Charles Hin Joo Bong

Charles Hin Joo Bong
University Malaysia Sarawak · Department of Civil Engineering

PhD (Urban Drainage Management)

About

44
Publications
35,122
Reads
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361
Citations
Citations since 2017
17 Research Items
264 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202301020304050
201720182019202020212022202301020304050
Additional affiliations
February 2014 - present
University Malaysia Sarawak
Position
  • Senior Lecturer
December 2010 - December 2013
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Position
  • PhD Student
Description
  • Thesis on the characteristics on sediment commonly found in urban stormwater drainage system, improvement on current available incipient motion equation and designing and testing the suitability of a tipping flushing gate in urban drainage system.
April 2006 - February 2014
University Malaysia Sarawak
Position
  • Lecturer
Education
December 2010 - December 2013
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Field of study
  • Urban Drainage Management
June 2004 - December 2005
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
Field of study
  • Hydraulics & Hydrology
June 2000 - June 2003
University Malaysia Sarawak
Field of study
  • Civil

Publications

Publications (44)
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the design of a tipping flush gate and its potential use in servicing open storm sewers in terms of sedimentation management. The tipping flush gate was installed in a section of open concrete storm sewer located in a commercial area in Taman Pekaka, Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia. Monitoring of the gate operation and performanc...
Article
Full-text available
This paper highlights a preliminary study on the potential of a tipping flush gate to be used in an open storm drain to remove sediment. The investigation was carried out by using a plasboard model of the tipping flush gate installed in a rectangular flume. A steady flow experiment was carried out to determine the discharge coefficients and also th...
Article
Full-text available
This paper highlights the results of sediment size characteristics and deposition analysis on 24 sediment samples from urban concrete drains in Kuching City. Further sampling from surrounding urban towns outside Kuching City and Penang were done for comparison. Samples were collected randomly from three land-use types (residential, commercial and i...
Article
Full-text available
The current study aims to verify the existing equations for incipient motion for a rigid rectangular channel. Data from experimental work on incipient motion from a rectangular flume with two different widths, namely 0.3 and 0.6 m, were compared with the critical velocity value predicted by the equations of Novak & Nalluri and El-Zaemey. The equati...
Chapter
Kuching city and its surrounding urban areas frequently experience extreme high annual maximum daily rainfall (AMDR), resulting in flash floods. This study aims to carry out statistical and trend analysis of extreme AMDR events for Kuching Airport rainfall station from 1975 to 2017. From the analysis, the AMDR records a high variability with a valu...
Article
Full-text available
Hydraulic flushing is a popular and cost effective method for sedimentation control in sewer, especially in European countries. The quick release of large water volume leads to a flush wave with high turbulent flow mimicking dam break phenomenon to flush out the sediment accumulated in sewer. This paper presents a review of the existing literature...
Article
Full-text available
An understanding of rainfall temporal patterns is important for flood estimation and planning for sustainable flood designs and management. However, current published rainfall temporal patterns in design manuals are mostly generalised for a region which covers large areas. This raises doubts regarding its accuracy, especially for sensitive urban ar...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses experimental data on sediment incipient motion with varying sediment bed thickness (of d50, 5, 10 and 24 mm). Sediment particles (with sizes ranging from 0.5 mm to 4.78 mm) were used to evaluate the effect of deposited bed. Variation of shear velocity estimation was investigated where the critical Shields parameter was expressed...
Article
Full-text available
The current study aims at the development of an incipient motion equation and a self-cleansing design chart based on the critical shear stress approach for a rectangular channel. Data from previous experimental work on incipient motion for rectangular flumes were subjected to multiple linear regression analysis. Selected regression models were furt...
Chapter
Full-text available
This study explores the concept of hydraulic flushing gate with an automated control system as a flow control structure of the urban storm water system. The research team has implemented a flush gate with the automated control system to the flow of the water in a drainage channel. The flow control structure was used to determine the effectiveness o...
Article
Full-text available
Severe droughts in the year 1998 and 2014 in Sarawak due to strong El Nino has impacted the water supply and irrigated agriculture. In this study, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was used for drought identification and monitoring in Sarawak River Basin. Using monthly precipitation data between the year 1975 and 2016 for 15 rainfall stati...
Chapter
Full-text available
The hydrologic cycle is a probably better known to lay persons as the water cycle. It is really a conceptual model that describes the changing phases of water from liquid to gas (evaporation), gas to liquid (condensation), liquid to solid (freezing), solid to liquid (melting), gas to solid and solid to gas (both termed sublimation).All these changi...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to study the flow characteristics through angled baffle-plates in open channel. The experiments were conducted in a self-circulating hydraulic flume with three designated baffle-plates angles (30°, 60°, and 90°) and three flow conditions (high, medium, and low). Results showed that all the designed angles for the different flow cond...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study explores the concept of hydraulic flushing gate with an automated control system as a flow control structure of the urban stormwater system. The research team has implemented a flush gate with the automated control system to the flow of the water in a drainage channel. The flow control structure was used to determine the effectiveness of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Drought is hard to be detected and monitored. Severe droughts in the year 1998 and 2014 in Sarawak due to strong El Nino has impacted the water supply and irrigated agriculture. In this study, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was used for drought identification and monitoring in Sarawak River Basin. Using monthly precipitation data betwee...
Article
Full-text available
This paper highlights the statistical analysis done on sediment samples collected from concrete drains in Malaysian major urban areas in order to understand the characteristics of the sediment and also to determine the suitable representative grain size. Samples were collected from 12 urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia and 3 urban areas in East Mal...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the performance of artificial neural network in predicting the incipient motion of deposited sediment in sewers. Two neural network algorithms, i.e. feed forward neural network (FFNN) and radial basis function (RBF) were employed to estimate the critical velocity over varying sediment thickness, median grain size and water d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study investigated the possible causes of the occurrence of flash flood in UniGarden by looking into the hydrologic and hydraulic factors. This study consists of the assessment of water balance (precipitation, surface runoff, and infiltration) as well as the suitability of the hydraulic capacity of the existing earth drain based on MSMA guidel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hydraulic flushing is the most widely used method for sediment removal in sewer. However, open storm sewer tend to have longer flushing duration as compared to closed conduit sewer. This is due to storm water could enter more directly and rapidly into open storm sewer especially during rain events. The current study aims to determine the effect of...
Article
Full-text available
A vital topic regarding the optimum and economical design of rigid boundary open channels such as sewers and drainage systems is determining the movement of sediment particles. In this study, the incipient motion of sediment is estimated using three datasets from literature, including a wide range of hydraulic parameters. Because existing equations...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper the flow characteristics of stormwater are analyzed as it travels from a roof gutter down-pipe and the turbulent flow generated on entering an individual lot on-site stormwater detention (OSD) unit beneath a residential carport. Comparison was made between a full-scale model and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations to determi...
Article
Full-text available
The understanding of how the sediment deposit thickness influenced the incipient motion characteristic is still lacking in the literature. Hence, the current study aims to determine the effect of sediment deposition thickness on the critical velocity for incipient motion. Incipient motion experiment was conducted in a rigid boundary rectangular flu...
Article
Full-text available
There are evidences in existing literature suggesting the incipient motion values for any particle size is substantially lower for rigid boundary condition as compared to loose boundary condition. The objective of the current study is to determine the effect of sediment deposition thickness on the critical shear stress for incipient motion. Experim...
Chapter
Full-text available
The hydrologic cycle is a probably better known to lay persons as the water cycle. It is really a conceptual model that describes the changing phases of water from liquid to gas (evaporation), gas to liquid (condensation), liquid to solid (freezing), solid to liquid (melting), gas to solid and solid to gas (both termed sublimation).All these changi...
Article
Full-text available
A vital topic regarding the optimum and economical design of rigid boundary open channels such as sewers and drainage systems is determining the movement of sediment particles. In this study, the incipient motion of sediment is estimated using three datasets from literature, including a wide range of hydraulic parameters. Because existing equations...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The current understanding on how sediment deposition thickness could affect the incipient motion of sediment is still lacking in the literature. Few existing literature suggested that the current equation for incipient motion in rigid boundary channel with limited sediment depth become less accurate as the sediment bed thickness increased. The curr...
Research
This paper highlights the statistical analysis done on sediment samples collected from concrete drains in Malaysian major urban areas in order to understand the characteristics of the sediment and also to determine the suitable representative grain size. Samples were collected from 12 urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia and 1 urban area in East Mala...
Research
Full-text available
This paper highlights the results of a short term (three weeks) monitoring of open storm sewer in a residential area in Kuching city, Malaysia in terms of sedimentation. The monitoring was done by measuring the water level and sediment depth for the chosen stretch daily during the period of study. The variation in the mean sediment depth where ther...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The current literature on incipient motion are largely for loose boundary channel with unlimited depth of sediment as compares to rigid boundary channel with limited sediment depth. A few existing literature for rigid boundary channel suggested that the incipient motion value is substantially lower than for loose boundary channels for any particle...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of the present study is to develop incipient motion equation and design chart based on critical velocity approach for the self-cleansing design of rectangular open storm sewer. Data from experimental work on incipient motion from rectangular flumes with two different widths, namely 0.3 m and 0.6 m were subjected to multiple linear regressio...
Article
Full-text available
Sediment deposits in sewer system had been known to have adverse effects on the hydraulic performance of the system and also on the environment. Thus, the need for sewer system to carry sediment has been recognized for many years and self-cleansing criteria have been proposed in the literature for design purposes. Conventionally, a minimum critical...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a case study of using a tipping flush gate for sediment flushing in an open concrete storm drain. The study was conducted in an open concrete storm drain located in Taman Pekaka, Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia with the objectives to study the scouring effect of flushing on sediment in the drain and also the feasibility to use ti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sediment deposits in drainage system have been found to be one of the causes of flash flood due to loss of hydraulic capacity of drains besides causing blockages and potential pollution to existing water. Drainage systems are usually designed to be self-cleansing by adopting a minimum velocity to reduce sedimentation. In order for drain to have sel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper aims at evaluating whether the design criteria based on critical velocity or critical shear stress is more suitable for the purpose of self-cleansing in open concrete drain. Experimental work on incipient motion was done in rectangular flume with two different widths namely 0.3 m and 0.6 m. The results from the incipient motion experimen...
Article
Full-text available
Hydraulics simulation can be used as a supporting tool for planning and developing a framework, such as Integrated Flood Management for river management. To demonstrate this, a hydraulics model for the Sarawak River Basin was run using InfoWorks RS software by Wallingford Software, UK. InfoWorks River Simulation (RS) was chosen because its applicab...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sediment deposition in drains has been found to be one of the major causes of flooding in urban areas. In order to design an effective removal mechanism, an understanding of the characteristics of the sediment deposition is needed. This paper highlights the results of sediment size characteristics analysis done on sediment samples collected from co...
Article
Full-text available
Existing literature suggests that Darcy’s law is not valid in layers of different degrees of decomposed peat soil. The present study attempts to validate the applicability of Darcy’s law by comparing the velocity predicted by it and the velocity obtained through experiment for a peat soil column and also to assess the changes of hydraulic conductiv...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Climate change due to global warming is expected to play a role in determining the availability of water in years to come. An understanding on the potential effects of climate change on the hydrology of a river basin is important in preparing adaptability measures that will produce benefits even if climate does not change. For the case of Sarawak R...
Article
Full-text available
A pilot project of greywater ecological treatment is established in Kuching city since 2003. Such treatment facility opens up an opportunity of wastewater reclamation for reuse as secondary sources of water for non-consumptive purposes. This paper aims in exploring the potential of the intended purposes in the newly developed ecological treatment p...
Article
Full-text available
The practical interest to study the flow in compound channel section arises from the necessity for accurate discharge predictions during flood events and for a reliable stage discharge relation for flood control measures and management schemes. It has been long realized that traditional hydraulic methods of channel subdivision are inadequate for di...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to improve water level prediction at Bedup River with estimations made to absent precipitation data, both using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Studies to predict water level in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia have been actively carried out. However, among problem faced was absent precipitation readings, which inevitably affected wa...

Questions

Questions (2)
Question
I would like to know the practice of municipal council throughout the world on their practice for sedimentation cleaning of sewer. The paper by Lange and Wichern (2013) published in Water Science & Technology (Volume 68; Issue:4, 756-762) titled "Sedimentation dynamics in combined sewer systems" stated that in North Rhine-Westphalia, MURL (1995) suggested to clean the sewer when the sediment deposit reaches 15% of the pipe diameter. Is there any technical justification for this? If so, what are the reference that I can referred to?
Question
One of my examiner suggested to use RSM in my analysis. I'm studying incipient motion of sediment and in my experiment I varies my sediment mixture, sediment deposition thickness and channel slope. Could anybody suggest suitable literature on RSM and how to use it in my analysis?

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
1. To apply fuzzy FMEA to flush gate design. 2. To collect related data/information from expert. 3. Matlab stimulation on flushing gate design.