Cezary Mitrus

Cezary Mitrus
Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences · Institute of Biology

Professor

About

74
Publications
21,111
Reads
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1,276
Citations
Introduction
My main topics: Biology and ecology of secondary cavity-nesters (flycatchers, tits, starlings). Forest bird communities. Significance of plumage color in birds, role of melanin (red-breasted flycatcher, reed bunting). Communication in animals, especially in birds. Urbanization and birds. Nature protection.
Additional affiliations
November 2018 - present
Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2012 - October 2018
Rzeszów University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
October 1990 - August 2012
University of Podlasie in Siedlce
Education
October 1986 - July 1991

Publications

Publications (74)
Article
Full-text available
Water is crucial for birds, especially during hot weather. However, the availability of water, and its use by birds in modern anthropogenic habitats, is far from understood, especially outside arid regions. Here, we analyze a large nationwide dataset collected in the temperate zone and present an overview of small water resources used by birds in u...
Article
Despite being one of the most common congenital hand abnormalities in humans, polydactyly remains extremely rare in bats. To date, it has been observed only in two insectivorous families in North America (Molossidae and Vespertilionidae) and a single case for the New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). We report the first case of polydactyly in a Eu...
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Many birds species breed in colonies. One of the species in the Corvidae family nesting in groups is the Rook (Corvus frugilegus). The construction of the nest is costly for birds and needs high energy expenditure. Therefore, birds should optimize the time of nest building in relation to environmental, especially weather, conditions. Furthermore, b...
Article
Kolejna cegiełka w dyskusji na temat wpływu polowań na ptaki
Article
We studied the relationship between temperature and the coexistence of great tit Parus major and blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, breeding in 75 study plots across Europe and North Africa. We expected an advance in laying date and a reduction in clutch size during warmer springs as a general response to climate warming and a delay in laying date and a...
Article
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The Eurasian Jay (Garrulus glandarius) is considered as the most important factor in the dispersal and spread of oak species. We conducted studies in oak stands in four countries (Poland, Hungary, Romania, Ukraine) in the autumn of 2015 and 2016. To identify the preferences of Jays for both acorns and trees, we compared the size of acorns and tree...
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We examined the relationship between individual heterozygosity of male Red-breasted Flycatchers (Ficedula parva; a small long-distance migratory, socially monogamous bird species) and their mating success, arrival time and age. Using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci, we found that male heterozygosity is related to both mating success and arriv...
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Domestic and wild mammals, domestic birds and particularly wild birds are considered to be reservoirs of many species of Enterobacteriaceae, and also important human enteric pathogens, e.g., the bacteria of the genus Campylobacter that occur in their digestive tracts. These species may be vectors of antimicrobial resistance dissemination in the env...
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In males of many bird species, plumage coloration and song characteristics can change with age. In the common rosefinch Erythrina erythrina delayed plumage maturation is observed, young males are duller than older ones and are similar to females. To date, variation in song parameters at a microgeographic scale and between various populations from...
Article
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Anthropogenic changes, including road network, have strongly influenced biodiversity of Europe. For the past 100 years road networks have become a conspicuous part of European landscape and strongly affected environment and human well-being, including effect by noise. To reduce impact of noise the special barriers (mainly transparent) are installed...
Article
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Birds show considerable variation in egg size, both within and between clutches. There are many factors affecting egg dimensions including features of the birds themselves, territory quality, food abundance and weather conditions. One feature that varies in clutches is repeatability of egg dimensions within a clutch. We studied variation in egg siz...
Article
Tereny miejskie oddziaływają na zamieszkujące je zwierzęta głównie przez bardzo duże zagęszczenie ludności i zabudowy, pokarm pochodzenia antropogenicznego oraz wyższą średnią roczną temperaturę otoczenia. Jedne gatunki zaczęły kolonizować miasta, a inne przeciwnie - z powodu braku dogodnych siedlisk unikają miejskich aglomeracji. Zwierzęta są częs...
Article
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Individuals that arrive earlier on the breeding grounds may obtain many advantages but they also have to spend time to wait for a mate. I studied the waiting times of male red-breasted flycatchers Ficedula parva small, migratory, sexually dichromatic passerine bird species under natural conditions (Białowieża National Park – Poland) in relation to...
Article
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Numerous studies have investigated the nest-site characteristics and selection of bird species, because these features often play a determining role in bird breeding success. In recent years researchers focused on urban environments as a source of novel conditions which provide breeding opportunities for species that are able to survive in human-al...
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This paper presents the results of waterbird counts performed in lower basins of the Bug (1993, 2011) and the Narew River Valleys (1998–1999, 2015). These sites are recognised as Special Protection Areas under the Birds Directive of Natura 2000 network. Numbers of 21/22 species (in the Narew and Bug River Valley, respectively) declined throughout t...
Article
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The increase in size of human populations in urban and agricultural areas has resulted in considerable habitat conversion globally. Such anthropogenic areas have specific environmental characteristics, which influence the physiology, life history, and population dynamics of plants and animals. For example, the date of bud burst is advanced in urban...
Data
Figure S1. Intensity of urbanisation according to (A) classification by scientists. Box plots show medians, quartiles, 5‐ and 95‐percentiles, and extreme values, and (B) CORINE land cover code (red = discontinuous urban, purple = industrial or commercial units, pink = green urban sites, brown = arable land and rice field, orange = agriculture lands...
Data
Figure S2. Distribution of study plots across Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.
Data
Table S1. Summary data for study plots. See Material and methods for definitions. Table S2. Correlation matrix of explanatory variables. Table S3. Mixed linear model investigating laying date in four passerines species (CF: Collared Flycatcher, GT: Great tit and PF: Pied Flycatcher) as a function of habitat characteristics (intensity of urbanisat...
Data
Figure S3. Box plots of latitude of study plots in four passerine birds in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.
Article
Full-text available
The increase in size of human populations in urban and agricultural areas has resulted in considerable habitat conversion globally. Such anthropogenic areas have specific environmental characteristics, which influence the physiology, life history, and population dynamics of plants and animals. For example, the date of bud burst is advanced in urban...
Article
Full-text available
Urban environments cover vast areas with a high density of humans and their dogs and cats causing problems for exploitation of new resources by wild animals. Such resources facilitate colonization by individuals with a high level of neophilia predicting that urban animals should show more neophilia than rural conspecifics. We provided bird-feeders...
Article
The nest is an important part of reproduction of many altricial bird species and nest construction is varied, for example in site selection, shape and construction material. We studied nest composition in the Red-breasted Flycatcher (Ficedula parva), breeding in natural holes in primeval stands of the Białowieża Forest. The nests were constructed o...
Article
Adapting to exploit new food sources may be essential, particularly in winter, when the impact of food limitation on survival of individuals is critical. One of the most important additional sources of food for birds in human settlements is birdfeeders. At a large spatial scale, we experimentally provided birdfeeders with four different kinds of fo...
Article
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Recent avian studies suggest that offspring sex ratios can vary with environmental or parental characteristics. One example is that females may adjust brood sex ratio of fledglings in response to the sexual attractiveness of their mate and are expected to produce more sons when mated with older or more ornamented males. We determined offspring sex...
Article
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We documented the composition and structure of the breeding bird assemblage in the primeval temperate forest of the Białowieża National Park (BNP), during 2010-2014, and used 40 years of data to assess patterns of its diversity. We applied an improved version of the mapping technique (a combined mapping method) for forest birds in seven plots locat...
Article
Animals respond to approaching predators by taking flight at a distance that optimizes the costs and benefits of such flight. Previous studies have shown that urban populations of birds have shorter flight initiation distances than rural populations of the same species, that this difference is partly explained by differences in the community of pre...
Article
Full-text available
Animals respond to approaching predators by taking flight at a distance that optimizes the costs and benefits of such flight. Previous studies have shown that urban populations of birds have shorter flight initiation distances than rural populations of the same species, that this difference is partly explained by differences in the community of pre...
Article
Full-text available
Living organisms, including birds, are influenced by many natural and anthropogenic factors. Apart from habitat degradation and loss, direct factors causing mortality, such as hunting, play an increasing role. Hunting has many negative consequences, including population decline, disturbance, lower availability of resting and foraging sites, changes...
Data
Summary information on studies of the relationship between clutch size and nest size in different species of birds.
Article
Full-text available
Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose...
Article
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Natural riverbeds in arid regions of Central Asia play an important role in waterbird migration. However, agricultural irrigation in the Aral Sea basin, in combination with climate change, is leading to wetland habitat loss. In this study, we consider the importance of the 2 largest river systems in this region during postbreeding movements and com...
Article
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One of the most important factors influencing breeding success in many bird species is predation. Nest site choice is one way of lowering the probability of such losses. In an agricultural landscape of eastern Poland, we examined the relationship between red-backed shrike (Lanius collurio) nest site characteristics, i.e., height above ground, conce...
Article
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Despite advances in knowledge, in many bird species, the true mating system is unknown, and especially so for birds breeding at low densities under natural conditions. We studied paternity at the population and breeding pair level in the Red-breasted Flycatcher (Ficedula parva), a small, migrant passerine breeding in old-growth Białowie a Forest. O...
Article
Secondary hole nesting birds that do not construct nest holes themselves and hence regularly breed in nest boxes constitute important model systems for field studies in many biological disciplines with hundreds of scientists and amateurs involved. Those research groups are spread over wide geographic areas that experience considerable variation in...
Article
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Many woodpecker species are known to be sensitive to the removal of dead wood. In 1999–2001 and 2007–2009 woodpeckers and dead wood abundance were studied in coniferous stands of the Bia1owie_za Forest, Poland. Transects (3.9–6 km long) were established in three zones of different types of management: 1) primeval, unmanaged stands (BNP); 2) partial...
Article
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We tested 24 microsatellite markers for the red-breasted flycatcher, Ficedula parva, using the primers for the PCR reaction described for other species from genus Ficedula. The amplification efficiency, specificity of the products, and parameters of polymorphism cross-amplified microsatellite were determined based on the genotypes of 65 adult males...
Article
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Older red-breasted flycatcher males (after the second year) have an orange patch on the throat and breast. To date, the occurrence of this ornament has been explained in terms of male-male interactions. In this paper, we show that badge size also influences the mating success of red-breasted-flycatcher males. In addition to the size of the ornament...
Article
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The composition and structure of the breeding bird assemblage in the Białowieża National Park (BNP) were documented in 2005-2009 and compared with the data from the previous 30 years. Mapping censuses were carried out in seven plots located in three forest types: ash-alder riverine, oak-hornbeam, and mixed coniferous forest. We checked whether the...
Article
The composition of nestling diet in the red-breasted flycatcher Ficedula parva was studied by videotaping 14 broods, in natural stands of the BiałowieÅa Forest, in relation to nestling age and the sex of the parents. On average 51.5% of the prey items were flying insects, 25.9 % spiders and 22.8% caterpillars. Amongst flying insects, Diptera domina...
Article
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Parental care is one of the crucial factors affecting breeding success in birds. The level of parent investment can differ between males and females. We studied the sex-specific nestling-feeding effort by parents of the red-breasted flycatcher. Our study was carried out in the old-growth oak—lime—hornbeam stands in the Białowieża National Park (NE...
Article
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Capsule Predation is a major factor influencing the breeding success of Red-breasted Flycatchers under natural conditions. Aims To examine the breeding success of Red-breasted Flycatchers in relation to nest-site characteristics and time of breeding. Methods Data were collected during seven breeding seasons under natural conditions in Białowieża Na...
Article
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On 12-15 September 2004 we conducted a count of birds on a 68 km section of the Upper Euphrates, from the Atatürk dam to the town of Halfeti. Altogether 291 individuals from 30 waterbird species were noted, their density was 42.8 indiv. / 10 km. Differentiation in numbers among particular trophic and morpho-ecological groups was significant. Within...
Article
Full-text available
Capsule Predation is a major factor influencing the breeding success of Red-breasted Flycatchers under natural conditions. Aims To examine the breeding success of Red-breasted Flycatchers in relation to nest-site characteristics and time of breeding. Methods Data were collected during seven breeding seasons under natural conditions in Białowieża Na...
Article
Full-text available
Hatching asynchrony has been recorded in many altricial bird species. Also, more than 70% of clutches of the Red-breasted Flycatcher hatched asynchronously. The annual variation in the proportion of asynchronous clutches depended on median dates of egg laying, in the years when females started egg laying later more asynchronous clutches were observ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to check what decide about breeding success in redbacked shrike Lanius collurio: nest-site concealment or parent’s aggressive behaviour. The study was carried out in eastern Poland in 1999–2003, on study plot consisted of 855 ha of extensively agricultural landscape. The effect of nest site concealment and defence of brood...
Article
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Reproductive success depends on a number of factors. Apart from the characteristics of the mate (age, experience, condition, quality) or environmental parameters such as the abundance of food or the intensity of predation, the quality of the nest-site is of primary importance. Its features can affect clutch size or partial losses and so can influen...
Article
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Intraspecific variation in the arrival time of migratory birds to breeding grounds is common. Although this phenomenon has been explained in various ways, the condition-dependency of arrival is often evoked. I analyzed the arrival time of male red-breasted flycatchers Ficedula parva, a long-distance migratory passerine, in relation to age, body siz...
Article
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Knowledge of habitat and nest site selection of secondary hole nesting birds under primeval conditions may aid in managing forests and in conservation biology. We studied location (n = 768) and dimensions (n = 624) of Collared Flycatcher nests in natural tree holes in a lime-hornbeam-oak stand of the Białowieża National Park, Poland. Collared Flyca...
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I studied arrival time, breeding phenology, and breeding success in relation to the age class (second year and older) of male red-breasted flycatchers for six breeding seasons (2000-2005) in the primaeval Białowieża Forest, eastern Poland. Older males, i.e. older than two years (ASY), arrived on average five days earlier than younger, second-year (...
Article
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The 2000–2004 results of the mapping technique censuses carried out in permanent plots situated in three types of old-growth primeval BNP stands (ash-alder riverine, oak-hornbeam, mixed coniferous) are presented and compared with data gathered in the same plots in the late 1990s. These data supplement earlier observations in the BNP and extend the...
Article
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Avian territory quality can vary with the availability of good habitats, the structure of the population, the age and quality of individuals. Here, we describe the territories of the Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva in relation to male age and arrival time. In the territories of Red-breasted Flycatchers, hornbeam Carpinus betulus was the domi...
Article
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Territoriality in Red-breasted Flycatchers was studied in the Białowieża Forest of Eastern Poland during five consecutive breeding seasons (2000-2004). In total 99 males were individually marked, and evidence of polyterritoriality was found in 10% of them. The proportion of polyterritorial males varied from 0% (in 2003) to 13.6% (in 2001). The mean...
Article
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We analysed data on the Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva collected in old-growth, oak-hornbeam stands in the primeval Bialowieza Forest, Poland during 1973-2002. In this period, the Red-breasted Flycatcher's return to its breeding sites became significantly earlier whilst population size did not change significantly. We show that population s...
Article
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The relation between Collared Flycatcher females’ selected characteristics (age, body condition and wing length) and breeding success was studied during seven breeding seasons (1995–2001) in nest-boxes in old-growth oak-lime-hornbeam of Białowieża Forest (Eastern Poland). Yearling females started laying almost three days later and produced smaller...
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117 nests of Red-breasted Flycatchers in Białowieża primeval forest (NE Poland) were characterised. Most nests (79%) were built in Hornbeam Carpinus betulus and lime Tilia cordata. Three types of nest sites were distinguished: chimney shaped (26.4%), half cavities (46.4%) or shelves — the nest was wedged under a piece of bark against the main trunk...
Article
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During five years (1992-1996) the effect of age of collared flycatcher males on arrival time, quality of nest site, partial losses, feeding effort and reproduction were examined in the primaeval, mature (170-250 year old) oak-lime-hornbeam forest of Białowieża National Park. The males were divided into two age groups: males with brown primaries and...
Article
I compared the breeding ecology of Collared Flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) breeding in natural and artificial nest sites in old-growth, oak-lime-hornbeam stands of the Białowieża Forest, eastern Poland, from 1993 to 1999. There were no significant differences in laying date, clutch size, partial clutch losses, partial brood losses, or number of...
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The breeding phenology of Collared Flycatchers was monitored for 7 years (1993 and 1995–2000) in old-growth, oak-lime-hornbeam stands in the primeval Białowieża Forest. In most years, egg laying commenced in the second half of May. The earliest first-egg date (179 broods) was 1 May, the latest such date was 13 May; these dates differed from year to...
Article
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The 1995–1999 results of the mapping technique censuses carried out in permanent plots situated in three types of old-growth primeval BNP stands (ash-alder riverine, oak-hornbeam, mixed coniferous) are presented and contrasted with the data gathered in the same plots in the late 1970s. Most community parameters, such as composition of breeding avif...
Article
445 eggs of the Collared Flycatcher from 82 clutches were measured during three breeding seasons (1997–1999). The mean length was 17.82 ± 0.80 mm, breadth — 3.45 ± 0.37 mm and volume — 1.65 ± 0.14 cm3. Egg dimensions were positively correlated. No significant differences in egg sizes during the three seasons were found. This suggests that the envir...
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The Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis population nesting in natural cavities in the Białowieża National Park was studied during 1988-1994. In none of the 534 cases, when a Collared Flycatcher was seen entering a natural cavity, was it killed. Additionally, in less than 2% (10/534) of observations did the male enter cavities owned by a differe...
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The territory mapping technique censuses of the Collared Flycatcher F. albicollis were conducted on 25.5 ha plot in the Białowieża National Park. Conducted at the same time within the same plot, an intensive study on the ecology of the Collared Flycatcher allowed us to precisely assess the true number of breeding pairs (all nests were found). The c...