Charles F Bond

Charles F Bond

PhD

About

74
Publications
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6,632
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Publications

Publications (74)
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter provides an overview of research on non-verbal lie detection and some new meta-analytic findings. The chapter begins with a review of classic theories of deception which predict the existence of non-verbal cues to deception. A brief overview of the empirical findings on behavioural cues to deception based on meta-analytic findings is a...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the importance of judgments of veracity in many settings, research suggests that it is difficult to detect lies. In this meta-analysis, we assess the detectability of lies from constellations of multiple cues, with a particular focus on whether lie detectability increases as the conditions approach real-life, forensic settings, as some crit...
Article
Full-text available
Over the years, people have searched for deception cues in the liar's behavior. However, the sender's incentives to lie might be more revealing than behavior. In Experiment 1, an incentive was developed that was predictive of lying. Judges with access to incentive information in addition to behavior achieved almost perfect lie/truth detection. This...
Article
Highlights ► There are many important questions about deception besides accuracy. ► Lies are not always about crimes or other bad behaviors. ► Curiosity-driven scholarship will broaden and deepen the study of deceit.
Article
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Decades of research has shown that people are poor at detecting lies. Two explanations for this finding have been proposed. First, it has been suggested that lie detection is inaccurate because people rely on invalid cues when judging deception. Second, it has been suggested that lack of valid cues to deception limits accuracy. A series of 4 meta-a...
Article
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Truth tellers may look dishonest when suspected of lying; if so, perceivers should be vulnerable to mistakes in recognizing the truth. In an experiment we find evidence of this error in truth detection. The error reflects a seeming confirmation of false accusations and is not merely a perceptual distortion. Affective and motivational explanations f...
Article
Attitude embodiment effects occur when the position or movement of a person's physical body changes the way the person evaluates an object. The present research investigated whether attitude embodiment effects depend more on biomechanical factors or on inferential cues to causal agency. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that actual movements of the physic...
Article
Full-text available
In two influential articles, Paul Ekman and associates have determined ‘who can catch a liar’ and reported that ‘a few can catch a liar’. The current article seeks to clarify these contributions. It provides information that was not mentioned in Ekman's journal articles. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
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The authors report a meta-analysis of individual differences in detecting deception, confining attention to occasions when people judge strangers' veracity in real-time with no special aids. The authors have developed a statistical technique to correct nominal individual differences for differences introduced by random measurement error. Although r...
Article
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C. F. Bond and B. M. DePaulo reported a quantitative synthesis of individual differences in judging deception. Here, the authors respond to a pair of commentaries on this synthesis: a statistical critique by T. D. Pigott and M. J. Wu and a narrative reaction by M. O'Sullivan. In response to suggestions made by Pigott and Wu, the authors conduct sev...
Article
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M. O'Sullivan and P. Ekman (2004) claim to have discovered 29 wizards of deception detection. The present commentary offers a statistical critique of the evidence for this claim. Analyses reveal that chance can explain results that the authors attribute to wizardry. Thus, by the usual statistical logic of psychological research, O'Sullivan and Ekma...
Article
Ratios of one variable over another are frequently used in social psychological research in order to control for a linear relationship between the numerator and the denominator. However, the use of ratio variables can introduce spuriousness into data analyses. This article provides a description and explanation of the problem of spuriousness in rat...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze the accuracy of deception judgments, synthesizing research results from 206 documents and 24,483 judges. In relevant studies, people attempt to discriminate lies from truths in real time with no special aids or training. In these circumstances, people achieve an average of 54% correct lie-truth judgments, correctly classifying 47% of lie...
Article
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This article reports two worldwide studies of stereotypes about liars. These studies are carried out in 75 different countries and 43 different languages. In Study 1, participants respond to the open-ended question “How can you tell when people are lying?” In Study 2, participants complete a questionnaire about lying. These two studies reveal a dom...
Article
Full-text available
This article reports two worldwide studies of stereotypes about liars. These studies are carried out in 75 different countries and 43 different languages. In Study 1, participants respond to the open-ended question “How can you tell when people are lying?” In Study 2, participants complete a questionnaire about lying. These two studies reveal a dom...
Article
Full-text available
A meta-analysis of 797 studies and 1,001 effect sizes tested a theoretical hypothesis that situational constraints, such as perceived social pressure and perceived difficulty, weaken the relationship between attitudes and behavior. This hypothesis was confirmed for attitudes toward performing behaviors and for attitudes toward issues and social gro...
Article
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Since 1915, statisticians have been applying Fisher'sZ-transformation to Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. We offer new geometric interpretations of this transformation.
Article
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In an examination of lying in social context, undergraduates were videotaped while describing teachers. Each student described a teacher truthfully to one peer, described the teacher deceptively to a second peer, and was then required to describe the teacher to both peers as the latter sat side-by-side. Three experiments examined the psychology of...
Article
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This article discusses the meta-analysis of raw mean differences. It presents a rationale for cumulating psychological effects in a raw metric and compares raw mean differences to standardized mean differences. Some limitations of standardization are noted, and statistical techniques for raw meta-analysis are described. These include a graphical de...
Article
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This article compiles results from a century of social psychological research, more than 25,000 studies of 8 million people. A large number of social psychological conclusions are listed alongside meta-analytic information about the magnitude and variability of the corresponding effects. References to 322 meta-analyses of social psychological pheno...
Article
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Students of intergroup relations have measured segregation with a P* index. In this article, we describe the distribution of this index under a stochastic model. We derive exact, closed-form expressions for the mean, variance, and skewness of P* under random segregation. These yield equivalent expressions for a second segregation index: η 2. Our an...
Article
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This article develops a framework for social psychology, the triangle of interpersonal models (TIM). TIM is a 2-dimensional classification scheme for the impact of people on social-psychological phenomena. TIM classifies a social-psychological phenomenon by the number of people who contribute to the phenomenon and the number of distinct social-psyc...
Article
Galeazzi fractures are uncommon, but a combination of open Galeazzi fracture and radial head dislocation has not been described. This article reports on a variant of an open Galeazzi fracture in which concomitant radial head dislocation and coronoid process fracture occurred. Thorough understanding of the mechanisms and influences of pronation inju...
Article
Nondisplaced scaphoid fractures treated with prolonged cast immobilization may result in temporary joint stiffness and muscle weakness in addition to a delay in return to sports or work. Fixation of scaphoid fractures with a percutaneous cannulated screw has resulted in a shorter time to union and to return to work or sports. The purpose of this pr...
Article
Full-text available
Many social psychologists believe that if research results are obvious, they are unimportant and uninteresting. The current study evaluated lay perceptions of social psychological research findings. Results from three studies reveal differences between lay evaluations of research and scientific evaluations. In Study 1, students with no prior exposu...
Article
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To analyze variance in a triadic variable, Bond, Horn, and Kenny (1997) have proposed a Triadic Relations Model. Here we extend this model to analyze the covariances between triadic variables. A bivariate version of the Triadic Relations Model is specified, and estimation methods are presented. These can be used to decompose the covariance between...
Article
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This article reports three studies of international deception. Americans, Jordanians, and Indians were videotaped while lying and telling the truth, and the resulting tapes were judged for deception by other Americans, Jordanians, and Indians. Results show that lies can be detected across cultures. They can be detected across cultures that share a...
Article
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The impact of individual differences on the performance of 2 roles—learner and learning facilitator—was assessed during dyadic cooperative learning. Eighty university students, 40 men and 40 women, participated in same-sex groups of 4. Each student cooperatively learned a text passage with 1 partner and then learned a 2nd passage with another partn...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of individual differences on the performance of 2 roles-learner and learning facilitator-was assessed during dyadic cooperative learning. Eighty university students, 40 men and 40 women, participated in same-sex groups of 4. Each student cooperatively learned a text passage with 1 partner and then learned a 2nd passage with another partn...
Article
Full-text available
Many psychological phenomena involve 2 individuals whose actions, thoughts, or feelings are interdependent. Psychologists' usual research methods assume independence of observations, hence they are ill-suited to illuminate these dyadic phenomena. In this article, the authors review some dyadic research methods: a round robin research design and a s...
Article
Psychologists have analyzed dyadic data with a social relations model (D. A. Kenny, 1994). This article develops an analogous model for triadic data. This triadic relations model, a 3-way random-effects analysis of variance, can estimate 7 variances and 16 covariances from a round-robin of 3-person interactions. This article applies this model to p...
Article
Metaperception is a person's perception about a second person's perception of a third person. The purpose of this article is to examine the accuracy of metaperceptions of liking. A related question concerns whether the heuristics of balance, reciprocity, and agreement are used by perceivers when forming such judgments. The authors present analyses...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of an observer impairs complex learning. According to a self-presentational analysis, this social impairment of task performance results from the performer's embarrassment at making mistakes in public. A study was designed to assess this interpretation. Results show that the presence of a peer impairs complex learning only if the peer...
Article
Full-text available
Kenny has proposed a variance-components model for dyadic social interaction. His Social Relations model estimates variances and covariances from a round-robin of two-person interactions. The current paper presents a matrix formulation of the Social Relations model. It uses the formulation to derive exact and estimated standard errors for round-rob...
Article
Full-text available
Bond, Charles F; Berry, Diane S; Omar (Atoum), Adnan (1994). The kernel of truth in judgments of deceptiveness. Basic & Applied Social Psychology. Vol. 15(4), 523-534. This article describes an investigation of the relationship between appearance-based impressions of honesty and individuals' willingness to engage in deceptive behaviors. Neutral-e...
Article
Full-text available
To explain how people judge that others are lying, an expectancy-violation model is proposed. According to the model, deception is perceived from nonverbal behavior that violates normative expectation. To test the model, 3 experiments were conducted, 2 in the United States and 1 in India. In each experiment, people described acquaintances while exh...
Article
Full-text available
When one person remembers another, which does the memory more strongly reflect: the rememberer's ability or the target person's memorability? In a group setting, subjects took turns answering questions aloud. Afterwards, each subject tried to recall what the other subjects had said; 2 months later, they tried to recognize one another's remarks. By...
Article
Full-text available
To explain how people judge that others are lying, an expectancy-violation model is proposed. According to the model, deception is perceived from nonverbal behavior that violates normative expectation. To test the model, 3 experiments were conducted, 2 in the United States and 1 in India. In each experiment, people described acquaintances while exh...
Article
Full-text available
In a verbal interaction, people take turns speaking. Later, they may have difficulty remembering certain parts of the interaction. In particular, they may not recall what was said just before they began to speak. Previous research indicates that this next-in-line memory deficit reflects a failure at encoding, rather than retrieval. The current stud...
Article
Mullen, Johnson, aria Salas (1991) meta-analyzed research on brainstorming; Stroebe and Diehl (1991) criticized the Mullen et al. meta-analysis. This article comments on this controversy and offers an alternative meta-analysis of productivity losses in brainstorming groups.
Article
Full-text available
Can people detect deception by watching a liar's nonverbal behavior? Can lies be detected across cultures? In the current paper, we report the first cross-cultural study to date of the detection of deception from nonverbal behavior. Americans and Jordanians were videotaped while telling lies and truths; other Americans and Jordanians watched the re...
Data
Full-text available
Can people detect deception by watching a liar's nonverbal behavior? Can lies be detected across cultures? In the current paper, we report the first cross-cultural study to date of the detection of deception from nonverbal behavior. Americans and Jordanians were videotaped while telling lies and truths; other Americans and Jordanians watched the re...
Article
Full-text available
People experience anxiety prior to a public performance. Later, they cannot recall what happened when they were next-in-line to perform. In the current article, we examine the contribution of affect to next-in-line memory deficits. We find that next-in-line deficits are suffered by subjects who report high, but not low social anxiety, and we assess...
Article
Full-text available
1. 96 undergraduates completed 4 trials of a memory task to examine the contribution of affect to next-in-line memory deficits (i.e., inability to recall what happened when next-in-line to perform publicly). In an induction phase, Ss read aloud or listened to words. A reinduction phase repeated this procedure, and, in a validation phase, Ss recalle...
Conference Paper
Previous research has found that people are often so anxious about performing in public that they cannot recall what happened when they were next-in-line to perform. In the current research, 96 general psychology students at Texas Christian University, in four experimental groups of 24 subjects each, took turns reading words aloud. Later, they t...
Article
Full-text available
Deception has evolved under natural selection, as has the capacity to detect deceit. In this article, we describe the adaptive significance of deception in plants, fireflies, octopi, chimpanzees, andHomo sapiens. We review behavior genetic research to find that heredity affects human deceptiveness and theorize that genetically-transmitted anatomica...
Article
With an archival method, we studied 453 incidents of violence at a Connecticut state psychiatric hospital for adolescents. Records revealed no difference in the number of violent acts by White and non-White patients. However, the White hospital staff physically restrained non-White patients nearly four times as often as they restrained Whites. Inte...
Article
Full-text available
In retrieving a person from memory, subjects retrace the course of acquaintanceship: they invoke a social stereotype, then apply a personality correction. The present article tests thisrecapitulation hypothesis. In a pair of experiments, subjects saw two serially presented cues and retrieved an acquaintance whom both of the cues described. As hypot...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a social context-personality index theory of memory for acquaintances. According to this theory, acquaintances are indexed within social encoding contexts by their deviations from a personality norm. Four tests of the theory are reported. In Experiments 1 and 2, subjects retrieved an acquaintance to two serially presented cues: a social...
Article
We propose a social context-personality index theory of memory for acquaintances. According to this theory, acquaintances are indexed within social encoding contexts by their deviations from a personality norm. Four tests of the theory are reported. In Experiments 1 and 2, subjects retrieved an acquaintance to two serially presented cues: a social...
Article
The literature regarding exchange-orientation in relationship to marital adjustment and cohabitation and friendship compatibility is briefly reviewed and a revised exchange-orientation scale is constructed. The items selected were judged relevant to exchange and passed internal consistency tests as well as differentiating between high and low score...
Article
Full-text available
People are reluctant to transmit bad news. In the current article, we note two explanations for this so-called MUM effect. One explanation attributes the reluctance to intrapsychic discomfort; a second characterizes the reluctance as a self-presentation. In a study designed to assess the explanations, subjects must tell a peer that the peer has eit...
Article
Lateral facial composites reveal the asymmetry of the resting face. In the current research, we created lateral composites of 30 resting faces, then had subjects compare the two composites of a face with a depiction of the whole face in either normal- or mirror-image. Results indicate that the side of the face in a subject's left visual hemi-space...
Article
Full-text available
A meta-analysis was conducted on research investigating the effects of alcohol consumption and expectancy within the balanced-placebo design. Preliminary results indicated that both alcohol and expectancy have significant, although heterogeneous effects on behavior. Subsequent analyses were conducted to determine the factors responsible for the het...
Article
Full-text available
In a study of unconstrained recall, 18 undergraduates named as many acquaintances as possible in 10 min. One month later, Ss sorted these acquaintances into person types and into naturally occurring social groups. Timing results indicate that the Ss generated person memories in discrete bursts: After naming several acquaintances, Ss paused before n...
Article
Full-text available
Undergraduates were videotaped as they told lies and truths about their last job. Later, these undergraduates viewed the videotape and tried to guess which of their fellow subject were lying. Monetary incentives had been offered for successful lying and lie detection. Our subjects showed a “demeanor bias”—some looked honest even when they were lyin...
Article
Full-text available
The phenomenon that people cannot remember what happens when they are next-in-line to perform was investigated in 2 experiments with 144 undergraduates to determine whether this memory deficit reflects a failure to encode or an inability to retrieve preperformance events. In Exp I, 96 Ss participated in 4 memory trials; in each trial, half the Ss w...
Article
The phenomenon that people cannot remember what happens when they are next-in-line to perform was investigated in 2 experiments with 144 undergraduates to determine whether this memory deficit reflects a failure to encode or an inability to retrieve preperformance events. In Exp I, 96 Ss participated in 4 memory trials; in each trial, half the Ss w...
Article
Full-text available
Reports a meta-analysis of the effects of the presence of others on human task performance and physiology. In 241 studies involving nearly 24,000 Ss, the presence of others had small effects, accounting for .3% to 3% of the variance in the typical experiment. It is concluded that (a) the presence of others heightens an individual's physiological ar...
Article
Two studies use a free recall task to track, moment by moment, cognitive repercussions of an upcoming performance. As in earlier research, subjects display impaired recall for events which immediately precede an anticipated public performance. This “next-in-line effect” occurs even if the “performance” consists of reading a word to oneself. However...
Article
Full-text available
Offers a self-presentational account of performance in others' presence. The account attributes social facilitation to the performer's active regulation of a public image, and it attributes social impairment to embarrassment following loss of public esteem. Individuals lose esteem by making numerous errors on difficult tasks. This self-presentation...
Article
Recent reviews of the dissonance/self-perception controversy conclude by citing evidence of dissonance misattribution as incompatible with self-perception theory. This article subjects that conclusion to an empirical test using Bem's interpersonal simulation method. Results indicate that observers cannot reproduce the attitudes subjects reported in...
Article
Full-text available
Social facilitation as a self-presentational display, and social performance impairment attributable to perceived public failure, are examined in a study of context effects in verbal learning. Female undergraduates (N=72) served as subjects with one male who served as an "audience." Performance data indicate that, consistent with the present analys...

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