Chang Yong Lee

Chang Yong Lee
Cornell University | CU · Department of Food Science

About

195
Publications
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18,934
Citations
Citations since 2016
12 Research Items
7481 Citations
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000

Publications

Publications (195)
Article
Full-text available
Curcumin is known to possess diverse beneficial physiological effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, anti-microbial, and anti-neoplastic activities, as well as immune-modulating, metabolism-regulating, and neuroprotective effects. However, despite more than 13,000 research papers published during the last ten years regar...
Article
Full-text available
Phytochemicals in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and nuts, advertised as “antioxidants”, combat undesirable effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body. These undesirable effects include cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders. Although ROS were initially considered to be primarily damaging agents, ROS have been disc...
Article
Full-text available
The efficacy of ethanol extract of Diospyros kaki (EEDK) on dry eye (DE) was determined using an experimental mouse model. Experimental groups included three treated with various amounts of EEDK and one treated with omega-3 for 2 weeks. Damage to the ocular surface was evaluated, and the presence of conjunctival goblet cells was determined. Moreove...
Chapter
Color is important to many foods, both those that are unprocessed and those that are manufactured. Together with flavor and texture, color plays an important role in food acceptability. In addition, color may provide an indication of chemical changes in a food, such as browning and caramelization. For a few clear liquid foods, such as oils and beve...
Chapter
Chemical composition of fruits and vegetables is highly dependent on photosynthesis and absorption of water and minerals during the period of growth and maturation on the parent plant. However, following harvest, the sources of nutrients and water that supplied the growing entities are no longer available and they become independent units in which...
Article
This study was to evaluate the protective effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. (Indian gooseberry) on retinal degeneration in a well-characterized animal model of Alzheimer's disease. RGC-5 cells were treated with Indian gooseberry extract (IGE), and intracellular antioxidant activity was evaluated. IGE was orally administered to mice for 21 days, then...
Article
Among many functional foods and their phytochemicals, ingestion of soybean (Glycine max) is highly correlated to reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. Validation of potential health benefits of functional foods requires information about the bioavailability and metabolism of bioactive compounds. In this context, several phase I and II metabolite...
Article
Full-text available
Several metabolomics of polymeric flavan-3-ols have reported that proanthocyanidins are extensively metabolized by gut microbiota. 5-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone (DHPV) has been reported to be the major microbial metabolite of proanthocyanidins. We demonstrated that DHPV has stronger prevention effect on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-sti...
Article
During the early stages of atherosclerosis, monocytes bind and migrate into the endothelial layer, promoting inflammation within the aorta. In order to prevent the development of atherosclerosis, it is critical to inhibit such inflammation. The therapeutic effects of ginger have been investigated in several models of cardiovascular disease. However...
Article
Yak-Kong (YK) (Glycine max), a small black soybean cultivar with a green embryo, was evaluated for functional constituents with a focus on atherosclerosis prevention. In comparison to common yellow and black soybean cultivars, YK contains significantly higher concentrations of antioxidants, particularly in its seed coat. A comprehensive phenolic co...
Article
The soy isoflavone daidzein is bioconverted to 7,8,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (7,8,4'-THIF) by microorganisms. Here, we investigated the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 inhibitory properties of 7,8,4'-THIF that arise through the suppression of UVB-induced MMP-1 expression. 7,8,4'-THIF reduced UVB-induced MMP-1 expression at the transcriptional level...
Article
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Zingiber officinale Roscoe, one of the most widely used spices, has been reported to have anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 6-shogaol, a bioactive compound present in ginger, on the adipogenic process in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The anti-adipogenic effects of 6-shogaol was significantly higher...
Article
Human skin is the first defense barrier against the external environment, especially microbial pathogens and physical stimulation. Many studies on skin health with Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been published for many years, including prevention of skin disease and improvement of skin conditions. LAB, a major group of gram-positive bacteria, are...
Article
Although ingestion of coffee and its constituent chlorogenic acid (CGA) protects the retina from oxidative stress, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of coffee metabolites are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine which coffee metabolites reach the retina and protect against retinal degeneration. UPLC-MS/MS was used to d...
Article
Full-text available
Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) is widely present in China, Japan, and Korea. Its green pine leaves have traditionally been used as a food as well as a coloring agent. After being shed, pine leaves change their color from green to brown within two years, and although the brown pine leaves are abundantly available, their value has not been clos...
Article
Full-text available
Artemisia princeps Pampanini used as a medicinal herb in Asian countries has undesirable flavors. Water extracts from A. princeps Pampanini were used to quantitatively evaluate off-flavor volatiles and bioactive phenolic compounds through activated carbon (AC) processing using GC/MS and reversed-phase HPLC analyses, respectively. As the amount of A...
Article
Bioactive natural compounds from plant-derived sources have received substantial interest due to their potential therapeutic and preventive effects toward various human diseases. Licorice (Glycyrrhiza), a frequently-used component in traditional oriental medicines, has been incorporated into recipes not only to enhance taste, but also to treat vari...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms through which 20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (20GPPD) promotes the production of hyaluronic acid (HA) in human keratinocytes. 20GPPD is the primary bioactive metabolite of Rb1, a major ginsenoside found in ginseng (Panax ginseng). We sought to elucidate the underlying mecha...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the effects of various processing methods, both thermal and non-thermal, on phytochemicals and their bioactivities in fruits, vegetables, and other plant foods, while attempting to explain why these changes take place. It explains how thermal processes such as boiling, steaming, microwaving, roasting, and drying, as well as n...
Article
Full-text available
Recent reports on cocoa are appealing in that a food commonly consumed for pure pleasure might also bring tangible benefits for human health. Cocoa consumption is correlated with reduced health risks of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer, and the health-promoting effects of cocoa are mediated by cocoa-driven phytoche...
Article
We investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of C. denticulatum (EECD) in a mouse model of glaucoma established by optic nerve crush (ONC), and found that EECD significantly protected against retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death caused by ONC. Furthermore, EECD effectively protected against N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced damage to the rat retinas....
Article
This study explored whether chlorogenic acid (CGA) and coffee have protective effects against retinal degeneration. Under hypoxic conditions, viability of transformed retinal ganglion (RGC-5) cells was significantly reduced by treatment with the nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP). However, pretreatment with CGA attenuat...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of jam processing on total phenolics, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacities of fresh Rubus coreanus Miquel (bokbunja) fruits at various pH levels were investigated. Aqueous methanol of 80%(v/v) was found to be the most efficient solvent for extracting phenolics in fruits and jams. More than 90% of total phenol...
Article
Highlights ► Credible scientific evidence of health benefits of dietary polyphenols is needed. ► Bioavailability of bioactive compounds must be known. ► Bioavailability includes absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. ► Metabolites must be included in vitro and in vivo studies. ► Physiological concentrations of bioactive compounds must...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter outlines the applications of date seeds to health promotion and disease prevention. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that high fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative...
Article
Phenolics in dry Artemisia princeps Pampanini, an herbal plant traditionally consumed as food ingredients in Korea was extracted, fractionated, and quantified as well as evaluated for its neuroprotection for PC-12 cells. Whole extract had 5,852 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g of total phenolics and 6,274 mg and 9,698 mg vitamin C equivalents/100 g...
Article
Full-text available
Cherries are good sources of bioactive phenolic compounds that are widely considered to be potentially healthy. Here we investigated the protective activities of juice and wine products of tart and sweet cherries and their constituent anthocyanins (e.g., cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside) against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen pe...
Article
Full-text available
Cocoa polyphenols have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has a vital role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as cancer and psoriasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is associated with tumorigenesis, CVD, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. We tested whether coco...
Article
Effects of quercetin 3-β-d-glucoside, resveratrol, and curcumin on A549 lung cancer cell proliferation and the mechanism of these phytochemicals in regulating apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were investigated. A549 cells were treated with quercetin 3-β-d-glucoside, resveratrol, or curcumin at 37°C for 96 hr and cell viability was measured with 3-(4...
Article
Full-text available
In recent decades, romaine lettuce has been one of the fastest growing vegetables with respect to its consumption and production. An understanding is needed of the effect of major phenolic phytochemicals from romaine lettuce on biological protection for neuron-like PC-12 cells. Phenolics in fresh romaine lettuce were extracted, and then its total p...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the effects of the two main kiwifruit cultivars (gold kiwifruit (GOK) and green kiwifruit (GRK)) and their active phenolic compound, quercetin, on H2O2-induced inhibition of gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells. We found that both GOK and GRK protect WB-F344 cells from H2O2-induced inhib...
Article
A survey of a broad range of chocolate- and cocoa-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to provide a more detailed analysis of flavan-3-ol monomers, oligomers, and polymers, which can be grouped into a class of compounds called procyanidins. Samples consisted of the three or four top-selling products within the following s...
Article
Free radicals play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of human diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases, and considerable attention has been focused on functional foods (or nutraceuticals) that are able to decrease the concentrations of free radicals and consequently protect against these diseases. The present stu...
Article
Full-text available
e culti- vars included ten cultivars of black raspberries ('Allen', 'Black Hawk', 'Black Knight', 'Hanover', 'Huron', 'Jewel', 'Mac Black', 'Munger', 'New Logan', and 'Plum Farmer'), one yellow-fruited black raspberry (PI 618560, USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, OR) and one red raspberry (Rubus idaeus var. 'Encore'). Th e r...
Article
Full-text available
This review article provides information on the nutritional and functional constituents of dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and their seeds from over 80 references. Date flesh is found to be low in fat and protein but rich in sugars, mainly fructose and glucose. It is a high source of energy, as 100 g of flesh can provide an average of 314 kcal. Ten...
Article
SUMMARY —The conversion of glutamine to the bitter compound, 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid (PCA), in table beets was studied. Glutamine was analyzed by a phosphate-buffer hydrolysis and distillation method. PCA was extracted with ethyl acetate and the ditrimethylsilyl derivative prepared and measured quantitatively by gas-liquid chromatography. T...
Article
Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction welded and vacuum brazed Ti/AISI 321 stainless steel have been evaluated with various welding conditions. Maximum tensile strength of friction welded joints was approximately 420 MPa with the conditions of 400 MPa of upset pressure (P2) and friction time (t1) within 2.0 s. Maximum tensile strengt...
Article
Full-text available
This work was conducted to optimise extraction conditions of phenolics and dietary fibre from date seeds. The effects of solvent to sample ratio, temperature, extraction time, number of extractions and solvent type on phenolic extraction efficiency were studied. At two-stage extraction, each stage 1h duration at 45°C with a solvent to sample ratio...
Article
Banana, orange, and apple are the major fruits in Western and Asian diets. In order to find the effects of these fruits, neuron like PC12 cells were exposed to the extracts of these fruits before H(2)O(2) treatment. We found a significant viability of PC12 cells by the MTT reduction test, which indicated that the phenolics of banana, orange, and ap...
Article
Many studies have been carried out on bioactivities of individual herbs, however, no collective study on their comparative antioxidant and cytoprotective activities against oxidative damage has been reported. We selected 17 common commercial herbs and studied their relative phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and cytoprotective activities on...
Article
Proanthocyanidins (PACs), also named condensed tannins, are polymers of flavan-3-ols such as (+)-(gallo)catechin and (-)-epi(gallo)catechin. A proper analysis of the PACs, with difficult challenges due to their complex structures, is crucial in studies of cancer chemoprevention. Cancer is a leading cause of mortality around the world. Many experime...
Article
Heat-processed Asian ginseng roots (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), also known as "red ginseng" in Asia, are reported to have more bioactivity than the no-processed white ginseng roots. Therefore, American fresh ginseng roots (Panax quinquefolius L.) were processed to the red ginseng and examined changes in bioactivity during heating process. The fresh...
Article
Effects of different blanching conditions on residual enzyme activities and quality changes in green beans during frozen storage were studied. Green beans were blanched at various temperature and time combinations at both pilot plant and commercial scales. After storage at —23°C for 3, 6, 9 and 12 months they were analyzed for residual activities o...
Article
High CO2 conditions offered no advantage over normal CA storage in terms of reduced ‘Delicious’ apple browning or softening during a 28 week storage period. After approximately 7–14 weeks in CA storage, ‘Delicious’ apples showed significant losses in PPO activity, browning tendency and firmness. Electrolyte leakage reached a maximum at 11.5 weeks a...
Article
Various process methods were evaluated for the production the light Thompson Seedless raisins. Treatments included: control, commercial (sulfur gas treated), 20% honey solution pressure dip, 10% honey solution pressure dip, 5000 ppm sulfite solution pressure dip, 5000 ppm sulfite solution nonpressure dip, Erthorbic Acid/Citric Acid/CaCl2 solution p...
Article
The grain growth behavior and mechanical properties in the friction stir weld zone after post weld heat treatment (PWHT) have been investigated. As PWHT temperature increased, a normal grain growth of as-welded equaxied grains ceased and abnormally grown grains with elongated shape coarsened. Huge elongated grains changed into smaller equaxied grai...
Article
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in 4, 000 × g, 100, 000 × g, 200 × g and soluble fractions of ‘Delicious’ apples was monitored during 28 weeks of controlled atmosphere storage. PPO activity in 4, 000 × g and 100, 000 × g fractions decreased, while that in soluble and 200 × g fractions increased. These shifts in subcellular location occurred soone...
Article
The microstructure and mechanical properties of spot friction stir welded A 5052 alloy were investigated with insertion depth of welding tool. As the insertion depth of welding tool increased, the size of stirring zone increased and the thickness of upper sheet decreased. The value of shear load was the lowest at the shallowest insertion depth and...
Article
The beneficial effects of fruits, vegetables, and beverages on human health have been attributed to their antioxidant activities. Therefore, antioxidant activity of food products is recognized as one of the important parameters in determining their functional values. Until now, antioxidant activity has been measured by various chemical and biologic...
Article
ABSTRACTA statistical evaluation of vitamin status during canning was obtained from samplings of raw, blanched and canned snap beans. With the exception of folic acid retention, it was not possible to distinguish the separate plants. This leads to the expectation that the season averages of vitamins from processing plants obtaining material from th...
Article
Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity and polyphenol concentrations decreased during maturation and remained relatively constant during cold storage. However, there was no set pattern of changes in degree of browning during maturation and cold storage. Not all cultivars showed the same relationship between degree of browning and enzyme activity. In some...
Article
ABSTRACTA solid state fermentation system for the production of ethanol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. The yields of ethanol varied from about 29g to more than 40g per kg of apple pomace, depending on the samples fermented. Separation of up to 99% of the ethanol from spent apple pomace was achie...
Article
The influence of thermal processing (canning) on the carotenoid content of carrots (Daucus carota) and green peas (Pisum sativum) was investigated. Carotenoids extracted from fresh and canned vegetables were separated by column chromatography and quantified using spectrophotometric analysis. Canned canots and green peas had a higher carotenoid cont...
Article
Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was isolated from two varieties of grapes grown in the northeastern United States and its characteristics were studied. The temperature and pH optima for both enzymes were 25°C and 5.5, respectively. The thermal inactivation of PPO followed first-order kinetics; with the Niagara enzyme being more heat stable than Ravat PPO....
Article
Vitamin contents of peas were measured at various stages of raw product handling, during 1976–1979 seasons, on different cultivars, on different sizes of peas, at various stages of processing, and at different processing plants. Some cultivar differences were shown in ascorbic acid, carotene, and folic acid, and different sizes of peas contained si...
Article
ABSTRACTA heat resistant isoenzyme was isolated from the snowball cauliflower and was analyzed for its thermal inactivation characteristics. Although it exhibited less than 5% of the total peroxidase activity, it showed strong heat stability in that it took more than 30 min at 50°C to reduce activity by 50%. The rate of inactivation followed fist o...
Article
The level of methyl anthraniiate was determined in several wines of native American varieties and of related hybrids. In order to evaluate its contribution to the “foxy” aroma that is often associated with these wines, sensory analyses were conducted to estimate the threshold of methyl anthraniiate in wines and to compare its concentration with the...
Article
The kinetic parameters, D and z, for the loss of color, firmness, and vitamin C were determined during the thermal processing of peas canned in 303 × 406 cans. The D250 values for loss of color, firmness, and vitamin C were 13.2 min, 9.2 min, and 246 min, respectively. The corresponding z values were: 69°F, 66°F, and 91°F, respectively. These resul...
Article
Fresh green peas were blanched for various times/temperatures and stored at — 23°C. At 3 month intervals peas were analyzed for per-oxidase, polyphenoloxidase, lipoxygenase and catalase activity and ascorbic acid content. Samples were cooked and evaluated sensorily, and using Hunter color and Instron texture measurements. Enzymes exhibited varying...
Article
Changes in amino acid and mineral contents of peas (P. sutivum L.) at various stages of commercial processing were studied. Samplings were made during the 1975–1979 seasons, on four cultivars, on different grade sizes of peas, at various stages of the canning process, and at three processing plants. Amino acids were analyzed by ionexchange column c...
Article
ABSTRACTA comparison was made between three basic methods for determining methoxyl (OMe) groups in a polyuronide, viz., step-wise oxidation-reduction initiated by hydriodic acid, neutralization of de-esterified carboxyl groups with potassium hydroxide, and direct combustion of methanol by gas chromatography. Accuracy and precision of the methods we...
Article
Carrots (26 varieties) were subjected to two blanching-in-water treatments prior to being canned in the conventional manner. (1) 4-5 min blanch at 212°F, (2) 20–30 min blanch at 165°F. All of the low temperature blanch carrots were firmer than the corresponding high temperature treatment. Blanching was carried out at 130°, 150°, 170°, 190°, 212° F....
Article
Minimal processing of potatoes was studied by using different treatments of cut potatoes in combination with modified atmosphere packaging. Different packaging materials and peeling methods were evaluated. An L-cysteine (0.5%) and citric acid (2%) mixture prevented browning of potatoes effectively. Active modification of the atmosphere inside the p...
Article
The phenolic compounds isolated from the roots of Lindera fruticosa included four new compounds, 2-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzophenone (1), (S)-2-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzhydryl alcohol (2), 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl (3), and 1-methoxy-2,5,7-trihydroxyxanthone (4). Three previously identified phenolics were also identified, namely, 3,5-di...
Article
In the United States, commercially available foods, including cocoa and chocolate, are being marketed with statements referring to the level of antioxidant activity and polyphenols. For cocoa-containing foods, there has been no comprehensive survey of the content of these and other chemistries. A survey of cocoa and chocolate-containing products ma...
Article
Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species may be linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Fresh Red Delicious apples, having 232.9 mg/100 g vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity, protected the rat pheochromocytoma neuronal (PC-12) cells from H2O2-induced oxidative toxicity in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-...
Article
The effects of 1 -methylcyclopropene (1 -MCP) treatment of whole fruit on the subsequent quality and shelf-life of fresh-cut apple slices have been investigated. ‘Delicious,’ Empire, ‘Idared’, Law Rome, and ‘Mutsu’ apples were treated at 0.5°C with 1 μL/L of 1 -MCP for 24 h and stored in air 1 and 4 mo before being used for preparation of slices. 1...
Article
The antioxidative and neuronal protective effects of red and white cabbages were investigated against amyloid β protein (Aβ)-induced cytotoxicity in neuron-like PC12 cells. Red cabbage phenolic phytochemicals showed higher antioxidative effect. In cell viability assay using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), red cab...
Article
The identification of phenolics from various cultivars of fresh sweet and sour cherries and their protective effects on neuronal cells were comparatively evaluated in this study. Phenolics in cherries of four sweet and four sour cultivars were extracted and analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and their antineurodegenerative activities...
Article
With the optimization of the pretreatment conditions for the crude Thermobifida fusca cellulase activity and phenolic release from apple peel, we focused on the activity of individual purified cellulase related to the antioxidant activity. The overall phenolic release was significantly increased in a synergistic manner with combined pretreatment, n...
Chapter
Free radicals induce various cellular injuries (including lipid peroxidation, DNA alteration, and protein inactivation) that may be involved in the etiology of degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases.¹⁻³ There is now overwhelming evidence of an inverse relationship between a diet high in antioxi...
Article
The daily intake of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidants in the American diet was estimated from the most common 34 fresh fruit and vegetables and their daily consumption data. Among 14 fruit and 20 vegetables, orange contributed the highest amount of total phenolics [117.1 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) person−1 day−1] and antioxida...
Chapter
The antioxidant and antitumor promoting activities of major phenolic phytochemicals of apples were investigated. The contribution of each antioxidant to total antioxidant activity of apples was determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assay. The estimated contribution of major phenolics and vitamin...