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Cédric Sauzéat

Cédric Sauzéat
University of Lyon, ENTPE, Vaulx-en-Velin, France · Laboratory of Tribology and Dynamics Systems

HDR, PhD

About

165
Publications
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Publications

Publications (165)
Article
One major research topic is to characterize the mechanical behaviour of actual reinforced pavement structures from laboratory experimentation and take it into account for the design. This investigation aims to verify the effect of fiberglass geogrid presence on interface linear viscoelastic (LVE) behaviour separately and as a system along with the...
Article
The objective of this article was to investigate the influence of a rejuvenator of vegetal origin on the behavior of several binder blends at low and high temperatures. An important characteristic of a binder is the critical temperatures that are related to the pavement performance (its susceptibility to temperature change). One fresh binder (50/70...
Chapter
Full-text available
Black space diagrams (BSD) representing rheological data of bituminous materials in the form of dynamic modulus (|G*| or |E*|) versus phase angle (δ) have been successfully used for interpretation of material behavior. Previous studies have used BSD for identification of testing geometry compliance errors when testing over multiple temperatures and...
Chapter
The performance assessment of multi-layered pavements strongly depends on the mechanical behavior of the interface between bituminous layers. So far, comprehensive studies have been carried out mainly using quasi-static laboratory tests focusing on the interlayer shear strength at failure. However, it is generally recognized that cyclic shear testi...
Chapter
Within the framework of the French national project “Innovation for Materials and Processes for Improving the Multi-Recycling of Mixtures” (IMPROVMURE), founded by the French National Research Agency (ANR), a research work including an experimental campaign on the thermomechanical behaviour of bituminous materials at low temperatures was performed....
Chapter
Rubber from end-of-life tires can be recycled by incorporating them into bituminous mixtures as a replacement of a part of the mineral aggregates (dry process) or as a bitumen modifier (wet process). Even in the dry process, interactions between Crumb Rubber (CR) aggregates and bitumen may occur during the mixing process and beyond, causing CR aggr...
Chapter
The effects of water saturation and freeze-thaw (FT) cycles on fatigue behavior of the bituminous mixtures were studied in this research. Three different types of specimen conditioning were applied. Cyclic tension-compression tests on cylindrical specimens were performed. Sinusoidal loading in controlled axial strain mode was applied at 10 Hz at 10...
Chapter
The use of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) for the production of new asphalt mixtures has significant effect on their viscoelastic and fatigue properties. Experimental results show that addition of RAP (up to 40%) and asphalt shingle (up to 5%) in asphalt mixtures increased the stiffness and improved the fatigue...
Chapter
The linear viscoelastic behavior of various blends of a fresh binder (a straight-run 50/70 penetration grade binder) and a RAP-extracted binder, with and without rejuvenator (a mixture of vegetal oils), was studied. The experimental plan includes a total of 9 binders: fresh binder, RAP binder, 3 blends of RAP binder and rejuvenator and 4 blends of...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper aims at understanding the influence of several binder properties on various mixture performances through a parametric approach. Hot-Mix Asphalts with varying binder origin, with or without polymer modification and with different binder content for a given porphyry aggregate were studied in a full factorial plan. Thermomechanical performa...
Chapter
This paper presents a study in which an advanced constitutive model the viscoelastic behaviour of pavement layer interfaces is implemented in a pavement structure simulation. In particular, the study focuses on the effects of frequency and temperature-dependent behaviour of pavement layer interface. The airfield pavement response under Heavy Weight...
Chapter
The test campaign was carried out on cylindrical samples of bituminous mixtures with 40% RAP. This percentage of RAP is still considered to be the maximum in most study cases. The generalization of the TTSP is first proposed when considering small strain domain (for strain amplitudes below about 100 µm/m). We had measured the complex Young’s modulu...
Conference Paper
This work aims at verifying the fiberglass geogrid contribution to the fatigue resistance of bituminous mixtures. To conduct the research, two different configurations of slabs were fabricated. The first one was composed of two mixtures layers glued by emulsion. The second one was identical to the first one but reinforced by fiberglass geogrid in t...
Chapter
This paper focuses on the fatigue resistance properties and susceptibility to moisture damage of different bituminous mixtures used as sub-ballast layers in French railways. The analysis is made taking into account the specific working conditions and service life requirements of trackbeds. Three different road base-course mixtures used as sub-balla...
Chapter
A better understanding of the interaction between old and new bitumen is considered of key importance in the production of new hot asphalt mixtures with high percentages of reclaimed asphalt pavement. This improvement could potentially avoid shorter service life of the material and failure due to reduced performance in rutting and fatigue. This stu...
Chapter
This work aims at presenting a new analysis methodology for interface mechanical characterization based on axial tension test, as well as verifying the effect of the fiberglass geogrid presence on interface behavior. Tests were performed on cylindrical samples vertically cored from slabs having horizontal interfaces. In addition, this investigation...
Article
Full-text available
The reuse of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in the production of new asphalt mixes is a valuable environmental approach. Likewise, new lower-temperature manufacturing processes (warm) of asphalt mixes have an impact in the reduced fuel consumption and gas emissions during production. In 2014, the French National Research Agency launched the Frenc...
Article
In the rehabilitation of flexible pavements, the use of reinforcement by geogrids has substantially increased recently, aiming to extend the service life of pavements. This work evaluated the effect of fiberglass grid reinforcement on crack propagation of bituminous mixtures. To conduct the research, five different configurations of pre-notched bea...
Article
The first objective of this study is to highlight the effect of the rejuvenator on the linear viscoelastic (LVE) properties of various blends of a fresh 50/70 binder and a reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) binder, with a rejuvenator (a mixture of vegetal oils). A total of 17 binders (including pure fresh and RAP binders) produced as blends of two ba...
Article
To improve pavement design methods, the behaviour of the interfaces between pavement layers must be precisely taken into account. This paper describes the thermomechanical behaviour of an interface in the small strain domain. Thanks to the innovative 2T3C Hollow Cylinder Apparatus (2T3C HCA), the behaviour of an interface was observed directly with...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents results of laboratory tests on hot and warm bituminous mixtures produced with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). Additives were used to produce warm bituminous mixtures. Fatigue behaviour and thermomechanical behaviour at low temperature were investigated. Fatigue was studied by analysing the tension/compression fatigue test resu...
Article
This paper focuses on the influence of the RAP-extracted binder and rejuvenator contents on the steady shear viscosity obtained as a linear viscoelastic property of different binder blends. One pure fresh 50/70 binder, a RAP-extracted binder and a rejuvenator of vegetal origin were mixed in different dosages. Steady shear viscosity (η0) values at d...
Conference Paper
In this study, the thermomechanical behaviour of bituminous mixtures produced with CR by dry process was evaluated. Two bituminous mixtures were produced and tested: a reference one without CR and a second one with 3% of CR on the mixture weight. The used CR had a continuous 3/6 mm grain size distribution. Complex modulus was determined using tensi...
Article
International rail authorities in several countries, primarily in Western Europe and Asia, have been actively involved with the development and application of asphalt trackbeds for more than 40 years. In this paper, representative activities and standards for trackbeds in countries involved with significant asphalt trackbed design and construction...
Conference Paper
Modal analysis is an economic and repeatable test method to characterize the complex modulus of asphalt concrete specimens. The method have shown good agreement to conventional tension-compression cyclic loading and to non-destructive in-situ stiffness measurements of pavements. The testing is performed by applying impacts to a specimen using a sma...
Article
To improve pavement resistance, asphalt concrete layers are bonded together with a tack coat. A new device has been developed to describe the mechanical behavior of interfaces between asphalt concrete layers. The 2T3C Hollow Cylinder Apparatus (2T3C HCA) can apply torsion and tension-compression to hollow cylinder samples composed of two asphalt co...
Chapter
The Heavy Weight Deflectometer (HWD) is a nondestructive testing device widely used for airfield pavement assessment. The HWD test consists in applying a wheel-representative load, generated by a falling mass, at the pavement surface. Deflections time histories are recorded by geophones located at several distances from the applied load. Inverse an...
Article
The influence of the addition of Crumb Rubber (CR) by dry process on the tridimensional linear viscoelastic properties of bituminous mixtures was studied. Advanced complex modulus tests were performed on two bituminous mixtures: a classical one used as reference material and a similar bituminous mixture with 3% of CR (in the mass of the mixture). C...
Article
The properties of various blends of a fresh binder (50/70 penetration grade) and a RAP-extracted binder, with and without a rejuvenator, were studied. A mixture of vegetal oils was used as rejuvenator in different dosages. A total of 17 binders were tested, including pure fresh and RAP binders. Conventional tests were performed in order to determin...
Article
In the small strain domain, asphalt mixes (AM) have a linear viscoelastic (LVE) behavior that is strongly dependent on frequency and temperature. The maximum ratio of modulus values can be up to 1000, and traditional elastic analyses are not pertinent. The possibility to characterize AM from frequency response functions (FRFs) was studied. A new op...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of hydrated lime (HL) on linear viscoelastic (LVE) behavior of mastic is investigated. One bitumen and five mastics with different HL content are investigated. The same 35/50 penetration grade bitumen was tested and used for mastics preparation. The LVE properties were obtained by means of complex shear modulus tests using a dynamic s...
Article
Full-text available
Six types of asphalt mixes were subjected to the four-point bending fracture (4PBF) tests designed at the University of Lyon/ENTPE. The samples are pre-notched beam and all tests were performed at -5°C. The 4PBF test has been recently upgraded adding Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurement with 2 cameras. The obtained results are analysed consi...
Article
Full-text available
Bituminous materials are considered as linear viscoelastic for a small number of applied cycles at low strain amplitudes. Their behaviour can be represented considering the complex modulus and the complex Poisson’s ratio (isotropic case), which are obtained for sinusoidal loading. These two properties are independent of strain/stress amplitude in t...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to analyse the differences between experimental LVE properties of both a straight-run bitumen and a bituminous mixture and simulations with analogical 2S2P1D (2 Springs, 2 Parabolic elements, and 1 Dashpot) model fitted by 14 different users. Data for the bitumen consisted of isotherms of G∗ and φ obtained from DSR co...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents some results of a study on bituminous mixtures produced with high content of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP), which is recycled several times. It deals with the linear viscoelastic (LVE) behaviour of the mixtures. This research is included in a project called IMPROVMURE, founded by the French National Research Agency (ANR). Thi...
Article
Modal analysis is an economic and efficient test method to characterise the complex modulus of asphalt concrete. In this paper, the precision of modal analysis was evaluated by performing testing at several laboratories on two cylindrical asphalt concrete specimens. In addition, the complex moduli characterised by modal analysis were compared to cy...
Article
Falling (or Heavy) Weight Deflectometer (F/HWD) is a widely used non-destructive device for pavement evaluation. The falling mass system of this device can generate a load representative of a wheel. Deflections are monitored by geophones at several distances from the loading centre. Interpretation of F/HWD deflections is classically done using a st...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the effects of reversible phenomena (nonlinearity, self-heating and thixotropy) and damage on bitumen. Four specimens were subjected to different cyclic loading tests: complex shear modulus (G ∗ ), strain amplitude sweeps (SAS) and Loading and Rest Periods (LRP). LRP test consists of applying series of cyclic loading at high...
Article
The linear viscoelastic (LVE) behaviour of several combinations of two binders, a straight run 35/50 bitumen and a RAP-extracted bitumen in various proportions (20%, 40% and 60% of RAP binder), was simulated. Two different methods were used to carry out the simulations, The first method consists of a blending rule from the 2S2P1D (2 Springs, 2 Para...
Chapter
Full-text available
Adhesion between binder and aggregate is a major concern when studying bituminous mixtures’ mechanical performances. Many parameters are to be taken into account, for instance chemical composition of binder and aggregate, interface roughness, etc. Isolating each parameter for a comprehensive approach of adhesion phenomenon can be very challenging b...
Article
Full-text available
In the presented research, conventional cyclic tension–compression complex modulus tests and dynamic tests were performed on an asphalt mix (AM) specimen. For the tension–compression tests, the complex modulus was calculated from the measurements of the axial strain and axial stress. For the dynamic tests, an automated impact hammer equipped with a...
Article
Cet article présente un résumé des résultats obtenus dans le cadre du projet collaboratif ImprovMure, financé par l'Agence nationale de la recherche (ANR). L'approche pluridisciplinaire et multi-échelle du projet a permis de confirmer que l'industrie routière française dispose des outils de laboratoire et des connaissances pour formu...
Article
Full-text available
In the presented research, conventional cyclic tension–compression tests and dynamic tests were performed on two types of asphalt mixes (AM). For the tension–compression tests, the complex modulus was obtained from the measurements of the axial stress and axial strain. For the dynamic tests, an automated impact hammer equipped with a load cell and...
Article
Eiffage developed a high-performance bituminous mixture known as GB5. It is based on aggregate optimization method. This paper presents the results of a research project checking whether, in the small strain domain, this type of mixture behaves like the more conventional asphalt mixture GB3 currently used as a base layer in French bituminous paveme...
Article
Recently, the use of geogrids as bituminous pavements reinforcement has increased in pavements construction and rehabilitation, mainly to avoid reflective cracking. One major research topic is to characterize the mechanical behaviour of actual reinforced pavement structures, from laboratory experimentation and take it into account for the design. T...
Chapter
This chapter provides a comprehensive review of both laboratory characterization and modelling of bulk material fracture in asphalt mixtures. For the purpose of organization, this chapter is divided into a section on laboratory tests and a section on models. The laboratory characterization section is further subdivided on the basis of predominant l...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, an investigation was performed to determine the accuracy of a simplified viscoelastic back analysis to interpret dynamic loading tests on asphalt mixes (AM). First, quasi-static cyclic tension–compression lab tests were performed on different AM to fit the 3 dimensional 2S2P1D linear viscoelastic (LVE) model. Considering these tests...
Chapter
Pavement structure lifetime can be dramatically reduced in case of poor bonding between layers. Study of interfaces between pavement layers is essential to improve pavement durability. An innovative and new experiment named 2T3C Hollow Cylinder Apparatus (2T3C HCA) has been implemented to characterize interface performances. In this test, combined...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the influence of the cyclic loading amplitudes on the behaviour of bitumen and bituminous mixtures. The present work considers only rather small strain amplitude (lower than 100 µm/m for mixtures and 10% for bitumen). Complex modulus tests on mixtures were conducted at four levels of strain amplitude for a large range of tempe...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an experimental characterization of the strain dependency of the complex modulus of bituminous mixtures for strain amplitude levels lower than about 110μm/m\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgre...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the three-dimensional linear viscoelastic (3D-LVE) behaviour of bituminous mixtures and in particular on the measurement and modelling of the complex Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio (PR). In the first part of the chapter, the LVE definition of PR is reviewed and experimental measurements of the LVE PR carried out over th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bituminous mixtures can be seen as granular media composed by particles (larger aggregates) and a viscoelastic bonding phase (a mix of smaller aggregates and bitumen, called bituminous mastic). During fatigue experiments, a decrease in norm of complex modulus, increases in phase angle and in temperature are observed. This stiffness change is common...
Article
Quantification of different effects (nonlinearity, heating, thixotropy, and fatigue) occurring during fatigue tests on bituminous mixtures is presented in this paper. A focus is given on the nonlinearity phenomenon. Continuous fatigue tests and a test with specific protocol (called fatigue tests to estimate biasing effects) were performed in tensio...
Article
An ongoing study on influence of hydrated lime on mechanical properties of bituminous mixtures is carried out. In this paper we focus on Linear ViscoElastic (LVE) properties and fatigue behavior. Nine mixtures were produced with the same 35/50 penetration grade bitumen, three different bitumen contents (4.4%, 5.1%, 5.8%) and three different hydrate...
Article
Full-text available
This paper deals with the analysis of indirect tensile resilient modulus (IT RM) tests for asphalt mixes. In Brazil, for instance, asphalt mix stiffness is obtained from a classical elastic analysis of the referred test, which may not be suitable for a viscoelastic material. A method is proposed to compare IT RM results from classical experimental...