Catherine Welch

Catherine Welch
University of Leicester | LE · Department of Health Sciences

PhD

About

69
Publications
5,406
Reads
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2,026
Citations
Additional affiliations
December 2009 - September 2013
University College London
Position
  • Research Associate
December 2009 - July 2015
University of London
Position
  • Research Associate
September 2004 - November 2009
Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre ICNARC
Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre ICNARC
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
Full-text available
Background Although a common challenge for patients and clinicians, there is little population-level evidence on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals diagnosed with potentially curable cancer. Objectives We investigated CVD rates in patients with common potentially curable malignancies and evaluated the associations betwee...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although a common challenge for patients and clinicians, there is little population-level evidence on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals diagnosed with potentially curable cancer. Objectives: We investigated CVD rates in patients with common potentially curable malignancies and evaluated the associations betwe...
Article
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Aims: To assess the recording and accuracy of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) hospital admissions between two electronic health record databases within an English cancer population over time and understand the factors that affect case-ascertainment. Methods and results: We identified 112,502 hospital admissions for AMI in England 2010-2017 fro...
Article
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Background: Cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Improvements in treatment strategies for both CVD and cancer have resulted in significant improvements in survival and, as a result, there is an increasing population of patients who now live with both conditions.1–3 It is well known...
Article
Background: Seasonal influenza is an annual occurrence that leads to large community outbreaks and increased hospitalization with significant morbidity and mortality due to complications such as secondary bacterial pneumonia. A number of studies have suggested that influenza A (IFA) is associated with increased rates of hospitalization and mortalit...
Article
Background Annual outbreaks of seasonal influenza cause a substantial health burden. The aim of this study was to compare patient demographic/clinical data in two influenza patient groups presenting to hospital; those requiring O2 or critical care admission and those requiring less intensive treatment. Methods The study was conducted from 1/12/201...
Article
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The impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) comorbidity on resection rates and survival for patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear. We explored if CVD comorbidity explained surgical resection rate variation and the impact on survival if resection rates increased. Cancer registry data consisted of English patients dia...
Article
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Background: We characterised the phenotypic consequence of genetic variation at the PCSK9 locus and compared findings with recent trials of pharmacological inhibitors of PCSK9. Methods: Published and individual participant level data (300,000+ participants) were combined to construct a weighted PCSK9 gene-centric score (GS). Seventeen randomized...
Article
Background: The Cepheid® GeneXpert® (GXP) can simultaneously test for norovirus (NV), Clostridium difficile (CD), influenza A/B (IFA/B) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Aim: To compare centralized multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing with localized GXP testing at a district general hospital. Methods: From December 2017 to De...
Conference Paper
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This study investigated the comparability of computerized and paper-and-pencil versions of Language, Mathematics, Reading, and Science achievement assessment for students in the second grade. Comparability was studied in terms of test characteristic curve, test information curve, standard error of estimate, and item parameters across test modes. Po...
Conference Paper
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Mode comparability study of computerized and paper-and-pencil versions of a mathematics test was conducted among K-2 population. Mode difference comparison is evaluated using test and item-level information generated through item response theory. The results indicate that CBTs were generally easier than PPTs of mathematics for K-2 population.
Article
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Background: Clinical databases are increasingly used for health research; many of them capture information on common health indicators including height, weight, blood pressure, cholesterol level, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. However, these are often not recorded on a regular basis; missing data are ubiquitous. We described the recordin...
Article
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Background: The association between diabetes and Strongyloides stercoralis remains controversial. We conducted a case-control study examining the association between diabetes and Strongyloides seropositivity in a large UK centre. Methods: Between January 2013 and October 2016, cases and controls were identified by positive and negative Strongylo...
Article
Background The annual health check (AHC) programme, as part of a Directed Enhanced Service, offers an incentive to general practitioners in England to conduct health checks for people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The aim of this analysis was to estimate the impact on health care costs of AHCs in primary care to the National Health Service...
Article
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Background: Informative attrition occurs when the reason participants drop out from a study is associated with the study outcome. Analysing data with informative attrition can bias longitudinal study inferences. Approaches exist to reduce bias when analysing longitudinal data with monotone missingness (once participants drop out they do not return...
Article
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Background Few studies have examined the influence of socioeconomic status on recovery from poor physical and mental health. Methods Prospective study with four consecutive periods of follow-up (1991–2011) of 7564 civil servants (2228 women) recruited while working in London. Health was measured by the Short-Form 36 questionnaire physical and ment...
Article
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Background: Sepsis is a major cause of mortality with an estimated 37,000 deaths in the UK each year. This study aimed to determine host factors that can predict severe sepsis in a bacteraemic cohort. Methods: From December 2012 to November 2013, demographic, clinical and microbiological data were collected on consecutive patients with bacteraem...
Article
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Background: Statin treatment and variants in the gene encoding HMG-CoA reductase are associated with reductions in both the concentration of LDL cholesterol and the risk of coronary heart disease, but also with modest hyperglycaemia, increased bodyweight, and modestly increased risk of type 2 diabetes, which in no way offsets their substantial ben...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Statin treatment and variants in the gene encoding HMG-CoA reductase are associated with reductions in both the concentration of LDL cholesterol and the risk of coronary heart disease, but also with modest hyperglycaemia, increased bodyweight, and modestly increased risk of type 2 diabetes, which in no way offsets their substantial bene...
Article
Background The clinical and cost-effectiveness of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) services are well described. We used a blood culture database as a novel approach to case finding and determined its utility in identifying inpatients suitable for OPAT. Methods From December 2012 to November 2013, consecutive adult inpatients with...
Article
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Background: There is lack of outcome data for bacteraemic patients on specialist renal units. We described demographic, clinical, microbiological data and outcomes for bacteraemic adult renal transplant and non-transplant patients at a London Teaching Hospital. We also assessed the appropriateness of empirical antibiotic policy. Methods: From De...
Article
Background: Previous studies examined midlife risk factors separately for old-age impaired physical and cognitive functioning. We determined the overlap of risk factors for both domains of functioning within the same setting. Methods: Biological and behavioral risk factors at age 50 years and cognitive and physical functioning were assessed 18 (SD...
Article
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Participants' non adherence to protocol affects data quality. In longitudinal studies, this leads to outliers that can be present at the level of the population or the individual. The purpose of the present study is to elaborate a method for detection of outliers in a study of cognitive ageing. In the Whitehall II study, data on a cognitive test ba...
Article
There is a lack of outcome data on hospitalized patients with bacteraemia or fungaemia caused by medical devices or procedures. To determine the association between death and bacteraemia or fungaemia caused by medical devices and procedures. From December 2012 to November 2013, demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were collected on conse...
Article
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Background People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have many comorbidities but experience inequities in access to health care. National Health Service England uses an opt-in incentive scheme to encourage annual health checks of patients with ID in primary care. We investigated whether the fi rst 3 years of the programme had improved health care...
Article
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Most implementations of multiple imputation (MI) of missing data are designed for simple rectangular data structures ignoring temporal ordering of data. Therefore, when applying MI to longitudinal data with intermittent patterns of missing data, some alternative strategies must be considered. One approach is to divide data into time blocks and impl...
Article
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Electronic health records of longitudinal clinical data are a valuable resource for health care research. One obstacle of using databases of health records in epidemiological analyses is that general practitioners mainly record data if they are clinically relevant. We can use existing methods to handle missing data, such as multiple imputation (mi)...
Article
Objectives: To determine 7 and 30-day mortality in consecutive patients with bacteraemic community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the association between predicted variables and likelihood of death. Methods: From August 2007 to July 2011, demographic, clinical and microbiological data were prospectively collected on patients with bacteraemic CAP....
Article
Background: The difference in mortality between patients with community-onset and hospital-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections has rarely been described and where it has, results have been conflicting. Aim: To determine 30-day mortality in consecutive patients with meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteraemia and the ass...
Article
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Purpose There is lack of contemporary outcome data on patients with hospital-acquired infections that cause bacteraemia. We determined the risk factors for 7-day mortality and investigated the hypothesis that, compared with central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bacteraemic infections, catheter-associated bacteraemic urinary tract infections (UTI...
Article
In the UK, primary care databases include repeated measurements of health indicators at the individual level. As these databases encompass a large population, some individuals have extreme values, but some values may also be recorded incorrectly. The challenge for researchers is to distinguish between records that are due to incorrect recording and...
Article
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Patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis who are admitted to intensive care units (ICU) are perceived, within the UK, as having a particularly poor prognosis. We performed a descriptive analysis of cirrhosis patients admitted to general critical care units 1995-2008 compared to patients admitted with pre-existing chronic renal failure. Data were...
Article
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Multiple imputation is increasingly regarded as the standard method to account for partially observed data, but most methods have been based on cross-sectional imputation algorithms. Recently, a new multiple-imputation method, the two fold fully conditional specification (FCS) method, was developed to impute missing data in longitudinal datasets wi...
Article
Few studies have investigated the association between level of social deprivation and acute hospital outcome for admissions to adult general critical care units. It is important to be aware if an association exists because risk prediction models do not adjust for deprivation. Deprivation was measured using the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 20...
Article
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of visits from critical care outreach services (CCOS) before admission to and following discharge from critical care. A cohort study was performed in 52 acute hospitals in England. A total of 23 234 patients received CCOS visits; 10 404 (45%) were admitted to a critical care unit, and 7078 (68%) w...
Article
Volume: outcome associations are well established in the surgical literature. In 1995, ICNARC first investigated whether a potential volume: outcome association existed in critical care but found no evidence. Since then, other international studies have investigated this both for all admissions and for admissions receiving mechanical ventilation. M...
Article
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Patients with haematological malignancy admitted to intensive care have a high mortality. Adverse prognostic factors include the number of organ failures, invasive mechanical ventilation and previous bone marrow transplantation. Severity-of-illness scores may underestimate the mortality of critically ill patients with haematological malignancy. Thi...
Article
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This report describes the case mix and outcomes of patients with oesophageal cancer admitted to adult critical care units following elective oesophageal surgery in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Admissions to critical care following elective oesophageal surgery for malignancy were identified using data from the Intensive Care National Audit a...
Article
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There are limited data about the epidemiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients in Northern Ireland. The aim of this study was to examine AKI within 24 hours of ICU admission and its relation to outcomes (ICU mortality and hospital mortality).
Article
Over the past 25 years, various outcome-based quality indicators other than mortality have been proposed as performance or quality indicators for monitoring outcomes from adult, general critical care units in the UK. A descriptive trend analysis of the several potential outcome-based quality indicators from Case Mix Programme data for the five-year...
Article
To provide descriptive information on patients considered for management with a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) in U.K. intensive care units and to generate hypotheses to guide future research by examining subsets of patients included in the PAC-Man Study. Randomized controlled trial. U.K. general intensive care units. Adult critically ill patients...
Article
To investigate the effect of increasing alcohol consumption on the number of admissions to adult, general critical/intensive care units (ICUs) in England and Wales with alcoholic liver disease, their case mix, mortality, and impact on critical care and hospital activity by extrapolating from admissions to ICUs over the last 10 years. Secondary anal...
Data
Full-text available
Timeline of the audit of DrotAA and other key events. Shown is the timeline of the audit of DrotAA and other key events.
Data
Full-text available
Balance between admissions receiving DrotAA and matched controls. Shown is the balance between patients admitted who received DrotAA and matched control patients.
Data
Propensity model for use of DrotAA. Shown is the propensity model for use of DrotAA.
Article
Full-text available
Major head injury is a common reason for admission to the ICU. Knowledge of factors that predict mortality provides clues to the pathophysiology of head injury, how clinicians' interventions can be most effective, allows audit between different units or time points and provides objective data with which to communicate with patients' relatives. Seve...
Article
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Dermatology is usually thought of as an outpatient specialty with low mortality, however some skin conditions require intensive care. These conditions are relatively rare and hence are best studied using clinical databases or disease registries. We interrogated a large, high-quality clinical database from a national audit of adult intensive care un...
Article
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In March 2001, the results of the Recombinant Human Activated Protein C Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsis (PROWESS) study were published, which indicated a 6.1% absolute reduction in 28-day mortality. Drotrecogin alfa (activated; DrotAA) was subsequently approved for use in patients with severe sepsis. In December 2002, critical care units in E...
Article
Using a retrospective analysis of the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre Case Mix Programme Database (ICNARC CMPD), we have summarised the characteristics and outcomes for mechanically ventilated patients admitted to UK intensive care units (ICUs) after cardiac arrest. Descriptive statistics on case mix, physiology, treatment, servic...
Article
Decisions about how to treat patients with acute exacerbations of obstructive airways disease-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma or mixed diagnoses-often require an understanding of prognosis. This depends on the severity of the acute deterioration and the patient's functional reserve. There are currently no validated disease-spec...
Data
Additional file 1 is a table providing a comparison of demographics and physiology for admissions with community acquired pneumonia by length of stay in hospital before admission to ICU.
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic brain injury is a potentially fatal condition and a common cause of admission to ICUs in the United Kingdom. We describe the case mix and outcomes of head injury patients requiring intensive care and evaluate the ability of five risk prediction models to predict mortality in these patients.
Article
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To evaluate the impact of recent evidence-based treatments for severe sepsis in routine clinical care requires an understanding of the underlying epidemiology, particularly with regard to trends over time. We interrogated a high quality clinical database to examine trends in the incidence and mortality of severe sepsis over a nine-year period. Admi...
Article
Full-text available
This report describes the case mix and outcome (mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay) for admissions to ICU for head injury and evaluates the predictive ability of five risk adjustment models. A secondary analysis was conducted of data from the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the case mix, outcome and activity for admissions to intensive care units (ICUs) with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We conducted a secondary analysis of a high quality clinical database, the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme Database, of 301,871 admissions to 172 adult ICUs across...
Article
Most standard missing-data techniques have been designed for cross-sectional data. A "forward-backward" multiple-imputation algorithm has been developed to impute missing values in longitudinal data (Nevalainen, Kenward, and Virtanen, 2009, Statistics in Medicine 28: 36577-3669) This technique will be applied to The Health Improvement Network (THIN...