Cengiz Acarturk

Cengiz Acarturk
Middle East Technical University | METU · Department of Cognitive Science

PhD

About

72
Publications
20,812
Reads
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531
Citations
Introduction
My research interests cover eye tracking applications, oculomotor movements in reading, visual cognition and cybercognition.
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Middle East Technical University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2012 - present
Middle East Technical University
Position
  • Faculty Member
Description
  • Visual Cognition Psychology of Reading
June 2006 - October 2009
University of Hamburg
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (72)
Article
Full-text available
Research into second language (L2) reading is an exponentially growing field. Yet, it still has a relatively short supply of comparable, ecologically valid data from readers representing a variety of first languages (L1). This article addresses this need by presenting a new data resource called MECO L2 (Multilingual Eye Movements Corpus), a rich be...
Article
Full-text available
Scientific studies of language behavior need to grapple with a large diversity of languages in the world and, for reading, a further variability in writing systems. Yet, the ability to form meaningful theories of reading is contingent on the availability of cross-linguistic behavioral data. This paper offers new insights into aspects of reading beh...
Chapter
Linguistic principles are crucial in maintaining reliable and transparent communication for dyadic interactions. However, violating these principles might result in unwieldy and problematic communications. We use gaze as a medium to explore how visual attention and task performance changes when conversational violations occur. We conducted an eye-t...
Article
In recent years, cyber threats and malicious software attacks have been escalated on various platforms. Therefore, it has become essential to develop automated machine learning methods for defending against malware. In the present study, we propose stacked bidirectional long short-term memory (Stacked BiLSTM) and generative pre-trained transformer...
Article
Full-text available
In daily communication and instructional settings, arrows and spontaneous gestures usually convey similar spatial information to interlocutors. They can visualize spatial information in 2D or 3D space based on shared conceptual and spatial representations. The present study investigates the relationship between spontaneous gestures and arrows from...
Chapter
Developing natural and intuitive Human Computer Interaction is a primary target of interaction design. The analysis of a user’s engagement to the task is an essential component for the assessment of the interaction for design efficiency. The investigation of task engagement requires considering users’ goal orientation since performance-oriented and...
Article
Full-text available
We report the results of an empirical study on gaze aversion during dyadic human-to-human conversation in an interview setting. To address various methodological challenges in as- sessing gaze-to-face contact, we followed an approach where the experiment was conducted twice, each time with a different set of interviewees. In one of them the intervi...
Article
Full-text available
To mitigate dictionary attacks or similar undesirable automated attacks to information systems, developers mostly prefer using CAPTCHA challenges as Human Interactive Proofs (HIPs) to distinguish between human users and scripts. Appropriate use of CAPTCHA requires a setup that balances between robustness and usability during the design of a challen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cyber attacks constitute a significant threat to organizations with implications ranging from economic, reputational, and legal consequences. As cybercriminals' techniques get sophisticated, information security professionals face a more significant challenge to protecting information systems. In today's interconnected realm of computer systems, ea...
Article
Full-text available
Gaze and language are major pillars in multimodal communication. Gaze is a non-verbal mechanism that conveys crucial social signals in face-to-face conversation. However, compared to language, gaze has been less studied as a communication modality. The purpose of the present study is 2-fold: (i) to investigate gaze direction (i.e., aversion and fac...
Preprint
Full-text available
Malicious software threats and their detection have been gaining importance as a subdomain of information security due to the expansion of ICT applications in daily settings. A major challenge in designing and developing anti-malware systems is the coverage of the detection, particularly the development of dynamic analysis methods that can detect p...
Article
Full-text available
Malicious software threats and their detection have been gaining importance as a subdomain of information security due to the expansion of ICT applications in daily settings. A major challenge in designing and developing anti-malware systems is the coverage of the detection, particularly the development of dynamic analysis methods that can detect p...
Article
Full-text available
This study addresses maturity and capability assessment of Security Operation Centres (SOC). It aims to contribute to continuous improvement for SOCs by proposing a complementary methodology that provides SOCs a self‐assessment capability. The method basically involves an assessment of the gaps between the current and the desired states of the orga...
Article
Full-text available
Cyber attacks constitute a significant threat to organizations with implications ranging from economic, reputational, and legal consequences. As cybercriminals’ techniques get sophisticated, information security professionals face a more significant challenge to protecting information systems. In today’s interconnected realm of computer systems, ea...
Article
Mobile Multimodal Interaction aims at exploiting complementary aspects of human communication capacities and new mobile sensors. Recently, most mobile applications are limited to a basic interaction modality, namely touchscreen, which is subject to restricted interaction under certain situations. In this paper, we present On-the-Fly Interaction Edi...
Article
Reading requires the assembly of cognitive processes across a wide spectrum from low-level visual perception to high-level discourse comprehension. One approach of unraveling the dynamics associated with these processes is to determine how eye movements are influenced by the characteristics of the text, in particular which features of the words wit...
Chapter
Gaze has a major role in social interaction. As a deictic reference, gaze aims at attracting visual attention of a communication partner to a referred entity in the environment. Gaze direction in natural faces is a well-investigated domain of research at behavioral and neurophysiological levels. However, our knowledge about deictic role of gaze in...
Article
Full-text available
To become an information society, it is required that the citizens have access to information and communication technologies (ICT) in appropriate ways. ICT plays a major role to improve inclusion of various parts of the society (such as children, disabled citizens, and elderly) into daily life. According to reports of WHO, the world population is g...
Article
Full-text available
Recent advances in neuroimaging technologies have rendered multimodal analysis of operators’ cognitive processes in complex task settings and environments increasingly more practical. In this exploratory study, we utilized optical brain imaging and mobile eye tracking technologies to investigate the behavioral and neurophysiological differences amo...
Chapter
Architectural design is not just a technical process based on problem-solving and representation, but also a social process distributed between architect and non-architect stakeholders. In this study, visual behaviour differences between architects and non-architects during perception, interpretation and evaluation of architectural drawings are ana...
Article
Full-text available
The analysis of dynamic scenes has been a challenging domain in eye tracking research. This study presents a framework, named MAGiC, for analyzing gaze contact and gaze aversion in face-to-face communication. MAGiC provides an environment that is able to detect and track the conversation partner’s face automatically, overlay gaze data on top of the...
Article
Full-text available
Based on research in physical anthropology, we argue that brightness marks the abstract category of gender, with light colours marking the female gender and dark colours marking the male gender. In a set of three experiments, we examine this hypothesis, first in a speeded gender classification experiment with male and female names presented in blac...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of the present study is to contribute to the research on the use of eye tracking in hands-free gaming. We report the results of an experimental study by using a platform game designed by the authors. The game allowed gaze-voice command control, as well touchscreen control of the interface by the player. We employed a set of performance mea...
Conference Paper
Deictic Gaze in Virtual Reality Environments Cengiz Acartürk, Efecan Yılmaz 6th Polish Eye Tracking Conference, Warsaw, Poland. Language and vision are two complementary modalities in that both employ deixis in communication. Deictic utterances are necessarily accompanied by other modalities, such as gesture or gaze, to resolve ambiguity in spatial...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Architectural design is not just a technical process based on problem-solving and representation, but also a social process distributed between architect and non-architect stakeholders. In this study, visual behaviour differences between architects and non-architects during perception, interpretation and evaluation of architectural drawings are ana...
Poster
Full-text available
Eye Movements in Turkish Reading; Silent Reading; Oral Reading; Perceptual Span; Parafoveal Processing
Poster
Full-text available
A Multimodal Framework for Analysing Gaze in Dyadic Communication (MAGiC v1.0) A major challenge for the analyses of gaze behaviour in social settings is to dynamically detect and track objects in the visual environment. In dyadic communication settings, this challenge reduces to a face detection and tracking problem in a video stream. Overlaying...
Article
Full-text available
Multi-authoring has been gaining popularity since the foundation of academic publishers. Today we observe a global trend in favor of multi-authoring. On the other hand, in certain domains, such as CERN collaborations in physics, multi-authoring has a different connotation than other domains. The number of co-authors may be above 5000, an all-time r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For a language learner, any new word is a pseudoword. A pseudoword is a string of of letters or phonemes that sounds like an existing word in a language, though it has no meaning in the lexicon. On the other hand, speakers are well aware of permissible phonemes, their frequencies and collocations in their language due to the phonotactics inherent i...
Conference Paper
Social media posts are usually informal and short in length. They may not always express their sentiment clearly. Therefore, multiple raters may assign different sentiments to a tweet. Instead of employing majority voting which ignores the strength of sentiments, the annotation can be enriched with a confidence score assigned for each sentiment. In...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates secondary-task interference on eye movements through learning with multimedia. We focus on the relationship between the influence of the secondary task on the eye movements of learners, and the learning outcomes as measured by retention, matching, and transfer. Half of the participants performed a spatial tapping task while...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gaze information has the potential to benefit Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) tasks, particularly when combined with speech. Gaze can improve our understanding of the user intention, as a secondary input modality, or it can be used as the main input modality by users with some level of permanent or temporary impairments. In this paper we describe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Multi-modal interfaces that provide haptic access to statistical line graphs combined with verbal assistance are proposed as an effective tool to fulfill the needs of visually impaired people. Graphs do not only present data, they also provide and elicit the extraction of second order entities (such as maxima or trends), which are closely linked to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Elderly people face problems when using current forms of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Developing novel and natural methods of interaction would facilitate resolving some of those issues. We propose that HCI can be improved by combining communication modalities, in particular, speech and gaze, in various ways. This study presents elderly speech...
Article
Haptic–audio interfaces allow haptic exploration of statistical line graphs accompanied by sound or speech, thus providing access to exploration by visually impaired people. Verbally assisted haptic graph exploration can be seen as a task-oriented collaborative activity between two partners, a haptic explorer and an observing assistant, who are dis...
Article
Extracting eye movement events from raw data has become important upon the introduction of affordable eye trackers. The common approach in current algorithms is that they take into account velocity and position information separately. In this paper, we analyze the pros and cons of the current algorithms and introduce a novel algorithm based on the...
Article
Full-text available
Recent interest towards university rankings has led to the development of several ranking systems at national and global levels. Global ranking systems tend to rely on internationally accessible bibliometric databases and reputation surveys to develop league tables at a global level. Given their access and in-depth knowledge about local institution...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a project with the overall goal of providing a natural interaction communication platform accessible and adapted for all users, especially for people with speech impairments and elderly, by sharing knowledge between Industry and Academia. The platform will adopt the princi-ples of natural user interfaces such as speech, silent...
Article
Full-text available
This study describes the basic methodological approach and the results of URAP-TR, the first national ranking system for Turkish universities. URAP-TR is based on objective bibliometric data resources and includes both size-dependent and size-independent indicators that balance total academic performance with performance per capita measures. In the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Statistical line graphs are widely used in mul-timodal communication settings and they are crucial elements of learning environments. For visually impaired people, haptic-audio interfaces that provide perceptual access to graph-ical representations seem as an effective tool to fulfill these needs. In an experimental study, we investigated referring...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Statistical graphs are tools for multimodal communication in daily life settings. For visually impaired people, haptic interfaces provide perceptual access to the information provided by the graph. Haptic comprehension can be facilitated by audio and verbal assistance. We investigate the circumstances under which verbal assistance facilitates hapti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Statistical graphs have been designed for accessible use by visually impaired users. Haptic devices provide an appropriate interface for haptic exploration of statistical graphs. However, haptic exploration of statistical graphs reveals a more local and sequential inspection pattern compared to visual exploration. This difference between haptic exp...
Article
Full-text available
In multimodal documents, different types of cohesive or cross-reference link (i.e., signaling) are used in the text to link verbally coded content with the graphical material. In this study, we identify three types of reference, within the framework of previous work on cohesion (Halliday & Hasan, 1976): directive signaling, descriptive signaling, a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Graphical password is an alternative method of authentication to alphanumerical passwords. From the perspective of research on human memory, it is yet another novel technology that introduces challenges on human memory components. In this study, we aim to investigate the previous findings in human visual memory in the domain of graphical passwords...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Graphs are successful means to present data, in both tasks that of analyzing and that of communicating data. In addition to text-graph documents, in many professional communication and instruction settings, graphs, language, and often gestures accompany each other forming multimodal communication. In the present study, we investigate referring expr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bar graphs and line graphs are commonly used ways of graphical communication. Due to the difference in their perceptual visuo-spatial properties, they facilitate comprehension of different events. Bar graphs are commonly used in the domain of precipitation although the data intrinsically carry information that is averaged over long time spans. In t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Statistical graphs, such as line graphs are widely used in multimodal communication settings. Language accompanies graphs and humans produce gestures during the course of communication. For visually impaired people, haptic-audio interfaces provide perceptual access to graphical representations. The local and sequential character of haptic perceptio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In communication settings, statistical graphs accompany language by providing visual access to various aspects of domain entities, such as conveying information about trends. A similar and comparable means for providing perceptual access is to provide haptic graphs for blind people. In this study, we present the results of an experimental study tha...
Article
Full-text available
Statistical graphs—in particular, line graphs and bar graphs—are efficient means of communication in a wide range of non-expert settings. In communication settings, statistical graphs do not only serve as visualizations of individual data points but also provide visual access to various aspects of the information contained in data. Moreover, specif...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Line graphs are widely used in communication settings, for conveying information about states and processes that unfold in time. The communication is achieved by the contribution of other modalities than graphs, such as language and gestures. In a set of experimental investigations, we analyzed the production and comprehension of gestures during co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Widely used statistical graphs (such as line graphs and bar graphs) are usually accompanied by graphical entities other than the graph proper. Those graphical cues, such as point marks and arrows serve for communicative purposes by bringing certain aspects to the foreground over the others. The present study discusses the results of an experimental...
Article
Full-text available
Eye tracking methodology has been a major empirical research approach for the study of online comprehension processes in reading and scene viewing. The use of eye tracking methodology for the study of diagrammatic representations, however, has been relatively limited so far. The investigation of specific types of diagrammatic representations, such...
Article
Online information sources, such as pictures and animations on web pages are frequently used for complementing printed course material in educational contexts. The concurrent use of online and printed information sources by students, however, requires going back and forth between physically separated course material, such as a course book and a com...
Article
Full-text available
Multimodal documents combining language and graphs are wide-spread in print media as well as in electronic media. One of the most important tasks to be solved in comprehending graph-text combinations is construction of causal chains among the meaning entities provided by modalities. In this study we focus on the role of annotation position and shap...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents a novel computational approach to the analysis of unaccusa-tive/unergative distinction in Turkish by employing feed-forward artificial neural networks with a backpropagation algo-rithm. The findings of the study reveal cor-respondences between semantic notions and syntactic manifestations of unaccusa-tive/unergative distinction...