Chandra Ford

Chandra Ford
University of California, Los Angeles | UCLA · Department of Community Health Sciences

About

48
Publications
10,416
Reads
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3,174
Citations
Citations since 2016
6 Research Items
2540 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (48)
Article
Background: Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) is available to treat HIV+ persons and prevent transmission, ineffective delivery of care may delay ART use, impede viral suppression (VS) and contribute to racial/ethnic disparities along the continuum of care. This study tested the effects of a bi-directional laboratory health information exchang...
Article
This study examined the relationship between racial/ethnic residential segregation and access to health care in rural areas. Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were merged with the American Community Survey and the Area Health Resources Files. Segregation was operationalized using the isolation index separately for African Americans and...
Article
Objectives: To examine whether living in a rural versus urban area differentially exposes populations to social conditions associated with disparities in access to health care. Methods: We linked Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2005-2010) data to geographic data from the American Community Survey (2005-2009) and Area Health Resource File (2010...
Article
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Objectives: To investigate whether forced sex of men by women was associated with sexual risk behaviors, and whether this association was mediated by substance use. Methods: Data from US men aged 18 years or older at interview in the National Survey of Family Growth 2006-2010 (n = 8108) who reported sexual behavior history. Outcome variables wer...
Article
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) expanded testing initiative (ETI) aims to bolster HIV testing among populations disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic by providing additional funding to health departments serving these communities. ETI prioritizes testing in clinical settings; therefore, we examined the relationship...
Article
This study examined temporal trends in HIV testing among U.S. older adults (50-64 years of age) before and after the release of CDC's routine HIV testing recommendations in 2006. The sample (n=872,797; 51.4% female) comprised 2003-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System respondents in the oldest categories to which the recommendations apply...
Article
Although routine human immune deficiency virus (HIV) testing during health care visits is recommended for most adults, many older adults (i.e., ages 50-64 years) do not receive it. This study identified factors associated with HIV testing in the past 12 months (i.e., recent HIV testing) among US adults in the 3 categories of older adulthood (50-54,...
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Objective: This study sought to determine how socioeconomic status (SES) changes during the transition from adolescence into adulthood, and to understand the effects of SES on drinking behaviors in early adulthood among U.S. Whites and Blacks. Method: Secondary data analysis was conducted using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of A...
Article
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of every client presenting for services in venues where HIV prevalence is high. Because older adults (aged ≥50 years) have particularly poor prognosis if they receive their diagnosis late in the course of HIV disease, any screening provided...
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This study investigates the relationship between discrimination and substance abuse among Latina/os, and further examines whether this relationship differs by gender and type of discrimination. Analyses focus on the Latina/o respondents (n = 1,039 men; n = 1,273 women) from the National Latino and Asian American Study carried out from 2002-2003. Ou...
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High-risk social ties portend differences in opportunity for HIV exposures and may contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in HIV transmission. Discrimination may affect the formation of high-risk social ties and has not been explored as a possible explanation for these persistent disparities. Using data from injection and non-injection drug users,...
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Theories about health behavior are commonly used in public health and often frame problems as ascribed or related to individuals' actions or inaction. This framing suggests that poor health occurs because individuals are unable or unwilling to heed preventive messages or recommended treatment actions. The recent United Nations call for strategies t...
Article
Background: Based on a stress-coping framework, the present study investigates the relationship between discrimination and substance use, and the moderating effects of gender. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzes data from Latina/o young adults aged 18-25 (N = 401) from Brooklyn, New York. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test...
Article
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Purpose: One in 4 persons living with HIV/AIDS is an older adult (age 50 or older); unfortunately, older adults are disproportionately diagnosed in late stages of HIV disease. Psychological barriers, including belief in AIDS-related conspiracy theories (e.g., HIV was created to eliminate certain groups) and mistrust in the government, may influenc...
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Intimate partner violence (IPV) is as prevalent in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) relationships as it is in heterosexual ones; however, the issues, needs, and challenges associated with assisting or advocating on behalf of LGBT persons are poorly understood. Using community-based participatory approaches, we conducted a brief survey...
Article
The number of HIV-AIDS cases among African American women (AAW) continues to rise. AAW currently account for about 65% of AIDS diagnoses among women in the United States. Furthermore, among AAW living with HIV-AIDS, heterosexual transmission remains the leading cause of HIV spread. Indeed, examining AAWs sex partner selection patterns will be a key...
Conference Paper
Disparities in alcohol-related problems are well-documented, but it is unclear whether they reflect ethnic factors, racial factors, or their intersection. Ethnicity and race are distinct concepts that may differentially influence health outcomes. This study disentangles ethnic influences on alcohol-related problems among blacks and whites, from rac...
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Social discrimination may isolate drug users into higher risk relationships, particularly in disadvantaged neighborhood environments where drug trade occurs. We used negative binomial regression accounting for clustering of individuals within their recruitment neighborhood to investigate the relationship between high-risk drug ties with various for...
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Discrimination can influence risk of disease by promoting unhealthy behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol use). Whether it influences the formation of high-risk social ties that facilitate HIV transmission is unclear. Using cross-sectional data from a cohort of illicit drug users, this study examined the association between discrimination based on race...
Chapter
This chapter is a focused narrative review that describes dissemination and implementation (D&I) efforts among vulnerable populations in key areas of prevention, and proposes future directions for moving the field forward. It begins with a discussion of models that can be used to conceptualize and guide the process of D&I efforts in racially/ethnic...
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Discrimination may contribute to health disparities among older adults. Existing measures of perceived discrimination have provided important insights but may have limitations when used in studies of older adults. This article illustrates the process of assessing the appropriateness of existing measures for theory-based research on perceived discri...
Article
Full-text available
The surge in the rate of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases continues to be most prevalent for African American women between the ages of 18 and 29, with heterosexual transmission remaining the primary cause of HIV spread for this population. The high rates of HIV/AIDS among African American w...
Conference Paper
Policy and practice that meets the needs of California's rapidly growing older population requires accurate information on the full diversity of the population. In 2007, an estimated 170,000 (2.3%) adults in California ages 50-70 identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Using data from the 2003-2007 California Health Interview Surveys, we present u...
Conference Paper
Background: Using alcohol and drugs to cope with discrimination may lead to substance abuse for Latina/os. However, men tend to have higher levels of self-reported discrimination and higher prevalence of substance abuse. We investigate the relationship between self-reported discrimination and substance abuse among Latina/os as well as differences b...
Conference Paper
Experiences of discrimination and neighborhood features denoting disadvantage, influence drug use patterns. Thus, they may also influence formation of high-risk drug networks. This is important given the potential increased opportunity for HIV transmission due to risk characteristics of one's network, independent of individual drug-using risk behav...
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Racial minorities bear a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality. These inequities might be explained by racism, given the fact that racism has restricted the lives of racial minorities and immigrants throughout history. Recent studies have documented that individuals who report experiencing racism have greater rates of illnesses. While...
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Research on the health of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adults generally overlooks the chronic conditions that are the most common health concerns of older adults. This brief presents unique population-level data on aging LGB adults (ages 50-70) documenting that they have higher rates of several serious chronic physical and mental health conditio...
Article
The number of studies targeting racial health inequities and the capabilities for measuring racism effects have grown substantially in recent years. Still, the need remains for a public health framework that moves beyond merely documenting disparities toward eliminating them. Critical Race Theory (CRT) has been the dominant influence on racial scho...
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Although social stratification persists in the US, differentially influencing the well-being of ethnically defined groups, ethnicity concepts and their implications for health disparities remain under-examined. Ethnicity is a complex social construct that influences personal identity and group social relations. Ethnic identity, ethnic classificatio...
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Racial scholars argue that racism produces rates of morbidity, mortality, and overall well-being that vary depending on socially assigned race. Eliminating racism is therefore central to achieving health equity, but this requires new paradigms that are responsive to structural racism's contemporary influence on health, health inequities, and resear...
Chapter
This chapter discusses HIV prevention and intervention efforts among injection drug users (IDUs) in the United States and internationally and provides a brief overview of the HIV epidemic among IDUs, and factors that have contributed to HIV acquisition and transmission. Political and social factors fundamentally shape the nature of substance-abuse...
Article
Using data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, this study examined prevalence of drinking and related problems among five racial/ethnic groups aged 18-30. Logistic regression analyses examined influences of gender and social status on alcohol-related problems among blacks, controlling for demographics...
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More than one quarter of HIV-infected people are undiagnosed and therefore unaware of their HIV-positive status. Blacks are disproportionately infected. Although perceived racism influences their attitudes toward HIV prevention, how racism influences their behaviors is unknown. We sought to determine whether perceiving everyday racism and racial se...
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The persistence of black/white disparities in health outcomes has led some to question the approaches public health, biomedical and clinical researchers use to classify, describe, and analyze race. Although these fields appear ready for the emergence of new strategies for studying race, they must first develop a solid understanding of the historica...
Article
Although outreach frequently is used to provide community-based HIV prevention services to members of underserved populations, researchers may not be familiar with the specific components of and factors influencing outreach and how systematic community outreach methods can be used to recruit participants for research purposes. This article describe...
Article
The purpose of this commentary is to explain how social constructions of black sexuality are relevant to research targeting black sexual behavior and the ostensibly new and race-specific phenomenon known as "the Down Low" (the DL). The term "the DL" is widely used to refer to black men publicly presenting as heterosexual while secretly having sex w...
Article
This paper presents a theoretical framework for conceptualizing alcohol-related disparities experienced by young Blacks in the United States. The framework highlights areas of risk and opportunity as they relate to the development of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In this paper, life course development theory serves as a guide for identi...
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In the current diagnosis-based, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention climate, previous testing among persons at elevated HIV risk has cost and efficacy implications, as it signals continued behavioral risk, limited HIV knowledge or overuse of services. This study sought to determine the proportion of African Americans newly seeking sexuall...
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In the July issue of the Journal, Young and Meyer1 describe how research targeting sexual minorities often relies upon the terms “men who have sex with men (MSM)” and “women who have sex with women (WSW)” in ways that elide important social considerations. The authors provide recommendations that are potentially quite useful, and they implore resea...
Article
Full-text available
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major public health problem among young people and can lead to the spread of HIV. Previous studies have primarily addressed barriers to STD care for symptomatic patients. The purpose of our study was to identify perceptions about existing barriers to and ideal services for STDs, especially asymptomatic scr...

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