked to many psychopathologies, but little is known about mechanisms underpinning this form of impulsivity. We examined whether the Positive Urgency Measure (PUM) related to higher scores on performance-based measures of impulsivity and cognitive control...
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Genetic polymorphisms relevant to behavioral approach and behavioral inhibition are examined, using a polygenic approach while also considering the role of early adversity. Undergraduates (N. =. 343) completed the well-validated Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales and provided blood for genotyping. The BDNF me...
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Objective: Evidence suggests interdependence between cancer patients' and their caregivers' physical and mental health. However, the extent to which caregivers' health relates to their patients' recovery, or patients' health affects their caregivers' outcomes, is largely unknown. This dyadic investigation reports the relations between cancer patie...
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Background: A substantial number of family caregivers go through bereavement because of cancer, but little is known about the bereaved caregivers' long-term adjustment. This study aimed to document levels of bereavement outcomes (prolonged grief symptoms, intense emotional reaction to the loss, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction) among fam...
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Objective: Depression and inflammation may independently promote breast cancer (BCa) disease progression and poorer clinical outcomes. Depression has been associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers in medically healthy individuals and patients with cancer. However, inconsistencies in study time frames complicate interpretation of res...
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A polymorphism in the mu opioid receptor gene OPRM1 (rs1799971) has been investigated for its role in sensitivity to social contexts. Evidence suggests that the G allele of this polymorphism is associated with higher levels of sensitivity. This study tested for main effects of the polymorphism and its interaction with a self-report measure of child...
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Non-metastatic breast cancer patients often experience psychological distress which may influence disease progression and survival. Cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) improves psychological adaptation and lowers distress during breast cancer treatment and long-term follow-ups. We examined whether breast cancer patients randomized to CBSM...
Article
Recent evidence suggests that anger and aggression are of concern even during remission for persons with bipolar I disorder, although there is substantial variability in the degree of anger and aggression across individuals. Little research is available to examine psychological models of anger and aggression for those with remitted bipolar disorder...
Chapter
Two of this chapter’s authors (Charles Carver and Michael Scheier) have used the term self-regulation for well over three decades, after having adopted a viewpoint on behavior that depends heavily on the principles of feedback control. The broad outlines of that viewpoint remain much the same today. However, the state of knowledge in neuroscience a...
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Diagnosis of and treatment for breast cancer (BCa) may require psychological adaptation and often involve heightened distress. Several types of social support positively relate to psychological adaptation to BCa, and negative support is associated with poorer adaptation. Although Hispanic women report greater distress than non-Hispanic White (NHW)...
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This study examined how stress from cancer affects fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) in cancer patients and their family caregivers during the year following diagnosis. Colorectal cancer patients and their caregivers (92 dyads) completed questionnaires at two (T1), six (T2), and 12 months post-diagnosis (T3). Individuals reported perceived canc...
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The target article asserts that resilience results from a generalized tendency to appraise stressful circumstances positively. Apparently unbeknownst to the authors, essentially the same idea has been advanced before and studied extensively from a different research perspective. This raises a broader issue: the critical need, when projects attempt...
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Affective dynamics are discussed from the perspective of a view of origin and functions of affective valence based in control processes. This view posits that affect reflects the error signal of a feedback loop managing rate of progress at goal attainment or threat avoidance. Negative feelings signal doing poorly, demanding more effort. Positive fe...
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The long-term impact of cancer caregiving on the family caregivers' quality of life (QOL) is currently not known. This study aimed (a) to characterize family caregivers of cancer survivors at 8 years post-diagnosis in terms of multidimensional aspects of QOL and (b) to identify demographic and early caregiving experience characteristics that may pl...
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Women with breast cancer (BCa) report elevated distress postsurgery. Group-based cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) following surgery improves psychological adaptation, though its key mechanisms remain speculative. This randomized controlled dismantling trial compared 2 interventions featuring elements thought to drive CBSM effects: a 5-...
Chapter
Depression is a syndrome involving sadness and doubt, loss of motivation, and the ability to experience enjoyment. Pessimism (the negative pole of the optimism dimension) is a trait consisting of the generalized expectancy of bad outcomes in important life domains; the term hopelessness conveys a similar sense of anticipating bad outcomes. All thes...
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BACKGROUND Breast cancer survivors experience long-term physical and psychological sequelae after their primary treatment that negatively influence their quality of life (QOL) and increase depressive symptoms. Group-based cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) delivered after surgery for early-stage breast cancer was previously associated wi...
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Studies have shown that caregivers report impaired quality of life (QOL). This study investigated how caregiving motives predict long-term spirituality and QOL among cancer caregivers and the role of gender in these associations. Caregiving motives of family members (n = 369) were measured 2 years after their relative's cancer diagnosis (T1), and b...
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Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating t...
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In this randomized trial, Project CARE, we examined whether participation in a cognitive-behavioral stress management and breast cancer wellness and education program improved psychological outcomes among a sample of underserved black breast cancer survivors. Both complementary medicine interventions were 10-sessions, manualized, group-based, and w...