Céline Jacob

Céline Jacob
Université Bretagne Sud | UBS · Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Vannes

About

83
Publications
47,827
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1,614
Citations
Citations since 2016
4 Research Items
928 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140

Publications

Publications (83)
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of these three experiments was to determine whether the visibility of previous donations to a humanitarian cause influences people’s donation to the same cause. In Study 1, conducted in bakeries, a donation box was placed near the cash register with a message soliciting donations for a humanitarian project. The moneybox was transparent...
Article
Full-text available
The evoking freedom technique is a verbal compliance technique that consists of soliciting someone to comply with a request by simply saying that the solicitee is free to accept or refuse the request. The effect of this technique on customer behavior has never been tested, however. When presenting the menu to a patron, a waitress was instructed to...
Article
Studies have shown that information about a food product (e.g., the method of cultivation, the country of origin, the name of the product) influences how the product is perceived. However, the effect of information regarding the ingredients composing the product has never been examined. An experimental study was conducted in a restaurant where we e...
Article
It has been reported that information about the country of origin or the method of cultivating a food product influences individuals’ judgment. However, the effect of informing people that a product is produced locally has never been examined. A taste study was conducted in Brittany on the West Atlantic coast in France, a part of the country with a...
Article
Pictures and images are important aspects in fundraising advertising and could generate more donations. In two experimental studies, we examined the effect of various pictures of hearts on compliance with a request for organ donations. The solicitor wore a white tee shirt where various forms of hearts were printed: symbolic versus realistic (first...
Article
It has previously been reported that an interviewer's dress style influences compliance with a face-to-face survey request. However, dress style has been examined in global terms, with the interviewer wearing conventional clothes versus smart clothes. In this study, we tested the effect of the presence or absence of a single cue of dress style. A m...
Article
Identifying low-cost, effective methods to influence behavior is of keen interest to social marketers and others striving to bring about social change. Research on material primes (an object or a word present in the individual’s environment) has received little interest from scientists. This field study conducted in France examined whether the pres...
Article
This experiment examines whether individuals return favors when they receive an initial favor in an interviewer-administrated street survey solicitation setting. In the favor condition, a confederate offers a piece of candy to the participants walking in the street and then asks them to participate in a survey. In the no-favor condition, participan...
Article
Studies have shown that restaurant waitresses with hair ornamentation receive higher tips than waitresses without ornaments. However, the effect of such ornamentation on other behaviors has never been explored. In this study, the effect of a female interviewer’s hair ornamentation on compliance with a survey request was examined. Male and female pa...
Article
The effect of employees’ physical appearance on tipping is well documented. The effect of clothing appearance, however, has not been examined. A pizza delivery man wearing a two-piece suit or casual clothes served as confederate. The tip size of 55 customers was measured. It was found that the well-dressed employee received higher tips. These resul...
Article
Research has shown that compliments addressed to customers by an employee have a positive influence on the customers’ tipping behavior. In this study, we examined whether compliments also enhanced patrons’ compliance with a food server's suggestion. First, a restaurant waitress took the customers’ order for the main course. Then, in the ingratiatio...
Article
Managing and developing positive customer relationships is a critical factor in the success of a restaurant. In this study, waitresses either asked customers about their satisfaction with the food or service before proposing tea or coffee, or they directly proposed coffee or tea without asking about satisfaction. It was found that the number of cus...
Article
Glass color may influence the evaluation of food and beverages as has been reported in a previous study where participants rated a cold beverage presented in a blue glass to be more thirst-quenching than the same beverage poured into a green, yellow, or red glass. Our experiment sought to test whether container color also can affect the perceived t...
Article
Previous research found that the reminders about money increase social distance and solitary activity. In two studies conducted in field settings, the helping behavior of participants was observed. Passersby that just handled or not money at an automated teller machine were asked to participate in a short survey (Study 1) or have the opportunity to...
Article
van Baaren et al. (2003) found that a waitress who mimicked their patrons by repeating their order received significantly larger tips. In this study, we tried to replicate these results by testing the effect of repetition after a delay between the customer's initial order and the repetition. A waitress was instructed to mimic or not half of their c...
Article
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Article
Full-text available
People interact more readily with someone with whom they think they have something in common, but the effect of an incidental similarity has never been examined on social networks. Facebook users were contacted by a stranger who also possessed a Facebook page and who asked them to become his friend. The request message contained one item of similar...
Article
Red is traditionally connected with love and sex. However, the effect of red on human behavior still remains in question. Women with Internet personal ads registered on a web meeting site displayed photographs with their upper clothes colored in red, black, white, yellow, blue, and green. The dependent variable was the number of contacts received f...
Article
Research has shown that the birthdate influences individual's judgment, but this ‘birthdate effect’ has never been tested on behavior and in a selling context. Previous customers of a musical instruments store were solicited by phone to participate in a survey of their opinion of the store. Customers were solicited 1 day before their birthday, on t...
Article
Recent studies have shown that exposing individuals to the concept of love influenced their subsequent helping behavior. However, the effect of this concept was found only when people were exposed to this concept for certain amount of time. In this study, participants who stopped to examine the stand of a well-known charitable organization were inf...
Article
Some studies have shown that exposure to fortuitous information can influence individuals' behavior. In this study, customers in two restaurants were exposed, or not, to an altruism-related quote written on their bill. A significant increase in tipping behavior was found from both male and female patrons who had been exposed to the altruism quotes....
Article
Studies have shown that physical cues, presented in the immediate environment of an individual, influence his/her behavior later. Recent studies have found that exposing individuals to the concept of love influenced their subsequent helping behavior. This effect was studied in a field context using a physical cue associated with love. Customers ent...
Article
Several experiments have shown that music has a relaxation effect, reduces anxiety and influences time perception. The purpose of the study was to assess whether music influenced dental patients' perception of time spent in the waiting room and the feeling of pain. Soft music was either present or absent in a dental clinic. After the treatment, the...
Article
Previous research has demonstrated that makeup increases perceived women’ attractiveness and femininity for men. However, the effect of lipstick had never been tested.An experiment was carried out in restaurant in order to verify if waitresses’ lips makeup is associated with an increase in patrons’ tipping behavior. Female waitresses with and witho...
Article
Research has shown that the statement "Even a penny will help" associated with charity fund-raising increases compliance. The present experiment analyzed the effectiveness of this technique using a novel solicitation and an intermediate delay between the statement and the actual execution of the request. Confederates solicited customers in a store...
Article
Full-text available
The ‘evoking freedom’ technique is a verbal compliance procedure which solicits someone to comply with a request by simply telling a person that he/she is free to accept or to refuse the request. However, the effect of this technique has never been tested in a selling context. Previous customers (N ¼ 900) of an extreme sports store were solicited b...
Article
Priming can influence preferences. In this experiment, we extend this idea by using watermark visual primes. On a restaurant menu cart, primes related to the sea, countryside (or no prime) were used with alone diners in a restaurant. The results show that, compared to the control no-prime condition, primes related to the sea significantly increased...
Article
Stillman and Hensley (198022. Stillman , J. W. and Hensley , W. E. 1980. She wore a flower in a hair: The effect of ornamentation on nonverbal communication. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 1: 31–39. [Taylor & Francis Online]View all references) found that restaurant waitresses who wore a flower in their hair received higher tips. Howe...
Article
Recent research conducted with humans demonstrated that red, relative to other achromatic or chromatic colors, led men to view women presented on a photograph as more attractive. The effect of color on behavior was tested in a tipping context. Eleven waitresses in five restaurants were instructed to wear the same tee shirt with different colors (bl...
Article
Research has found that exposition to red is associated with physiological activation and fighting spirit. A field experiment was conducted to explore whether the color of cars is related to an aggressive response. Drivers waiting at a traffic light were blocked by an experimental car. The color of the car varied (blue, red, green, black, and white...
Article
Experimental studies showing that servers’ nonverbal behaviors are associated with variation in customers’ tipping have not tested the effect of interpersonal distance between the server and the customer. Five waitresses in three restaurants were asked to stand erect at varying distances from patrons, who were alone at their table, when taking orde...
Article
Descriptive menu labels have been found to have a positive effect on restaurant sales. In this experiment, we tested affective labels that would trigger happy memories of family, tradition and patriotism (e.g. ‘baked potatoes’ vs ‘Grandma’s home-made baked potatoes’). It was found that labels of this type were associated with greater sales. Indeed,...
Article
Previous research studying the effect of background music on consumer behavior has used music associated with lyrics and failed to use a no music control condition. Instrumental music (jazz and djembe) was played or not while participants browsed the website of a well-known seaside resort and participants were instructed to select a type of accommo...
Article
Some studies have shown that figurative cues, presented in the immediate environment of an individual, can affect his or her later behavior. This effect was applied in a fundraising context. In 12 bakeries, a pink opaque donation box was placed near the cash register with a message soliciting donations for a humanitarian project. The moneybox had a...
Article
In a field setting, students (N = 1800) on different campus locations were asked by a young female confederate for a donation during a health fundraising solicitation (French Téléthon). The solicitor wore a white tee-shirt with different inscriptions: no inscription, “Loving = Helping”, and “Donating = Helping”. Results found that, compared with th...
Article
We tested the Door-in-the-Face technique in a restaurant. After the refusal of a dessert at the end of the meal, waitresses proposed a tea/or a coffee to the customers. This later proposition was addressed immediately after the refusal of the dessert or 3min later. It was found that the number of customers who ordered coffee/tea was significantly h...
Article
Developing interpersonal bonds between employees and customers in selling contexts can increase sales and positive perceptions of the employees and the store. Recent studies have found that mimicking the verbal and nonverbal behavior of strangers enhanced their liking for the individual who mimicked them, and influenced helping behavior. An experim...
Article
Several studies have found that cosmetics improve female facial attractiveness when judgments are made based on photographs. However, these studies were conducted only in the laboratory, while field studies are scarce in the literature. In fact, only one study has tested the effect of cosmetics on behavior. In this study the effect of cosmetics on...
Article
During an experiment carried out in a retail setting, sellers imitated or not verbal and nonverbal customers' behaviors. It was found that imitation was associated with higher sales rate, greater compliance with the seller's suggestion during the selling process and greater positive evaluations of the seller and the store. Mediation analyses reveal...
Article
Lors d'une expérience menée en magasin, des vendeurs ont imité ou non les comportements verbaux et non verbaux des clients. Il semblerait que le mimétisme soit associé à une augmentation du taux d'achat, à plus de conformisme à L'égard d'une suggestion faite par le vendeur et à des évaluations plus positives du vendeur et du magasin. Les analyses d...
Article
Full-text available
Some studies have shown that figurative cues, presented in the immediate environment of an individual, have affected his/her later behavior. This effect was applied to consumer behavior. In a restaurant, various figurative cues related to the sea (a boat or a sailor figurine, a napkin with a picture of a boat and poetry related to the sea) or no cu...
Article
Full-text available
An experiment manipulating similarity was carried out in a computer-mediated context where 634 males and females taken at random from various email lists were solicited to visit a website for the benefit of a humanitarian organization. In half of the cases, the given-name of the solicitor, which appeared in his/her electronic address, was the same...
Article
Recent research has shown that exposure to songs with prosocial lyrics was associated with prosocial behavior and accessibility of prosocial thoughts. However theses studies were performed in a laboratory setting where participants were instructed to listening songs alone in a room. So the effect of prosocial songs in a natural setting, with severa...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that exposure to various media is correlated to variations in human behaviour. Exposure to aggressive song lyrics increases aggressive action whereas exposure to songs with prosocial lyrics is associated with prosocial behaviour. An experiment was carried out where 18-20-year-old single female participants were exposed t...
Article
Previous research found that media richness is associated with positive evaluation of a web site. An experiment was carried out where participants were instructed to explore a web site presenting a popular town: Venice. According to a random distribution, participants were exposed (or not) to street-sounds when exploring the web site and had the po...
Article
It had been found that cosmetics do improve female facial attractiveness when judgments were made based on photographs. However, these studies were conducted only on laboratory and field studies are scarce in the literature and none of them have tested the effect of customers’ behavior. An experiment was carried out in restaurant in order to verify...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper the effect of mimicry on social behavior and judgment in social interaction is examined. When a stranger mimics the verbal and nonverbal expressions of somebody, higher positive judgment of the mimicker is found. It was also found that various positive social behaviors such as spontaneous helping behavior, compliance to a request addr...
Article
The effect of nine-ending prices on customer's behavior was tested in a little restaurant (pizzeria-grill) where 1271 customers who ordered a pizza were observed. A list of nine main dishes was proposed in this restaurant and included five different pizzas. The effect of the price-ending of one pizza was tested. During 2 weeks, all the pizzas were...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous experimental studies have shown that background music affects consumer behaviour in a retail environment. Some of these have tested the degree of congruence between the music played in the store and the type of goods sold. An experiment was carried out in a flower shop, where love songs and romantic music (congruence condition), pop music...
Article
It had been found that environmental music was associated with an increase in alcohol consumption. The presence versus absence of music, high versus slow tempo and the different styles of environmental music is associated with different level of alcohol consumption. However, the effect of the level of the environmental music played in a bar still r...
Article
La technique du leurre consiste à faire accepter un premier comportement à un individu qui lui paraisse très avantageux, puis après cette acceptation, à lui dire qu’il est impossible de le produire et de lui soumettre alors la possibilité de produire un second comportement bien moins avantageux. Une seule recherche expérimentale a été faite sur cet...
Article
Numerous experimental studies have shown that touch increases compliance with a request made by the “toucher”. Customer's behavior is also affected by tactile contact. Waiters or waitresses in a bar or in a restaurant were evaluated more positively and received higher tips when they slightly touched the customer than when no tactile contact was use...
Article
An experiment on consumers' behavior was carried out in a new field context. According to a random assignment, 60 customers from ages 12 to 14 years who entered a candy store were exposed to Top Forty music which was usually played in this store, music from cartoons (Captain Flame, Candy, Olive & Tom, etc.), or no music. Analysis showed that custom...
Article
Numerous studies, led in natural setting, have shown that background music affected consumer's behavior but the effect of background music played outside had never been tested. Then, an experiment was carried out in a open-air market with a stall of toys and knick-knack. Results show that, when a popular music was played, clients stayed longer at t...
Article
The effects of background music have been widely studied in the literature but few studies have tested effects of music in commercial settings. An experiment was carried out in a bar to test influence of three different styles of music on patrons. According to a random assignment, patrons were exposed to Top 40 music, which was usually played in th...
Article
Schindler and Kibarian reported prices ending with a nine were associated with more purchases among customers who were women. To generalize this effect to a new business context, two groups of 200 people were solicited at home and asked to buy pancakes to raise money for a charitable organization. In half of the cases, the price of pancakes was 1.9...
Article
Although positive effect of touch on restaurant's tipping has been widely found in the literature, no evaluation was made outside the United States of America and in a bar. An experiment was carried out in a French bar. A waitress briefly touched (or not) the forearm of a patron when asking him/her what he/she want to drink. Results show that touch...
Article
Nine-ending prices led to increase the amount of purchasing of women-customers. In order to generalize this effect in a new business context, an experiment was carried out. Two hundred and forty-one customers were tested in the cheeses department in a grocery. In half of the cases, the products were proposed with a nine-ending price (i.e. 1.99 _) w...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of background music on alcohol consumption has been widely researched in the literature, but few studies have tested the effect of sound level on drinking behavior. An experiment was carried out in two bars to test patrons' response to music's loudness. Using random assignment, patrons were exposed to a sound level which was higher than...
Article
Full-text available
Many influence techniques increase response rates to a survey, but these techniques have been tested with face-to-face or telephone surveys. Few studies have tested the effect of compliance techniques in a Computer-Mediated Communication. The personalization of the relationship between the subject solicited and the solicitor as well as the physical...
Article
La musique affectant le comportement du consommateur, une recherche a ete conduite dans deux bars (en zone rurale et urbaine) pour tester l'effet du volume sur le consommateur. Une intensite sonore elevee induit une consommation plus importante. L'hypothese d'un effet « d'activation » pourrait expliquer ces resultats.
Article
Full-text available
Several experiments have shown that on-hold telephone music affects the estimation of projected time before hang-up. However, the cognitive mechanisms of this effect have not been investigated, although a separate series of studies have shown that music affects time perception. Therefore an experiment was carried out in which subjects had to wait o...
Article
Full-text available
The "But you are free of..." technique is a compliance procedure which solicits someone to comply with a request by simply telling him that he is free to accept or to refuse the request. This semantic evocation leads to increased compliance with the request. A new evaluation of the generality of this technique was tested in an experiment in which s...
Article
Full-text available
Personal information is scarce in computer-mediated communication. So when information about the sender is attached with his or her e-mail, this could induce a powerful effect toward the receptor. Two experiments were carried out where males and females were solicited by e-mail to respond to a survey on their foods habits. In the first experiment,...
Article
Full-text available
Personal information is scarce in computer-mediated communication. So when information about the sender is attached with an e-mail, this could induce a positive feeling toward the sender. An experiment was carried out where a male and a female student-solicitor, by way of an e-mail, requested a student-subject to participate in a survey. In half of...
Article
De nombreuses techniques d'influence qui permettent d'augmenter le taux de sondage à des questionnaires existent dans la littérature. La plupart du temps, ces techniques ont été employées pour les enquêtes en face-à-face ou par téléphone. Un tel mode de communication est socialement synchrone ; ce qui n'est pas le cas du courriel. En outre, la comm...
Article
Full-text available
In an attempt to test the foot-in-the-door (FITD) technique in a computer-mediated communication context, 1,008 men and women taken at random in various e-mails lists were solicited to visit a web site for the profit of a humanitarian organization. In the FITD condition, subjects were first solicited to sign a petition form and, after that, they we...
Article
Some studies have shown that figurative cues, presented in the environment of somebody, led to affect his/her later behaviour. This effect was applied to consumer behavior. In a restaurant various figurative objects related to the sea (a boat or a sailor's picture, a napkin with a boat and poetry related to the sea) or not (control condition) were...

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