Cecile Engrand

Cecile Engrand
Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules · CSNSM - Centre de spectrométrie nucléaire et de spectrométrie de masse

PhD

About

278
Publications
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Publications

Publications (278)
Article
Samples of the carbonaceous asteroid Ryugu were brought to Earth by the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. We analyzed seventeen Ryugu samples measuring 1-8 mm. CO2-bearing water inclusions are present within a pyrrhotite crystal, indicating that Ryugu's parent asteroid formed in the outer Solar System. The samples contain low abundances of materials that forme...
Preprint
We have conducted a NanoSIMS-based search for presolar material in samples recently returned from C-type asteroid Ryugu as part of JAXA's Hayabusa2 mission. We report the detection of all major presolar grain types with O- and C-anomalous isotopic compositions typically identified in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites: 1 silicate, 1 oxide, 1 O-anoma...
Article
Full-text available
We have conducted a NanoSIMS-based search for presolar material in samples recently returned from C-type asteroid Ryugu as part of JAXAʼs Hayabusa2 mission. We report the detection of all major presolar grain types with O-and C-anomalous isotopic compositions typically identified in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites: 1 silicate, 1 oxide, 1 O-anomal...
Article
On April 23rd, 2019, the Aguas Zarcas meteorite fall occurred in Costa Rica. Because the meteorite was quickly recovered, it contains valuable extraterrestrial materials that have not been contaminated by terrestrial processes. Our X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results on various pre-rain fragments from earl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Massive stars disrupt their natal molecular cloud material through radiative and mechanical feedback processes. These processes have profound effects on the evolution of interstellar matter in our Galaxy and throughout the Universe, from the era of vigorous star formation at redshifts of 1-3 to the present day. The dominant feedback processes can b...
Article
We have performed a comprehensive noble gas study, including the isotopes of krypton and xenon, on a set of micrometeorites (MMs) collected from surface snow at Dome C (DC) on the Antarctic plateau. He and Ne are generally dominated by a solar component, with lower ⁴He concentrations and ⁴He/²⁰Ne ratios in crystalline (Xtal) compared to fine-graine...
Article
We report detailed transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations of carbonates from one hydrated fine-grained Antarctic micrometeorite (H-FgMM). These carbonates show the occurrence of complex chemical variations and microstructures that provide important evidence regarding the formation and evolution of rarely analyzed H-FgMMs. The chemical...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the AMBITION project, a mission to return the first-ever cryogenically-stored sample of a cometary nucleus, that has been proposed for the ESA Science Programme Voyage 2050. Comets are the leftover building blocks of giant planet cores and other planetary bodies, and fingerprints of Solar System’s formation processes. We summarise some...
Article
The D/H ratio is a clue to the origin and evolution of hydrogen-bearing chemical species in Solar system materials. D/H has been observed in the coma of many comets, but most such measurements have been for gaseous water. We present the first in situ measurements of the D/H ratios in the organic refractory component of cometary dust particles colle...
Article
Full-text available
The annual flux of extraterrestrial material on Earth is largely dominated by sub-millimetre particles. The mass distribution and absolute value of this cosmic dust flux at the Earth's surface is however still uncertain due to the difficulty in monitoring both the collection efficiency and the exposure parameter (i.e. the area-time product in m².yr...
Article
Full-text available
Primitive objects like comets hold important information on the material that formed our solar system. Several comets have been visited by spacecraft and many more have been observed through Earth- and space-based telescopes. Still our understanding remains limited. Molecular abundances in comets have been shown to be similar to interstellar ices a...
Article
Full-text available
Context. Interstellar space hosts nanometre- to micron-sized dust grains, which are responsible for the reddening of stars in the visible. The carbonaceous-rich component of these grain populations emits in infrared bands that have been observed remotely for decades with telescopes and satellites. They are a key ingredient of Galactic radiative tra...
Preprint
Full-text available
Interstellar space hosts nanometre- to micron-sized dust grains. The carbonaceous-rich component of these grain populations emits in infrared bands, observed remotely for decades with telescopes and satellites. They are a key ingredient of astrochemical dust evolution. The precise carriers for most of these bands are still unknown and not well repr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Organic residues are formed experimentally by irradiation of carbon- and nitrogen-rich ice films at 10K by swift heavy ions. These experiments aim at reproducing the formation of organic matter in the outer solar system, where ice mantles of small bodies are irradiated by the galactic cosmic rays. We focus the study in the formation of isotopic het...
Article
The COSIMA mass spectrometer on-board Rosetta was equipped with an optical microscope, Cosiscope, which identified several 10,000 cometary particles collected on targets exposed during the orbital phase around the nucleus of comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The median value of reflectance factors evaluated from Cosiscope images for large collected...
Article
Between Aug. 2014 and Sept. 2016, while ESA’s cornerstone mission Rosetta was operating in the vicinity of the nucleus and in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the COSIMA instrument collected a large number of dust particles with diameters up to a millimeter. Positive or negative ions were detected by a time-of-flight secondary ion mass...
Preprint
This white paper proposes that AMBITION, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return mission, be a cornerstone of ESA's Voyage 2050 programme. We summarise some of the most important questions still open in cometary science after the successes of the Rosetta mission, many of which require sample analysis using techniques that are only possible in laboratories on...
Preprint
The properties of the smallest subunits of cometary dust contain information on their origin and clues to the formation of planetesimals and planets. Compared to IDPs or particles collected during the Stardust mission, dust collected in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko during the Rosetta mission provides a resource of minimally altered m...
Article
We report the mineralogy and texture of magnetite grains, a magnetite‐dolomite assemblage, and the adjacent mineral phases in five hydrated fine‐grained Antarctic micrometeorites (H‐FgMMs). Additionally, we measured the oxygen isotopic composition of magnetite grains and a magnetite‐dolomite assemblage in these samples. Our mineralogical study show...
Article
Full-text available
Context. Micrometeorites represent, at timescales shorter than a few million years, the dominant source of extraterrestrial matter at the surface of the Earth. Analyses of ultracarbonaceous micrometeorites recovered from Antarctica, known as UCAMMs reveal an exceptionally N-rich organic matter associated with spatially extended high D enrichments....
Article
Context. The properties of the smallest subunits of cometary dust contain information on their origin and clues to the formation of planetesimals and planets. Compared to interplanetary dust particles or particles collected during the Stardust mission, dust collected in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) during the Rosetta mission pr...
Article
Full-text available
Interplanetary dust particles and meteoroids mostly originate from comets and asteroids. Understanding their distribution in the Solar system, their dynamical behavior and their properties, sheds light on the current state and the dynamical behavior of the Solar system. Dust particles can endanger Earth-orbiting satellites and deep-space probes, an...
Article
Full-text available
Context. Because comets are part of the most primitive bodies of our solar system, establishing their chemical composition and comparing them to other astrophysical bodies gives new constraints on the formation and evolution of organic matter throughout the solar system. For two years, the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer COmetary Sec...
Article
In the Solar System, extra-terrestrial organic molecules have been found on cometary primitive objects, on Titan and Enceladus icy moons and on Mars. Identification could be achieved for simple organic species by remote sensing based on spectroscopic methods. However in situ mass spectrometry is a key technology to determine the nature of more comp...
Article
Full-text available
Aims. The composition of comets and asteroids sheds light on the formation and early evolution of the solar system. The study of micrometeorites containing large concentrations of carbonaceous material (i.e. ultra-carbonaceous antarctic micrometeorites, UCAMMs) allows for unique information on the association of minerals and organics at surface of...
Article
Origins of Secondary Minerals in Micrometeorites - Volume 24 Supplement - E. Dobrica, R. C. Ogliore, C. Engrand, K. Nagashima, A. J. Brearley
Article
Comets are regarded as probably the most primitive of solar system objects, preserving a record of the materials from which the solar system aggregated. Key amongst their components are organic compounds - molecules that may trace their heritage to the interstellar medium from which the protosolar nebula eventually emerged. The most recent cometary...
Article
Full-text available
This review presents our understanding of cometary dust at the end of 2017. For decades, insight about the dust ejected by nuclei of comets had stemmed from remote observations from Earth or Earth’s orbit, and from flybys, including the samples of dust returned to Earth for laboratory studies by the Stardust return capsule. The long-duration Rosett...
Article
This work presents a multi-analysis on 35 Antarctic micrometeorites (AMMs) (Concordia collection 2006) by coupled Raman and Infrared (IR) spectroscopies, in comparison with samples from type 1 and 2 carbonaceous CM, CR and CI chondrites. We identified the Raman G- and D-bands revealing the presence of polyaromatic carbonaceous material on raw parti...
Article
Dynamic transfer is an adaptive optical approach used for coupling a scanning ion probe with the mass spectrometer designed for analyzing sputtered ions emanating from the probe impact. Its tuning is of crucial importance for getting uniform signal collection over large scanning fields and therefore scanning images free of vignetting in a context o...
Article
Full-text available
Context. UltraCarbonaceous Antarctic MicroMeteorites (UCAMMs) represent a small fraction of interplanetary dust particles reaching the Earth’s surface and contain large amounts of an organic component not found elsewhere. They are most probably sampling a contribution from the outer regions of the solar system to the local interplanetary dust parti...
Article
Cometary ices are rich in CO2 , CO and organic volatile compounds, but the carbon content of cometary dust was only measured for the Oort Cloud comet 1P/Halley, during its flyby in 1986. The COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer (COSIMA)/Rosetta mass spectrometer analysed dust particles with sizes ranging from 50 to 1000 μm, collected over 2 yr, fro...
Article
We have analysed the element composition and the context of particles collected within the coma of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko with Rosetta’s COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer (COSIMA). A comparison has been made between on board cometary samples and four meteorite samples measured in the laboratory with the COSIMA reference model. Focusing on the...
Article
Full-text available
The in situ cometary dust particle instrument COSIMA (COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser) onboard ESA's Rosetta mission has collected about 31 000 dust particles in the inner coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko since August 2014. The particles are identified by optical microscope imaging and analysed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spect...
Article
Full-text available
40 000 collected cometary particles have been identified on the 21 targets exposed by the COSIMA experiment on-board Rosetta to the environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from 2014 August to 2016 September. The images of the targets where obtained by the COSIMA microscope (Cosiscope, 13.95 µm pixel −1) with near grazing incidence, which is...
Article
Context. The Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) was designed to measure the composition of the gas in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the target of the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission. In addition to the volatiles, ROSINA measured refractories sputtered off the comet by the interaction of solar w...
Article
This paper reviews the current knowledge on the composition of cometary dust (ice, minerals and organics) in order to constrain their origin and formation mechanisms. Comets have been investigated by astronomical observations, space missions (Giotto to Rosetta), and by the analysis of cometary dust particles collected on Earth, chondritic porous in...
Article
Full-text available
The presence of solid carbonaceous matter in cometary dust was established by the detection of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen in particles from comet 1P/Halley. Such matter is generally thought to have originated in the interstellar medium, but it might have formed in the solar nebula-the cloud of gas and dust that was left...
Article
Context. Extraterrestrial materials, such as meteorites and interplanetary dust particles, provide constraints on the formation and evolution of organic matter in the young solar system. Micrometeorites represent the dominant source of extraterrestrial matter at the Earth's surface, some of them originating from large heliocentric distances. Recent...
Article
For decades of space exploration, mass spectrometry has proven to be a reliable instrumentation for the characterisation of the nature and energy of ionic and neutral, atomic and molecular species in the interplanetary medium and upper planetary atmospheres. It has been used as well to analyse the chemical composition of planetary and small bodies...
Article
Soon after the arrival of the ROSETTA spacecraft at Comet 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko the onboard instrument COSIMA (“Cometary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer”) collected a large number of cometary dust particles on targets from gold black of thickness between 10 and 30 μm. Inspection by its camera subsystem revealed that many of them consist of smaller...
Article
Many cosmic dust particles have escaped the aqueous and thermal processing, the gravitational compaction, and the impact shocks that often overprint the record, in most larger samples, of how Solar System materials formed. The least-altered types of cosmic dust can, therefore, act as probes into the conditions of the solar protoplanetary disk when...
Article
Organics are a significant component of most cosmic dust, as revealed from actual samples of extraterrestrial dust in the Earth's stratosphere, in Antarctic ice and snow, in near-Earth orbit, and in asteroids and comets. Cosmic dust contains a diverse population of organic materials that owe their origins to a variety of chemical processes occurrin...
Article
The calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) found in chondritic meteorites are probably the oldest solar system solids, dating back to 4567.30 ± 0.16 million years ago. They are thought to have formed in the protosolar nebula within a few astronomical units of the Sun, and at a temperature of around 1300 K. The Stardust mission found evidence of CA...
Article
The COSIMA mass spectrometer on board the ROSETTA orbiter has collected dust in the near coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since August 11, 2014. The collected dust particles are identified by taking images with a microscope (COSISCOPE) under grazing incidence illumination before and after exposure of the target to cometary dust. More than 10...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT The COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser instrument on board ESA!s Rosetta mission has collected dust particles in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. During the early-orbit phase of the Rosetta mission, particles and particle agglomerates have been imaged and analyzed in the inner coma at distances between 100 km and 10 km off th...
Article
Isotopic measurements at the micron scale using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) require an accurate control on the instrumental mass fractionation (IMF). The IMF correction is challenging since substantial mass fractionation can occur during both emission and detection processes. In this work, we report hydrogen isotopic measurements on a se...
Conference Paper
COSIMA, the COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser,is one of the three scientific in-situ dust instruments onboard the Rosetta spacecraft. Rosetta has been accompanying the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since August 2014 during the journey of the nucleus into the inner solar system. COSIMA has collected several thousands of cometary particles in th...
Article
Hayabusa-returned samples offer a unique perspective for understanding the link between asteroids and cosmomaterials available in the laboratory, and provide insights on the early stages of surface space weathering. This study characterizes the mineralogy and the extent of space weathering of the three Itokawa particles RA-QD02-0163, RA-QD02-0174,...
Conference Paper
The calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) found in chondritic meteorites are probably the oldest solar system solids, dating back to 4567.30 ± 0.16 million years ago. They are thought to have been formed in the proto solar nebula within a few AU of the sun, and at a temperature of around 1300 K [1]. The Stardust mission found evidence of CAI-like...
Article
The composition of interstellar matter is driven by environmental parameters and results from extreme interstellar medium physico-chemical conditions. Astrochemists must rely on remote observations to monitor and analyze the interstellar solids composition. They bring additional information from the study of analogues produced in the laboratory, pl...
Article
Comets are probably the best archives of the nascent solar system, 4.5 Gyr ago, and their compositions reveal crucial clues on the structure and dynamics of the early protoplanetary disk. Anhydrous minerals (olivine and pyroxene) have been identified in cometary dust for a few decades. Surprisingly, samples from comet Wild2 returned by the Stardust...