Cecil R Reynolds

Cecil R Reynolds
Texas A&M University | TAMU · Department of Educational Psychology

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347
Publications
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18,743
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Publications

Publications (347)
Article
This study examined the accuracy of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-3 for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis using parent (PRS) and teaching rating (TRS) scales. The accuracy of three PRS and TRS derived scores with strong theoretical relationships to ASD (Developmental Social Disorders [DSD], Atypicality [ATP], and Withdrawal [WI...
Article
Comorbidity and symptom overlap are common among psychiatric disorders of childhood. Consequently, differential diagnosis is often a challenge. This study addresses the diagnostic utility of the BASC-3 in differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) versus ADHD using demographically similar samples of children who had undergone compreh...
Article
This study illustrates the accuracy and efficiency of using an evidence-based assessment (EBA) strategy for diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by integrating the scale scores obtained on BASC-3 teacher and parent rating scales. The examined process used empirical diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLRs) derived from a sample of...
Chapter
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the primary source for diagnostic classification in the United States. The DSM provides standard criteria for the diagnosis and classification of mental disorders and is used extensively by clinicians, researchers, government agencies, managed care companie...
Chapter
This chapter provides an introduction to the TVCF, a new measure for the assessment of executive functions. The TVCF is a standardized set of four subtests with a total administration time of 25–30 min for most individuals. The test is designed to measure multiple aspects of executive functions, through the use of several different forms of tasks c...
Article
Teachers in U.S. schools report high rates of victimization, yet previous studies focus on select types of victimization and student perpetrators, which may underestimate the extent of the problem. This national study was based on work conducted by the American Psychological Association Classroom Violence Directed Against Teachers Task Force and is...
Chapter
As it was suggested by Strayhorn (1993) 2 decades ago, one of the most limiting constraints of our scientific progress in measuring human behavior has been our inability to produce valid and reliable instruments, despite our technological developments. These difficulties have been made readily apparent when trying to measure psychological construct...
Article
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Violence directed toward teachers has been understudied despite significant media and empirical investigation on school violence, such as student-to-student victimization and bullying. To date, there are relatively few published studies scattered across many countries. To address this void, the American Psychological Association, in collaboration w...
Article
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Social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) screening occurs in only two percent of our schools. This is unfortunate because universal screening is linked to prevention and early intervention with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in children and youth, a population who continues to experience a plethora of poor outcomes. The social acceptabilit...
Article
Previous evaluation of the Comprehensive Trail-Making Test (CTMT) using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that for children, a two-factor model provided a better fit than did a one-factor model. The purpose of this study was to explore whether these findings suggested a developmental factor structure or if the two-factor structure also...
Chapter
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Cluster analysis can be used to interpret large datasets, though there are numerous theoretical and methodological issues to consider first. This chapter walks the reader through a step-by-step example by interpreting a memory dataset to establish developmental patterns and relationships of memory in a sample of youth who completed a nationally rep...
Article
It is important to consider the prevalence of low scores when administering a battery of psychological tests. Understanding the prevalence of low scores is important for minimizing false-positive diagnoses of cognitive deficits in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to expand the literature on base rates for use in children and adolesc...
Article
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Developmental differences between working and long-term associative memory were evaluated through a cross-sectional age difference study based on data from a memory battery's standardization sample. The scores of 856 children and adolescents ranging from 5 to 17 years of age were compared on memory subtests that assess verbal working and long-term...
Article
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Violence directed against K-12 teachers is a serious problem that demands the immediate attention of researchers, providers of teacher pre-service and in-service training, school administrators, community leaders, and policymakers. Surprisingly, little research has been conducted on this growing problem despite the broad impact teacher victimizatio...
Book
Psychological assessment has always paralleled the growth of psychology and its specialties, and it is not an overstatement to say that measurement and assessment are the cornerstones of psychology, providing the tools and techniques for gathering information to inform our understanding of human behavior. However, the continued growth and new devel...
Chapter
Civil litigation related to personal injury over the last several decades has increased substantially, and consequently, the issue of assessment of false presentation and effort related to malingering has also increased. Base rates for malingering seen by neuropsychologists or psychologists of course vary depending on the specific sample of patient...
Article
From the outset of multiscore test batteries such as the Wechsler scales, there has been scholarly debate regarding whether there is adequate empirical foundation for the practice of profile analysis, a uniquely clinical practice that focuses on distinguishing between groups of participants based on the participants' configuration or pattern of tes...
Article
The present study presents a normative typology for classifying the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) factor index profiles according to profile shape. Q-type principal components analysis of the WISC-III factor index scores identified 4 profile shapes that were replicated in independent samples with a total of 3,317...
Article
in this chapter we maintain a focus on the empirical evaluation of test bias, with particular emphasis placed on statistical criteria and methods for investigating possible differential impact of mental measurements across groups / brief discussions will also be presented related to the major historical developments leading up to the present subspe...
Article
Knowing the prevalence of low scores on a battery of executive-functioning tests supplements clinical interpretation and can reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosing deficits in executive functioning. The purpose of this study is to examine the base rates of low scores on the Test of Verbal Conceptualization and Fluency (TVCF; Reynolds & Horton, 2006...
Article
Full-text available
Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with behavioral disturbances that can interfere with adjustment in the classroom. As such, standardized assessments of behavioral disturbances following TBI are useful in treatment planning and rehabilitation, although few studies have examined the sensitivity of standardized behavior assessments...
Article
There is increasing concern for possible gender and ethnic differences on neuropsychological measures. The purpose of this study was to examine gender and ethnicity differences on the Comprehensive Trail-Making Test (CTMT) with a focus on individuals from 8 to 18 years of age. From the standardization sample, this included 251 boys and 306 girls wi...
Article
School psychology is a professional practice specialty in the broader field of the profession of psychology. As such, the discipline of school psychology must meet certain standards and criteria to retain its identity and official designation as a professional specialty. Likewise, practitioners of school psychology are professionals themselves and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Objective: The seminal paper on cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome by Schmahmann and Sherman (1998), and subsequent studies, has expanded our understanding of the role of the cerebellum beyond motor functioning to psychological and cognitive functioning. However, many of these studies have examined patients between 1 week and 5 years post-inju...
Article
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The objective of the present study was to examine and compare the subtest, index, and factor scores of the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL), using receiver-operating characteristic curves, to investigate their sensitivity and specificity to traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and adolescents. One hundred and fifty participants who had susta...
Article
Exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) of the Comprehensive Trail Making Test suggested a possible two-factor solution that might better reflect the differences in Trails 1–3 and Trails 4 and 5 as opposed to a single Composite Index for the total standardization sample. The purpose of this study was to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The evaluation of bilingual children is a complicated endeavor because there are various views of how bilingualism affects brain organization and functioning. Added to that is the challenge of determining language development of Hispanic children living in a monolingual Spanish-speaking home in a Spanish-speaking country, but mostly exposed to Engl...
Article
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Developed in concert with the Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA), this White Paper regarding specific learning disabilities identification and intervention represents the expert consensus of 58 accomplished scholars in education, psy-chology, medicine, and the law. Survey responses and empirical evidence suggest that five conclusion...
Article
The maturational course of the development of executive functioning abilities is dependent on the functional capacity of the human brain. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of standardized functional assessments of executive functioning abilities for children. The present article describes neurodevelopment of executive functioning and several recent...
Article
If a thing exists, it can be measured. Measurement is a central component of assessment if we believe that fear, anxiety, intelligence, self-esteem, attention, and similar latent variables exist and are useful to us in developing an understanding of the human condition and leading us to ways to improve it. Much of what is published in Psychological...
Article
The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether behaviors that differentiate children and adolescents with ADHD from those without are related to the primary diagnostic criteria (i.e., inattention and impulsivity-hyperactivity), symptoms of comorbid conditions, functional impairment, or a combination, and to determine whether behaviors that d...
Chapter
The Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC–2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004) is a multimethod, multidimensional system used to evaluate the behavior and self-perceptions of children, adolescents, and young adults aged 2 through 25 years. The BASC–2 is multimethod in that it has the following components, which may be used individu...
Article
The educational enterprise is in dire need of capable and lucid leadership. Many have reported how public schools flip and flop in the winds of political pressure. While all join in the quest searching for successful educational progress for all, a panacea has been slow to emerge. Although some in school psychology still cling to their long-held be...
Article
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The peer-review process is an invaluable service provided by the professional community, and it provides the critical foundation for the advancement of science. However, there is remarkably little systematic guidance for individuals who wish to become part of this process. This paper, written from the perspective of reviewers and editors with varyi...
Article
Response to Intervention (RTI) models of diagnosis and intervention are being implemented rapidly throughout the schools. The purposes of invoking an RTI model for disabilities in the schools clearly are laudable, yet close examination reveals an unappreciated paucity of empirical support for RTI and an overly optimistic view of its practical, prob...
Article
Fletcher and Vaughn (this issue) describe recent changes to federal laws governing special education eligibility for specific learning disabilities focusing on what is commonly known as response to intervention (RTI). We are concerned about what appears to us as a selective review of empirical support for RTI and a consequently overly optimistic vi...
Chapter
At its conception, the original K-ABC represented a marked departure from other commonly used cognitive assessments. Based on a combination of theoretical underpinnings from cerebral specialization research, Luria-Das successive-simultaneous processing, and work in cognitive psychology, the K-ABC was one of the first intelligence tests to be princi...
Chapter
Much has changed in intelligence testing technology and application since the time of Binet's (1905) breakthrough. Prior to Wechsler's innova tion of measuring verbal and “performance” abilities on a common test, intelligence tests of the first half of the 20th century typically offered one composite score and focused on assessment of the general i...
Chapter
Memory complaints seem ubiquitous in the clinical practice of neuropsychology. Nearly every central nervous system (CNS) disorder associated with disturbances of higher cognitive functions has memory disturbance in some form noted as a common complaint (see, for example, reviews of disorders and their assessment in Baron, Fennell, & Voeller, 1995;...
Chapter
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The field of neuropsychology as practiced clinically has been driven in large part by the development and application of standardized diagnostic procedures that are more sensitive than medical examinations to changes in behavior, in particular higher cognitive processes, as related to brain function. The techniques and methods so derived have led t...
Article
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Although there can be no dispute that schools must do all that can be done to ensure the safety of learning environments, controversy has arisen about the use of zero tolerance policies and procedures to achieve those aims. In response to that controversy, and to assess the extent to which current practice benefits students and schools, the America...
Article
Despite many disagreements on the utility of neuropsychological applications in schools, executive function measures have been found to be useful across a variety of areas and ages. In addition, many disagreements are extant in discussions of the maturational course of the development of executive functioning abilities that are dependent on functio...
Article
In excess of one billion dollars in damages has been claimed by litigants against the tobacco industry alleging that smoking by pregnant women causes low birth weight. The issue of smoking by pregnant women as a causal agent in clinically significant low weight births is examined with a sample of over 3,000,000 live births. In contrast to claims as...
Article
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The 1999 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing adopted by AERA, APA, and NCME requires examiners to make reasonable accommodations for individuals with disabilities when administering psychological tests to such persons. Changes in test administration may be required, but the Standards also require the examiner to provide evidence ass...
Article
Death penalty litigation is qualitatively different from other forms of criminal prosecution, representing the ultimate authority of the state to take life legally. Many death penalty eligible defendants have known or suspected brain injury or other forms of central nervous system compromise. This paper reviews a team approach, involving consulting...
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Article
A learning disability (LD) is a neurobiological disorder that presents as a serious difficulty with reading, arithmetic, and/or written expression that is unexpected, given the individual's intellectual ability. A learning disability is not an emotional disorder nor is it caused by an emotional disorder. If inadequately or improperly evaluated, a l...
Article
A sample of 79 individuals participated in the present study to evaluate the test score stability (8-week test-retest interval) and construct validity of the scores of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version, a new measure used to assess anxiety in college students, for applica- tion to graduate-level students. Results of the study indicat...
Article
Two case reports are presented that illustrate the use of a new assessment instrument of executive skills, the Test of Verbal Conceptualization and Fluency (TVCF), as a component of a clinical neuropsychological assessment. The cases presented include the assessment of a patient at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and a patient with subtle si...
Article
Abstract When children experience learning difficulties, an appropriate evaluation of abilities and skills can provide the foundation for an accurate diagnosis and useful recommendations. When comprehensive information about a child's brain-related strengths and weaknesses is necessary to understand potential sources of the problem and implications...
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The Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2003) is a psychometrically sound, individually administered test of intelligence developed and standardized for ages 3 through 94 years. This article describes the goals for development of the RIAS and its underlying theory, emphasizing its applicability to the identification...
Article
In this study, the authors examined the stability of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 (J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) code types in a sample of 94 injured workers with a mean test-retest interval of 21.3 months (SD = 14.1). Congruence rates for undefined code types were 34% for high-poin...
Article
The psychometric properties of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-Elderly Version (AMAS-E) scores were evaluated in two studies. In Study 1, the temporal stability and construct validity of the AMAS-E test scores were examined in a group of 226 older adults, aged 60 years and older. Results indicated adequate to excellent temporal stability (2-week i...
Article
The nature of practice effects on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WISC-III) Performance Scale was examined for 51 middle-class White children ages 11 to 13 years. The participants were tested twice on the six WISC-III Performance subtests (mean interval = 13 days) to determine whether the gain scores were significantly related to the...
Article
The factor structure of scores on the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version (AMAS-C), a new self-report measure of chronic, manifest anxiety, is examined across gender for a sample of 943 college students (608 women and 335 men). Values for the coefficient of congruence and salient variable similarity index are calculated between each of fiv...
Article
Symptom exaggeration or fabrication occurs in a sizeable minority of neuropsychological examinees, with greater prevalence in forensic contexts. Adequate assessment of response validity is essential in order to maximize confidence in the results of neurocognitive and personality measures and in the diagnoses and recommendations that are based on th...

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