Chandril Ghosh

Chandril Ghosh
University of Exeter | UoE · Department of Psychology

PhD Psychology

About

30
Publications
3,075
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Citations
Introduction
Chandril Chandan Ghosh is currently based at the Queen's Management School as a Marie Curie Early Stage Researcher. His academic interests relate to mental health, machine-learning, management of the health sector, and application development. Chandril's research output aims at optimising human productivity, economic returns, and wellbeing. In the past, he had been into extensive research work, clinical practice, entrepreneurship, and subsequently a brief teaching career. Followed by his PhD, he aims to join academia with an entrepreneurial flavour as an approach to building solutions for real-world problems. The goal is to produce innovation that touches life, making this world a happier and healthier place to live.
Additional affiliations
November 2018 - present
Queen's University Belfast
Position
  • Researcher
September 2017 - December 2017
Jadavpur University
Position
  • Research Intern
April 2017 - present
iSapientific Technologies
Position
  • Research Director
Education
November 2018 - November 2021
Queen's University Belfast
Field of study
  • Mental Health
June 2015 - March 2017
Christ University, Bangalore
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology
August 2012 - March 2015
University of Calcutta
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (30)
Article
Full-text available
Background To deliver appropriate mental healthcare interventions and support, it is imperative to be able to distinguish one person from the other. The current classification of mental illness (e.g., DSM) is unable to do that well, indicating the problem of diagnostic heterogeneity between disorders (i.e., the disorder categories have many common...
Thesis
Full-text available
Background: The structure of psychopathology determines how we identify people who need support services and how we can best help them. Currently, we identify those with psychopathological issues via assessments based on diagnostic manuals, such as the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual...
Article
Full-text available
Background The diagnostic system is fundamental to any health discipline, including mental health, as it defines mental illness and helps inform possible treatment and prognosis. Thus, the procedure to estimate the reliability of such a system is of utmost importance. The current ways of measuring the reliability of the diagnostic system have limit...
Preprint
Full-text available
The objective of this review is to discuss the current advancements, and critical issues, in the area of studying disturbances of self in schizophrenia. The critical and systematic review of the self in schizophrenia is significant because it has been regarded as a prodrome and predictor of the development of future psychosis. Additionally, it has...
Research Proposal
More than 300 million people suffering from depression and stickiness of mind-wandering is potentially associated with it. Past literature demonstrates that mindfulness meditation reduces such tendencies to be "stuck" in patterns of negative thinking suggesting its potential to help individuals with depression. However, the area of investigation pe...
Research Proposal
Objective. Neurons in successive stages of the primate ventral visual pathway encode spatial structure, development of binding neurons throughout all visual processing areas, and how information about visual features at every spatial scale may be projected upwards through successive neuronal layers. However, we are yet to learn about the exact natu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Visual search is an everyday human signal detection task, where a person tries looking for a target item among distracting items. It is a part of our day to day life and ranges from searching for glasses half blind in the morning to radiological examination of cancer lumps. Some machines have also been developed, but human performance exceeds far b...
Preprint
With over 300 million people suffering from depressive disorders; ranked as the single largest contributor to global disability; accounting for suicide deaths, close to 800 000 per year; depressive disorders has been considered as a significant Global Burden of Disease (GBD) by World Health Organization (2017). With the huge gap between those who n...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Previous research has shown psychosomatic aspects of cancer. Also, some have also illustrated cognition as a mediator between stress and illness. This study is ext ending the existing literature thus aimed to investigate the role of information-seeking behavior, psychological inflexibility a nd belief in spiritualism towards affective b...
Article
Emotion regulation difficulties have emerged as an important trans-diagnostic factor with its implications in interventions. Literature, with regard to anhedonia, has shown an association. This study aims to extend the literature to predict anticipatory and consummatory forms of anhedonia from six forms of emotion regulation difficulties. Participa...
Thesis
Full-text available
Emotion regulation difficulties have emerged as an important trans-diagnostic factor with its implications in interventions. Literature, with regard to anhedonia, has shown an association. This study aims to extend the literature to correlate anticipatory and consummatory forms of anhedonia from six forms of emotion regulation difficulties. Partici...
Chapter
Full-text available
The problem of social isolated faced by gifted students in inclusive classrooms by the average majority might undermine the emotional, social, and physical well-being of those exceptional individuals. Since these individuals hold enormous potential to contribute to the welfare and progress of mankind, their needs need to be taken care of seriously....
Article
Studies have shown the role of emotion regulation difficulties towards contributing anhedonia. However, rarely any study was done to investigate what could possibly be causing these difficulties in relation to anhedonia. The current article discusses the possibility of such disturbances rising from individuals' emotional preferences and conceptuali...
Preprint
Most of existing literature points towards the role of personal, social, work, and the environmental stressors. However, characteristics like the shape of the stimulus itself can be innately stressing for individuals even if it may appear non-threatening. This study attempts to enquire into the potential of neutral visual stimulus (i.e. Geons, here...
Preprint
Social functioning of individuals can be considered to be one of the markers of his/her mental health. How he or she behaves in society determines how well the individual adjusts him/herself to the social environment, and how much of the social support is received. Social support protects the individuals from the effects of different stresses and s...
Preprint
In more than 70 % of the patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, persecutory delusions (strong unfounded fears that others intend harm to the person) occur. Hence, this vital psychotic experience is a key clinical target, and therefore empirical advancement in treatment is needed. The case presented here consists of a patient with a delusion that he...
Preprint
The current approach towards classification and conceptualisation of psychopathology has been challenged by recent research studies. More specifically, issues with categorical approach to classification and explanatory approach towards conceptualisation have been noted. Alternative contemporary approaches though have been proposed, lacks an applica...
Chapter
Even though modern forms of psychotherapy originated in Europe and America (Dragun, 2013), it has been practiced in India since long past. The current chapter attempts to delineate the proposition and practice of Atharveda, Ayurveda, and Patanjali Yoga Sutra in relevance to current views.
Preprint
Surveys stated that diagnostic errors accounted for about 50% of mistakes in surveys related to medical errors, although figures between 20% and 25% were also reported by other researchers, depending on the medical setting and the materials used to determine the rate of diagnostic errors. Researchers have also pointed that cognitive factors, that i...
Article
Temperament and character are heritable and can influence schizophrenia susceptibility, hence appears to be an important set of variables to predict psychosis better. The paper introduces an overview of recent studies linking temperament and character with schizophrenia, with a critical analysis. A systematic literature review was done, and a manua...
Preprint
Aim: To assess behavioral and emotional functioning of temperament and characters in order to identify psychosis prodrome.
Article
Relatively few studies have assessed correlates for dreaming experience with regard to personality factors measured by psychometrically sound survey tools. Our study of personality factors of the dreamers with regard to dreaming affective experience tries to address this gap within the literature. The present study inquires whether personality fact...
Article
The present study was conducted to explore whether there is any difference in the depressive symptoms and perception of stress among married and un-married Bengali women. The aims of the study were to determine (i) whether there is any difference between married and unmarried women in terms of depressive symptoms, (ii) whether there is any diffe...
Article
Corporate employees experience a great deal of stress, and burnout due to a variety of factors. Previous studies have shown the effect of parenting style on academic self-efficacy and also achievement motivation. The effect of negative parenting style might extend its influence on adult work-life. This study, therefore, aims at understanding the ro...
Article
Relatively few studies have assessed correlates for dreaming experience with regard to personality factors measured by psychometrically sound survey tools. Our study of personality factors of the dreamers with regard to dreaming affective experience tries to address this gap within the literature. The present study inquires whether personality fact...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Relatively few studies have assessed psychosocial correlates for secondary amenorrhea. Our study of the Gynaecological condition concerning personality factor (on introversion-extroversion dimension), parenting (authoritarian and authoritative) style, depression and perceived stress addresses this gap in the literature. The study inquir...
Article
Education and language are so intricately interwoven that without one the other becomes very difficult. Education had been very difficult without the use of language. The present study was conducted to explore whether there is any difference in anxiety among 10th grade students of Bengali and English medium school of West Bengal Board in Kolkata...
Article
The present study was conducted to explore whether there is any difference in general intelligence and obsessional symptoms among the students enrolled in regular and distance education programs. The aims of the present study were to determine (i) whether there is any sex difference in general intelligence and obsessional symptoms, (ii) whether...

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Projects

Projects (7)
Archived project
Background: The structure of psychopathology determines how we identify people who need support services and how we can best help them. Currently, we identify those with psychopathological issues via assessments based on diagnostic manuals, such as the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). However, there is a growing literature that has raised serious concerns about these two manuals. Some have suggested that such diagnostic manuals have misguided decades of mental health studies and may have contributed to dissatisfaction among service seekers and users relating to ineffective treatments and negative experiences with service providers. This doctoral dissertation explores possible alternative approaches to our understanding of the structure of psychopathology. It considers how these approaches could contribute to future classification, diagnostic and service delivery systems. Method: We used one dataset for all four studies. It was mined from https://www.livejournal.com/ and consisted of narratives about lived experiences from people diagnosed with mental disorders. The data were analysed using Jaccard’s Coefficient to find similarity between diagnostic categories (study 1), K-Means Clustering to group symptoms into diagnostic categories (in study 2), Network Analysis to find the relationships between the co-occurring symptoms and Eigenvector Centrality to estimate which among them are co-occurring with most other symptoms (study 3), and standard correlation to find the strength of such associations (in study 4). Findings: We proposed an alternative approach for estimating the reliability of the existing system (study 1) to study the extent of diagnostic overlap (heterogeneity) because the present studies evaluating the reliability had their limitations. Study 1 (chapter 4) contributes to the literature by being the first study to exploit patient narrative data, using innovative text-mining methods in this context, to assess the diagnostic heterogeneity of the DSM categories. It provides unique evidence to reinforce existing studies of diagnostic heterogeneity using alternative approaches such as Jaccard’s coefficients. Once verified that the diagnostic heterogeneity of human-led traditional diagnostic categories is too large for practical usage, we searched for the reasons. Many studies have attributed the problem to the committee members who created the manuals. Among the several raised questions, the committee members reported a financial conflict of interests with the industry and relied more on consensus than data. So, eliminating the human component of decision making, we should be able to find homogeneous groups of disorders. Therefore, we attempted to create categories of mental illnesses using Artificial Intelligence (study 2) from patients’ reported symptoms. Study 2 (chapter 5) contributes to the literature by being the first study in this context to demonstrate how to cluster the patients using artificial intelligence based on the similarities in their reported symptoms or experiences from their illness narratives. It provides evidence to contrast the conventional idea of conceptualising “mental illnesses as categories” using unsupervised machine learning algorithms and the silhouette score elbow method. For example, in study 2, when the machine-driven approach also produced mental disorder categories with high heterogeneity, we inferred that while there might have been human biases with the traditional diagnostic manuals, the more important point is that the categorical approach is not the way forward. The findings from study 2 support the literature and state the same. The literature has proposed several alternatives, such as the dimensional and network approaches. But related to this notion of diagnosing and studying humans (and their conditions) as categories, such as depression, consisting of individual entities (e.g., symptoms), there is another serious problem with the mental health research culture - that has found its way into these new alternatives as well. This problem is related to using total scores of survey items as objects of inquiry (e.g., total depression score). This approach assumes that all the items in the questionnaire (e.g., low mood, lack of interest) contributes in equal proportions to the construct (e.g., depression), but the empirical evidence suggests otherwise. The newer dimensional approaches such as the HiTOP relies on such sum scores. Likewise, some network studies are also using such sum scores. Therefore, in doing so, such alternatives risk carrying forward some of the weaknesses of its categorical predecessors. As an alternative, we proposed the use of individual symptoms as an object of inquiry. It’s a relatively novel approach, and we hoped to advance the literature. Therefore, we created a network of psychopathological symptoms based on patients’ reports (study 3). Study 3 (chapter 6) contributes to the literature by being the first study to demonstrate how to create network graphs from pure narrative data from patients in this context and presented a new approach for exploratory analysis by finding inter-relations in their reported symptoms or experiences from patients’ illness narratives. It demonstrates a relatively novel approach to focus on individual symptoms for the object of inquiry instead of categories of mental disorders or sum-scores of scales or questionnaires. The study discovered relationships based on co-occurrences of the reported symptoms. Still, it did not communicate the strength (“numeric” degree) of such association. While finding the association has merit for preliminary exploration, for this approach of using individual symptoms as an object of inquiry to be useful for clinical and research purposes, we argue that it must provide the information related to the strength of association. So, in the final study, we attempted to find the correlations of auditory hallucination and, in doing so, demonstrated how to find correlation coefficients between pairs of symptoms from a qualitative (text-based narrative) dataset. Furthermore, the correlations were valuable to the advancement of the theoretical literature of auditory hallucination. Study 4 (chapter 7) contributes to the literature by being the first study to demonstrate how to do correlation analysis on qualitative data in this context. It suggests a new direction of conducting exploratory research using rich qualitative datasets and standard statistical methods without the limitations of a conventional survey dataset. Conclusion: The doctoral thesis found that the traditional categorical approach does not accurately reflect the complexity of people’s experiences. There might be human biases and conflict of interest, which might have influenced the creation of the diagnostic manuals. Still, even when artificial intelligence attempted to find similar patterns within the patients’ experiences, it could not indicate that psychopathological experiences cannot be categorised into homogenous groups. So, we argue that the future of mental health literature should divorce itself from using DSM and ICD categories of mental disorders as the object of investigations and as the framework for conceptualising mental illnesses. Instead, we argue that the focus should be on alternative conceptualisations of psychopathology, such as the network model of psychopathology, which focuses on the individual symptoms and the inter-relationships between them. Our preliminary network model explores the specific relationships between symptoms found that were frequently occurring but relatively less studied in the literature - opening up newer lines of investigation for future studies to build upon. Furthermore, using auditory hallucination as an object of investigation, we found the variables with the highest correlation coefficients and attempted to advance the psychosis literature. One major merit and contribution of the doctoral thesis is to demonstrate how we can do all that was mentioned above using rich qualitative data. Unlike survey data, the current data did not pose any restrictions in terms of the number or type of variables being reported. The respondents reported everything that had to report. Additionally, the thesis demonstrated how a large volume of qualitative data could be obtained and then analysed using statistical and machine learning-based approaches with minimum effort and time using advanced technologies such as Natural Language Processing, Artificial Intelligence, and Web-Scraping technologies. This thesis's second major merit and contribution are to demonstrate how to use novel data analytic procedures such as Jaccard’s Coefficient, K-Means Clustering and Network Graphs, and conventional statistics such as correlation coefficients on such qualitative datasets. No manual analysis, such as thematic analysis of the qualitative data, was done. This thesis's third merit and contribution were in terms of advancing the literature by evaluating diagnostic heterogeneity between categories of mental disorders using a novel approach (study 1); finding out symptoms that exclusive to each cluster of mental disorders (study 2); estimating the tendency of specific symptoms to co-occur with other symptoms (study 3), and finding out the symptoms associated with auditory hallucination (study 4). Future mental health studies will benefit from this contribution and are expected to produce deeper insight into mental conditions and treatment of mental ill-health.
Archived project
To build Emotionally Intelligent Artificial Intelligence
Archived project
To advance the understanding of affect, emotion, and mood in Humans. The aim is to implement the findings in solving real-world problems, especially in the areas of mental healthcare and affective computing.