Cathy Bacon

Cathy Bacon
HDR · EOC

Master of Marine Resources Managment

About

75
Publications
13,060
Reads
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126
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2009 - present
HDR
Position
  • Conduct and analyze aerial/vessel/passive acoustic monitoring/land-based surveys, much in the Pacific Ocean particularly California, the US E Coast and Gulf of Mexico.
Education
January 2012 - October 2014
Texas A&M University
Field of study
  • Marine Resources Management

Publications

Publications (75)
Article
Full-text available
The authors describe antagonistic interactions between short-finned pilot whales (Globicephara machrorhyncus) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Puerto Rican waters.
Article
The authors describe antagonistic interactions between short-finned pilot whales (Globicephara machrorhyncus) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Puerto Rican waters.
Article
Full-text available
– A study of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, Borowski, 1781) was conducted off Puerto Rico, from 2012 through 2016, in an attempt to understand the spatial and temporal connection among current low density areas throughout the southeastern Caribbean. Six hundred and sixteen animals were sighted, of which 87 (14%) were individually identifi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Marine and Coastal Ecology Research Center (MCERC) partnered with the Department of Environment and Coastal Resources (DECR), in the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI), British West Indies (BWI) to collect and analyse data on marine animals including humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), cetaceans, sea turtles and other occurring marine megafau...
Article
Full-text available
During early developmental stages, cetacean calves are dependent on their mothers for survival. Protection of young whales engaged in behaviors that are biologically important is critical for population recovery, so that appropriate management actions can be taken to minimize human disturbance. However, the occurrence and frequency of whale nursing...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing interactions of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) with human activity, combined with impacts of climate change, are of critical concern for the conservation of the species. Our study quantifies and describes initial reactions and behaviors of polar bears observed from an icebreaker during summer 1991 at two exploratory drilling sites (near s...
Article
Full-text available
North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781)) are increasing in number, necessitating current data from winter areas for assessing potential interactions with humans. Occurrence patterns of humpback whales wintering off Puerto Rico were investigated to predict where whales aggregate in nearshore areas. Here we describe th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Association patterns of North Atlantic humpback whales (NAHW) (Megaptera novaeangliae) off western Puerto Rico were examined to help understand importance of a low density wintering area adjacent to the high density of humpback whales off the Dominican Republic. Data were collected during winters 2011-2014 from multiple platforms. A total of 241 ho...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) (NAHW) migrate to the West Indies to areas where recreational and commercial activities overlap. It is important to predict where whales aggregate, especially as NAHW are presently considered for delisting as endangered by the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service, and increased interactions...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
North Atlantic humpback whales (NAHW) migrate between feeding grounds and breeding/calving grounds, with most individuals aggregating off the Dominican Republic in winter. Smaller areas throughout the West Indies have fewer individuals and it is possible that these areas were once densely populated, or that they serve another important function in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fifteen aerial surveys (72,667 km, 86 days) occurred in the Southern California Bight October 2008 - April 2012, spanning January-November, funded by the U.S. Navy as part of their marine mammal monitoring program. Behavior of cetaceans in this region is poorly known, particularly for Risso’s dolphins, and previous published surveys are >12 years o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We conducted 18 aerial surveys for marine mammals in the Southern California Bight around San Clemente Island from October 2008 to July 2013. Data were collected to obtain density and abundance estimates, as well as focal behavioral observations of marine mammals. The primary platform used was a Partenavia P68-C or P68-OBS (glass-nosed) high-wing,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Effects of mixed-species associations (MSA [at least two different species swimming together and/or interacting]) on cetacean behavior rarely have been quantified, but are important for identifying and differentiating potential anthropogenic impacts. Baseline marine mammal behavior was assessed during 83,005 km of U.S. Navy supported aerial line-tr...
Article
Full-text available
Inter-specific behavioral interactions between large whales and small odontocetes are rarely described and little understood. Reasons for such associations have been proposed but are difficult to substantiate empirically given the challenges inherent with studying deep- and long-diving cetaceans at sea. Proposed reasons include some of those descri...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Marine mammal (MM) monitoring was conducted during in-water pile driving (PD) at Hood Canal, Washington, during fall 2011. Monitoring was performed on construction days, during active-construction (“AC”, defined as 30 minutes prior to, during, and 30 minutes after PD) and non-construction (“NC”, downtime) periods. Baseline surveys were also conduct...
Poster
Full-text available
Few extensive systematic marine mammal (MM) surveys have occurred in central and upper Cook Inlet (CI) that span spring-fall, particularly for the endangered CI beluga whale. From 6 May - 30 Sep 2012, 882 MM sightings (~5,232 individuals) were observed during 6,912 hours (hr) of monitoring in this region for Apache Alaska Corporation’s Cook Inlet 3...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted 18 aerial surveys for marine mammals in the Southern California Bight in the vicinity of San Clemente Island from October 2008 to July 2013. Data were collected to obtain density and abundance estimates, as well as focal behavioral observations of marine mammals. The primary platform used was a Partenavia P68-C or P68-OBS (glass-nosed)...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted 18 aerial surveys for marine mammals in the Southern California Bight in the vicinity of San Clemente Island from October 2008 to July 2013. Data were collected to obtain density and abundance estimates, as well as focal behavioral observations of marine mammals. The primary platform used was a Partenavia P68-C or P68-OBS (glass-nosed)...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Rapid progress and affordability of photographic technology with increasing improvements in image resolution have facilitated advancements in efficiency and alternative approaches in data collection for marine mammals. We report these recent improvements by comparing marine mammal photographs taken during 2008-2013 aerial surveys of 16 marine mamma...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The behavioral ecology of offshore delphinids and baleen whales is poorly known. A comparative approach was used to assess group size and behavior versus risks/rewards of group living in the Southern California Bight, U.S. Scan sampling/photographs/video documented first-observed group size, behavior state, and group cohesion (i.e., maximum nearest...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We systematically video-documented the behavior of a subsample of Risso’s dolphins, short-beaked common dolphins (SBCD) and killer whales in the Southern California Bight (SCB) (2009-2011) to assess whether the observation aircraft (fixed-wing Partenavia) affected selected behavioral variables. Focal observations were conducted from the aircraft to...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We conducted 18 aerial surveys in the marine waters around San Clemente Island, California, from October 2008 to July 2013, to obtain both observations of marine mammal behavior and data suitable for developing marine mammal density estimates. The primary platform used was a Partenavia P68-C or P68-OBS (glass-nosed) high-wing, twin-engine airplane....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fifteen aerial surveys (72,467 km) occurred during 2008-2012 to monitor occurrence, abundance, and behavior of marine mammals in the Southern California Bight (SCB) on behalf of the U.S. Navy. Thirty-six (2%) of 2,151 total sightings of at least 11 species were mixed-species associations (i.e., at least two different species swimming together/inter...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Marine mammal seasonal density, abundance, behavior and habitat-use patterns were monitored off southern California 2008-2012 during 15 aerial surveys for the U.S. Navy. Line-transect, scan sampling, and focal follows occurred using video/photography. During 72,467 km of effort (99% Beaufort ≤4), ~190,310 individuals were seen in 2,151 groups (19+...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Correspondences: thomas.f.norris@bio-waves.net GOALS • To integrate real-time visual and acoustic data collection and post-analysis of marine mammal behaviors. • To obtain new information about acoustic behaviors in relation to surface behaviors, conspecifics, and anthropogenic activities. • To refine sonobuoy array data processing methods to bette...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Using both vibratory and impact hammers, 23 piles were installed and removed in the Waterfront Restricted Area (WRA) adjacent to Naval Base Kitsap at Bangor (Figure 1) over a 2-month period in fall 2011 • Mitigation measures included use of an underwater bubble curtain for noise attenuation, " soft starts " prior to initiation of pile driving, and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Baseline undisturbed behavior and social patterns of blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin whales (B. physalus) are not well described and are needed to identify and understand potential effects of anthropogenic activities in the SCB. In 2008-2012, 72,467 km of aerial line transect and focal-follow effort was conducted in the SCB. Initially observed...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Nearly 200 systematic studies involving bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) were conducted in the United States (U.S.) Beaufort and Chukchi seas from 1975 to 2009. Most (67 %) of these studies were associated with monitoring and mitigation relative to offshore oil and gas exploration and development. A compilation of this information has been neede...
Article
Full-text available
Given the paucity of confirmed sightings over the last 20 y, and its traditional, more tropical or low-latitude distribution, the Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera brydei/edeni) 1 has been excluded from recent National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) stock assessment reports of cetaceans occurring in the Southern California Bight (SCB) (Carretta et al.,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Acknowledgements Data were collected via funding from the U.S. Navy as part of their Marine Species Monitoring efforts. We are grateful to Navy personnel from U.S. Pacific Fleet Environmental and Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific ' for their support, coordination, and facilitation in implementing this project. Thanks to field personnel A...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nursing behavior by large cetaceans in situ is not well described. During ~30,000 km of aerial surveys off Southern California to monitor marine mammals relative to U.S. Navy military training activities (2008-2011), nursing behaviors were documented for three species: Eastern Pacific gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), fin whale (Balaenoptera phys...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera brydei/edeni) have been considered an anomalous occurrence in the Southern California Bight (SCB). Thus, they typically have been excluded from species lists associated with SCB management documents. In the last 40 years only two visual sightings of Bryde's whales were documented in California waters, the last one in 19...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We conducted 15 aerial surveys in the marine waters around San Clemente Island, California, during October 2008 to April 2012, to obtain both observations of marine mammal behavior and data suitable for developing marine mammal density estimates. The primary platform used was a Partenavia P68-C or P68-OBS (glass-nosed) high-wing, twin-engine airpla...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Baseline undisturbed behavior and social patterns of blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin whales (B. physalus) are not well described and are needed to identify and understand potential effects of anthropogenic activities. Behavioral data for blue and fin whales were collected during aerial survey line-transect and focal-follow effort. Initially-ob...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aerial surveys offer an ideal observation platform to document the behavior and group size of dolphin species over a wide range in offshore waters in a short period. Eight aerial surveys were conducted near San Clemente Island off southern California, Oct/Nov 2008, Jun/Jul/Nov 2009 and May/Jul/Sep 2010 to monitor behavior of marine mammal species u...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
1. SURVEY GOALS Monitor presence, occurrence, numbers and locations of marine mammals & sea turtles before, during, and after Navy major training activities (MTEs) involving mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) to identify potential changes, if any, in behavior, orientation, location, distribution, and relative abundance; • Search for potential strand...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Twelve line-transect aerial surveys occurred during fall/summer 2008-2011 to monitor the occurrence, abundance and behavior of marine mammals in the Southern California Bight. The study area overlapped where Carretta et al. (2000) flew surveys in 1998-1999, coinciding with their “warm-water period”. Density and abundance were estimated using standa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bryde’s whales (Balaenoptera brydei/edeni) have been considered an anomalous occurrence in the Southern California Bight (SCB). Thus, they typically have been excluded from species lists associated with SCB management documents. In the last 40 years only two visual sightings of Bryde’s whales were documented in California waters, the last one in 19...