César F. Lima

César F. Lima
ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa | ISCTE · Department of Social and Organizational Psychology

Ph.D. in Psychology
www.cesarflima.com

About

76
Publications
22,662
Reads
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1,406
Citations
Introduction
My research focuses on the psychology and neurobiology of vocal communication, including the perception of emotions in nonverbal vocalizations and in prosody ('tone of voice'). I am also interested in music perception and on associations between music training and nonmusical abilities. For more information about my work, please visit www.cesarflima.com
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
University College London
Position
  • PostDoc Position
January 2008 - December 2011
University of Porto
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (76)
Article
Full-text available
Auditory verbal hallucinations (hearing voices) are typically associated with psychosis, but a minority of the general population also experience them frequently and without distress. Such 'non-clinical' experiences offer a rare and unique opportunity to study hallucinations apart from confounding clinical factors, thus allowing for the identificat...
Article
Full-text available
AbstractMost research on nonverbal emotional vocalizations is based on actor portrayals, but how similar are they to the vocalizations produced spontaneously in everyday life? Perceptual and acoustic differences have been discovered between spontaneous and volitional laughs, but little is known about other emotions. We compared 362 acted vocalizati...
Article
Full-text available
Trends Hearing and imagining sounds–including speech, vocalizations, and music–can recruit SMA and pre-SMA, which are normally discussed in relation to their motor functions. Emerging research indicates that individual differences in the structure and function of SMA and pre-SMA can predict performance in auditory perception and auditory imagery ta...
Article
Full-text available
Some individuals show a congenital deficit for music processing despite normal peripheral auditory processing, cognitive functioning, and music exposure. This condition, termed congenital amusia, is typically approached regarding its profile of musical and pitch difficulties. Here, we examine whether amusia also affects socio-emotional processing,...
Article
Full-text available
Humans can generate mental auditory images of voices or songs, sometimes perceiving them almost as vividly as perceptual experiences. The functional networks supporting auditory imagery have been described, but less is known about the systems associated with interindividual differences in auditory imagery. Combining voxel-based morphometry and fMRI...
Article
Full-text available
It is often claimed that music training improves auditory and linguistic skills. Results of individual studies are mixed, however, and most evidence is correlational, precluding inferences of causation. Here, we evaluated data from 62 longitudinal studies that examined whether music training programs affect behavioral and brain measures of auditory...
Article
Music training has been linked to facilitated processing of emotional sounds. However, most studies have focused on speech, and less is known about musicians’ brain responses to other emotional sounds and in relation to instrument-specific experience. The current study combined behavioral and EEG methods to address two novel questions related to th...
Article
We sought to clarify the commonly accepted link between music training and cognitive ability. Professional musicians, nonprofessionals with music training, and musically untrained individuals (N = 642) completed measures of musical ability, personality, and general cognitive ability. Professional musicians scored highest on objective and self-repor...
Article
Full-text available
Cross-cultural studies of emotion recognition in nonverbal vocalizations not only support the universality hypothesis for its innate features, but also an in-group advantage for culture-dependent features. Nevertheless, in such studies, differences in socioeconomic educational status have not always been accounted for, with idiomatic translation of...
Article
Previous research has documented perceptual and brain differences between spontaneous and volitional emotional vocalizations. However, the time course of emotional authenticity processing remains unclear. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to address this question, and we focused on the processing of laughter and crying. We additionally tested...
Article
Full-text available
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs)-or hearing voices-occur in clinical and non-clinical populations, but their mechanisms remain unclear. Predictive processing models of psychosis have proposed that hallucinations arise from an over-weighting of prior expectations in perception. It is unknown, however, whether this reflects (i) a sensitivity to...
Article
The human voice is a primary tool for verbal and nonverbal communication. Studies on laughter emphasize a distinction between spontaneous laughter, which reflects a genuinely felt emotion, and volitional laughter, associated with more intentional communicative acts. Listeners can reliably differentiate the two. It remains unclear, however, if they...
Preprint
Full-text available
The human voice is a primary channel for emotional communication. It is often presumed that being able to recognise vocal emotions is important for everyday socio-emotional functioning, but direct empirical evidence for this remains scarce. Here, we examined relationships between vocal emotion recognition and socio-emotional adjustment in children....
Article
Full-text available
The human voice is a primary channel for emotional communication. It is often presumed that being able to recognize vocal emotions is important for everyday socio-emotional functioning, but evidence for this assumption remains scarce. Here, we examined relationships between vocal emotion recognition and socio-emotional adjustment in children. The s...
Article
We sought to determine whether an objective test of musical ability could be successfully administered online. A sample of 754 participants was tested with an online version of the Musical Ear Test (MET), which had Melody and Rhythm subtests. Both subtests had 52 trials, each of which required participants to determine whether standard and comparis...
Article
There is widespread interest in the possibility that music training enhances nonmusical abilities. This possibility has been examined primarily for speech perception and domain-general abilities such as IQ. Although social and emotional processes are central to many musical activities, transfer from music training to socioemotional skills remains u...
Article
The ability to recognize the emotions of others is a crucial skill. In the visual modality, sensorimotor mechanisms provide an important route for emotion recognition. Perceiving facial expressions often evokes activity in facial muscles and in motor and somatosensory systems, and this activity relates to performance in emotion tasks. It remains un...
Preprint
We sought to determine whether an objective test of musical ability could be administered online successfully. A sample of 754 participants was tested with an online version of the Musical Ear Test (MET), which had Melody and Rhythm subtests. Both subtests had 52 trials, each of which required participants to determine whether standard and comparis...
Article
Objective The ability to recognize others’ emotions is a central aspect of socioemotional functioning. Emotion recognition impairments are well documented in Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias, but it is less understood whether they are also present in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Results on facial emotion recognition are mixed, and crucia...
Preprint
Full-text available
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) – or hearing voices – occur in clinical and non-clinical populations, but their mechanisms remain unclear. Predictive processing models of psychosis have proposed that hallucinations arise from an over-weighting of prior expectations in perception. It is unknown, however, whether this reflects i) a sensitivity t...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to infer the authenticity of other’s emotional expressions is a social cognitive process taking place in all human interactions. Although the neurocognitive correlates of authenticity recognition have been probed, its potential recruitment of the peripheral autonomic nervous system is not known. In this work, we asked participants to ra...
Preprint
The human voice is a primary tool for verbal and nonverbal communication. Studies on laughter emphasize a distinction between spontaneous laughter, which reflects a genuinely felt emotion, and volitional laughter, associated with more intentional communicative acts. Listeners can reliably differentiate the two. It remains unclear, however, if they...
Preprint
The ability to recognize the emotions of others is a crucial skill. In the visual modality, sensorimotor mechanisms provide an important route for emotion recognition. Perceiving facial expressions often evokes activity in facial muscles and in motor and somatosensory systems, and this activity relates to performance in emotion tasks. It remains un...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is widespread interest in the possibility that music training enhances non-musical abilities. This has been examined primarily for speech perception and domain-general abilities such as IQ. Although social and emotional processes are central to many musical activities, transfer from music training to socioemotional skills remains underexplore...
Preprint
This study tested the idea that stuttering is caused by over-reliance on auditory feedback. The theory is motivated by the observation that many fluency-inducing situations, such as synchronised speech and masked speech, alter or obscure the talker’s feedback. Typical speakers show ‘speaking-induced suppression’ of neural activation in superior tem...
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness involves an intentional and non-judgemental attention or awareness of present-moment experiences. It can be cultivated by meditation practice or present as an inherent disposition or trait. Higher trait mindfulness has been associated with improved emotional skills, but evidence comes primarily from studies on emotion regulation. It rem...
Article
Music training is widely assumed to enhance several nonmusical abilities, including speech perception, executive functions, reading, and emotion recognition. This assumption is based primarily on cross-sectional comparisons between musicians and nonmusicians. It remains unclear, however, whether training itself is necessary to explain the musician...
Article
The ability to recognize emotions undergoes major developmental changes from infancy to adolescence, peaking in early adulthood, and declining with aging. A life span approach to emotion recognition is lacking in the auditory domain, and it remains unclear how the speaker's and listener's ages interact in the context of decoding vocal emotions. Her...
Article
Full-text available
Executive functions are affected differently in healthy aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and evaluating them is important for differential diagnosis. The INECO Frontal Screening (IFS) is a brief neuropsychological screening tool, developed to assess executive dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders. Goals: W...
Article
Voices are a primary source of emotional information in everyday interactions. Being able to process non-verbal vocal emotional cues, namely those embedded in speech prosody, impacts on our behaviour and communication. Extant research has delineated the role of temporal and inferior frontal brain regions for vocal emotional processing. A growing nu...
Article
Full-text available
How do we perceive voices coming from different spatial locations, and how is this affected by emotion? The current study probed the interplay between space and emotion during voice perception. Thirty participants listened to nonverbal vocalizations coming from different locations around the head (left vs. right; front vs. back), and differing in v...
Article
There are functional and anatomical distinctions between the neural systems involved in the recognition of sounds in the environment and those involved in the sensorimotor guidance of sound production and the spatial processing of sound. Evidence for the separation of these processes has historically come from disparate literatures on the perceptio...
Data
Raw data (accuracy) from a spatial location task (Experiment 1) and emotional recognition task (Experiment 2) with nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Manuscript - "Spatial location and emotion modulate voice perception"
Article
Full-text available
Nonverbal vocalisations such as laughter pervade social interactions, and the ability to accurately interpret them is an important skill. Previous research has probed the general mechanisms supporting vocal emotional processing, but the factors that determine individual differences in this ability remain poorly understood. Here, we ask whether the...
Article
The Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) was recently proposed as a self-report measure of musical skills and behaviors in the general population. Although it is becoming a widely used tool, relatively little is known about its correlates, and adaptations into different languages will be crucial for cross-cultural comparisons and to a...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of classical musicians have demonstrated that expertise modulates neural responses during auditory perception. However, it remains unclear whether such expertise-dependent plasticity is modulated by the instrument that a musician plays. To examine whether the recruitment of sensorimotor regions during music perception is modulated by instru...
Article
The ability to perceive the emotions of others is crucial for everyday social interactions. Important aspects of visual socioemotional processing, such as the recognition of facial expressions, are known to depend on largely automatic mechanisms. However, whether and how properties of automaticity extend to the auditory domain remains poorly unders...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of quickly assessing personality traits in many studies prompted the development of brief scales such as the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), a measure of five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness). In the current study, we present the Portuguese version of TIPI a...
Article
Full-text available
Executive function (EF) has been defined as a multifaceted construct that involves a variety of high-level cognitive abilities such as planning, working memory, mental flexibility, and inhibition. Being able to identify deficits in EF is important for the diagnosis and monitoring of several neurodegenerative disorders, and thus their assessment is...
Data
Data S1. Summary Data for Each Participant (Information on Group Membership, Parameter Estimates for Regions of Interest, and Behavioral Ratings), Related to STAR Methods Data are provided for each participant for (1) group membership (i.e., typically developing, disruptive/high callous-unemotional traits, disruptive/low callous-unemotional traits...
Article
Full-text available
Humans are intrinsically social animals, forming enduring affiliative bonds [1]. However, a striking minority with psychopathic traits, who present with violent and antisocial behaviors, tend to value other people only insofar as they contribute to their own advancement [2, 3]. Extant research has addressed the neurocognitive processes associated w...
Poster
Contribution of the INECO Frontal Screening (IFS) to the Differential Diagnosis of Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s disease
Presentation
Contribution of a brief executive assessment for the differentiation between healthy aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s disease
Presentation
Early-stage diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Dementia: The contribution of executive screening tests
Poster
Examining executive dysfunction with INECO Frontal Screening: Normative values and clinical utility in Alzheimer’s disease
Article
Full-text available
Humans can generate mental auditory images of voices or songs, sometimes perceiving them almost as vividly as perceptual experiences. The functional networks supporting auditory imagery have been described, but less is known about the systems associated with interindividual differences in auditory imagery. Combining voxel-based morphometry and fMRI...
Article
Full-text available
There is much interest in the idea that musicians perform better than non-musicians in understand-ing speech in background noise. Research in this area has often used energetic maskers, which have their effects primarily at the auditory periphery. However, masking interference can also occur at more central auditory levels, known as informational m...
Article
Full-text available
It is well established that emotion recognition of facial expressions declines with age, but evidence for age-related differences in vocal emotions is more limited. This is especially true for nonverbal vocalizations such as laughter, sobs, or sighs. In this study, 43 younger adults (M = 22 years) and 43 older ones (M = 61.4 years) provided multipl...
Article
Full-text available
Humans express emotions in many different ways. Facial expressions, body postures, or vocal cues, for instance, communicate a wealth of information about others' emotional states. While the adaptive significance of these multiple cues has long been acknowledged ([Darwin, 1872/2009][1]), facial
Article
Full-text available
It is well established that categorising the emotional content of facial expressions may differ depending on contextual information. Whether this malleability is observed in the auditory domain and in genuine emotion expressions is poorly explored. We examined the perception of authentic laughter and crying in the context of happy, neutral and sad...
Presentation
Institute of Cognitive Neurology Frontal Screening (IFS): Dados normativos e estudo da utilidade clínica na doença de Alzheimer
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Institute of Cognitive Neurology (INECO) Frontal Screening (IFS) is a brief neuropsychological tool recently devised for the evaluation of executive dysfunction in neurodegenerative conditions. Objective: In this study we present a cross-cultural validation of the IFS for the Portuguese population, provide normative values from a...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated how age and musical expertise influence emotion recognition in music. Musically trained and untrained participants from two age cohorts, young and middle-aged adults (N = 80), were presented with music excerpts expressing happiness, peacefulness, sadness and fear/threat. They rated how much each excerpt expressed the four emotions o...
Poster
Diagnóstico precoce de demência de Alzheimer: Contributo de baterias breves para avaliação do funcionamento executivo
Article
Full-text available
Nonverbal vocal expressions, such as laughter, sobbing, and screams, are an important source of emotional information in social interactions. However, the investigation of how we process these vocal cues entered the research agenda only recently. Here, we introduce a new corpus of nonverbal vocalizations, which we recorded and submitted to perceptu...
Article
Full-text available
Does emotion processing in music and speech prosody recruit common neurocognitive mechanisms? To examine this question, we implemented a cross-domain comparative design in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Twenty-four patients and 25 controls performed emotion recognition tasks for music and spoken sentences. In music, patients had impaired recognition of...
Poster
Défices executivos em fases iniciais da demência de Alzheimer: contributos de baterias breves de avaliação neuropsicológica