Catherine Villard

Catherine Villard
Institut Curie

About

112
Publications
8,284
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1,449
Citations
Citations since 2016
29 Research Items
604 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140

Publications

Publications (112)
Article
The concept of spatial confinement is the basis of cell positioning and guidance in in vitro studies. In vivo, it reflects many situations faced during embryonic development. In vitro, spatial confinement of neurons is achieved using different technological approaches: adhesive patterning, topographical structuring, microfluidics and the use of hyd...
Preprint
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Background: The trans-neuronal spread of protein aggregation in a prion-like manner underlies the progression of neuronal lesions in the brain of patients with synucleinopathies such as Parkinson’s disease. Despite being studied actively, the mechanisms of alpha-synuclein (aSyn) aggregates propagation remain poorly understood. Indeed, in vivo model...
Preprint
Full-text available
The trans-neuronal spread of protein aggregates in a prion-like manner underlies the progression of neuronal lesions in the brain of patients with synucleinopathies such as Parkinson’s disease. Despite being studied actively, the mechanisms of alpha-synuclein (aSyn) aggregates propagation remain poorly understood. This hinders the development of th...
Article
Although mutations leading to a compromised nuclear envelope cause diseases such as muscular dystrophies or accelerated aging, the consequences of mechanically induced nuclear envelope ruptures are less known. Here, we show that nuclear envelope ruptures induce DNA damage that promotes senescence in non-transformed cells and induces an invasive phe...
Article
Silicon nanowire field effect transistors SiNW‐FETs provide a local probe for sensing neuronal activity at the subcellular scale, thanks to their nanometer size and ultrahigh sensitivity. The combination with micro‐patterning or microfluidic techniques to build model neurons networks above SiNW arrays could allow monitoring spike propagation and ta...
Preprint
Full-text available
Silicon nanowire field effect transistors SiNW-FETs provide a local probe for sensing neuronal activity at the subcellular scale, thanks to their nanometer size and ultrahigh sensitivity. The combination with micro-patterning or microfluidic techniques to build model neurons networks above SiNW arrays could allow monitoring spike propagation and ta...
Article
Full-text available
Microfluidic-based fluorescent exclusion method allows to tackle the issue of neuronal growth from a volume perspective. Based on this technology, we studied the two main actin-rich structures accompanying the early stages of neuron development, i.e. growth cones, located at the tip of growing neuronal processes, and propagative actin waves. Our wo...
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Topography of the extracellular environment is now recognized as a major biophysical regulator of cell behavior and function. The study of the influence of patterned substrates on cells, named contact guidance, has greatly benefited from the development of micro and nano-fabrication techniques, allowing the emergence of increasingly diverse and ela...
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The remote actuation of cellular processes such as migration or neuronal outgrowth is a challenge for future therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine. Among the different methods that have been proposed, the use of magnetic nanoparticles appears to be promising, since magnetic fields can act at a distance without interactions with the surr...
Preprint
The remote actuation of cellular processes such as migration or neuronal outgrowth is a challenge for future therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine. Among the different methods that have been proposed, the use of magnetic nanoparticles appears to be promising since magnetic fields can act at a distance without interactions with the surro...
Preprint
Full-text available
While mutations leading to a fragile envelope of the cell nucleus are well known to cause diseases such as muscular dystrophies or accelerated aging, the pathophysiological consequences of the recently discovered mechanically induced nuclear envelope ruptures in cells harboring no mutation are less known. Here we show that repeated loss of nuclear...
Article
Full-text available
Cancer mortality mainly arises from metastases, due to cells that escape from a primary tumor, circulate in the blood as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), permeate across blood vessels and nest in distant organs. It is still unclear how CTCs overcome the harsh conditions of fluid shear stress and mechanical constraints within the microcirculation. He...
Article
Full-text available
Alpha-synuclein (aSyn)-rich aggregates propagate in neuronal networks and compromise cellular homeostasis leading to synucleinopathies such as Parkinson’s disease. Aggregated aSyn spread follows a conserved spatio-temporal pattern that is not solely dependent on connectivity. Hence, the differential tropism of aSyn-rich aggregates to distinct brain...
Preprint
Full-text available
Brain tissues demonstrate heterogeneous mechanical properties, which evolve with aging and pathologies. The observation in these tissues of smooth to sharp rigidity gradients raises the question of brain cells responses to both different values of rigidity and their spatial variations. Here, we use recent techniques of hydrogel photopolymerization...
Article
Spontaneous adsorption of poly(lysine)-g-poly(ethyleneglycol) comb-like copolymers (PLL-g-PEG) is a versatile mean to coat substrates with polymer layers that resist cell adhesion. We prepared redox cleavable PLL-g-PEG to switch adhesion on demand. Redox sensitivity was obtained by introducing disulfide linkers between the PLL backbone and PEG stra...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cancer mortality mainly arises from metastases, due to cells that escape from a primary tumor, circulate in the blood as circulating tumor cells (CTCs), leave blood vessels and nest in distant organs. It is still unclear how CTCs overcome the harsh conditions of fluid shear stress and mechanical constraints within the microcirculation. A model of t...
Article
In mammalian embryos, cortical interneurons travel long distances among complex three-dimensional tissues before integrating into cortical circuits. Several molecular guiding cues involved in this migration process have been identified, but the influence of physical parameters remains poorly understood. In the present study, we have investigated in...
Preprint
In mammalian embryos, cortical interneurons travel long distances among complex three-dimensional tissues before integrating into cortical circuits. Several molecular guiding cues involved in this migration process have been identified, but the influence of physical parameters remains poorly understood. In the present study, we have investigated in...
Article
Full-text available
Volume is an important parameter regarding physiological and pathological characteristics of neurons at different time scales. Neurons are quite unique cells regarding their extended ramified morphologies and consequently raise several methodological challenges for volume measurement. In the particular case of in vitro neuronal growth, the chosen m...
Chapter
Microfluidic devices for controlling neuronal connectivity in vitro are extremely useful tools for deciphering pathological and physiological processes occurring in neuronal networks. These devices allow the connection between different neuronal populations located into separate culture chambers through axon-selective microchannels. In order to imp...
Article
Full-text available
Hippocampal neurons produce in their early stages of growth propagative, actin-rich dynamical structures called actin waves. The directional motion of actin waves from the soma to the tip of neuronal extensions has been associated with net forward growth, and ultimately with the specification of neurites into axon and dendrites. Here, geometrical c...
Article
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We report here a simple yet robust transient compartmentalization system for microfluidic platforms. Cylindrical microfilaments made of commercially available fishing lines are embedded in a microfluidic chamber and employed as removable walls, dividing the chamber into several compartments. These partitions allow tight sealing for hours, and can b...
Article
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We present a novel kind of directional axon guides for brain-on-a-chip applications. Contrarily to previous works, the directionality in our design is created by rerouting axons growing in the unwanted direction back to their original compartment while leaving the other growth direction unaffected. This design yields state-of-the-art levels of dire...
Article
Full-text available
Oriented neuronal networks with controlled connectivity are required for many applications ranging from studies of neurodegeneration to neuronal computation. To build such networks in vitro, an efficient, directed and long lasting guidance of axons toward their target is a pre-requisite. The best guidance achieved so far, however, relies on confini...
Article
This review is an attempt to shed light on the wealth of the close association between micro/ nanotechnologies and neurobiology. With this aim, we have identified four specific areas in the field of neuroscience that fruitfully exploit the conceptual approaches of physics together with the engineering tools originally developed for microelectronics...
Article
Full-text available
In vitro investigation of neural architectures requires cell positioning. For that purpose, micro-magnets have been developed on silicon substrates and combined with chemical patterning to attract cells to adhesive sites and keep them there during incubation. We have shown that the use of micro-magnets allows to achieve a high filling factor (~90%)...
Article
We report here on the fabrication of hard magnetic powder based micro-flux sources using micro-patterned hard magnetic films as templates or master structures. The micro-magnetic imprinting (lMI) process is simple and the constituent materials of the final structures, commercial hard magnetic powders and polymer, are inexpensive. The structures may...
Article
Neurons are sensitive to topographical cues provided either by in vivo or in vitro environments on the micrometric scale. We have explored the role of randomly distributed silicon nano-pillars on primary hippocampal neurite elongation and axonal differentiation. We observed that neurons adhere on the upper part of nano-pillars with a typical distan...
Article
Full-text available
Neurons acquire their functional and morphological axo-dendritic polarity by extending, from competing minor processes (neurites), one long axon among numerous dendrites. We employed complementary sets of micropatterns built from 2 and 6 μm wide stripes of various lengths to constrain hippocampal neuron shapes. Using these geometries, we have (i) l...
Article
Building elementary neuronal networks above sub-micrometric devices is a pertinent approach toward the understanding of neuronal computation at one of the lowest levels of complexity. This chapter first describes how shaping neurons by adhesive micropatterns allows control of both the network topography and connectivity on the basis of a surface ch...
Article
Full-text available
Neuronal differentiation is under the tight control of both biochemical and physical information arising from neighboring cells and micro-environment. Here we wished to assay how external geometrical constraints applied to the cell body and/or the neurites of hippocampal neurons may modulate axonal polarization in vitro. Through the use of a panel...
Data
Bm, DC and DS motifs, geometrical details. (A) Geometrical dimensions of the Bm elementary motif. (B) DC and DS patterns, built with different orientations of the L2–L3 directions. (DOC)
Data
Actin network of a stage 2 neuron (1 DIV) grown on BmS pattern. Cell nucleus (Hoechst staining, blue), centrosome (γ tubulin labeling, green), and actin (phalloidin-Texas red staining, red). No actin stress fibers are visible around the cell body. Scale bar, 10 µm. (DOC)
Data
Neuritic unhookings observed on a DW4 pattern. Time-lapse recording of neurons plated for 30 hours. Phase contrast images of living cells were captured with a charge-coupled device camera (CoolSNAP HQ; Roper Scientific) using a 20x Phase3 Plan ApoChromat oil NA 1.4 objective mounted on an inverted motorized microscope (Axiovert 200 M; Carl Zeiss, I...
Data
Micropattern with contrasted adhesiveness. (A) Micrograph of a micropattern showing the mask used during photolithography and properties of the resulting surface: adhesive in white and non adhesive in black. (B) Micrograph of the micropattern showing the adhesive surface covered by FITC-grafted poly-L-lysine (green). (C) Micrograph showing a hippoc...
Data
Summary of geometrical characteristics of DW patterns. (DOC)
Data
Influence of neurite curvature on axonal polarization. Axonal specification along the L1–L4 directions was plotted for DW0 and for each DW4 pattern. The number of neurons polarizing along L1 increased with curvature; other neurons polarized uniformly along L2–L4 directions. ***, significantly different from random distribution (dotted line), p<0.00...
Data
Probabilistic Model of Axonal Polarization on DW4 patterns. (DOC)
Data
Full-text available
Centrosome distribution and correlation with axonal localization in stages 2 (1 DIV) and 3 (3 DIV) neurons grown over DW4 patterns. (A) Top: an example of microtubule (green), nuclei (blue) and centrosome (red and red arrow) immunolabelings. Scale bar = 10 µm. Bottom: Superimposition of centrosome density map from stage 2 neurons (n = 174) and DW4...
Article
An approach is developped to gain control over the polarity of neuronal networks at the cellular level by physically constraining cell development by the use of micropatterns. It is demonstrated that the position and path of individual axons, the cell extension that propagates the neuron output signal, can be chosen with a success rate higher than...
Article
Full-text available
Neuronal differentiation is under the tight control of biochemical and physical information arising from micro-environment. Here, through a panel of poly-L-lysine micropatterns, we wished to assay how external geometrical constraints of neurons may modulate axonal polarization. Constraints applied to either the cell body or to the neurite direction...
Article
We present imaging of biological cells by a fibered high-resolution optical microscope, which we call interferometric Scanning Optical Microscope (iSOM). The topography and surface structure of mouse fibroblasts and living hippocampal neurons are clearly revealed by iSOM. Its working principle is based on the interference of the internally reflecte...
Article
Full-text available
We report on the imaging of biological cells including living neurons by a dedicated fibered interferometric scanning optical microscope. The topography and surface roughness of mouse fibroblasts and hippocampal neurons are clearly revealed. This straightforward far-field technique allows fast, high resolution observation of samples in liquids with...
Article
Full-text available
We report on the 3-dimensional imaging of biological cells including living neurons by a recently developed fibered interferometric Scanning Optical Microscope. The topography and surface structure of mouse fibroblasts and hippocampal neurons are clearly revealed. This straightforward technique allows fast, high resolution observation of samples in...
Article
We present transport properties of silicon nanowires field effect transistors realized on SOI substrates and their application to probe electrical activity of biological objects. Devices are sensitive to short and weak voltage pulses (ms, mV) applied in an electrolyte solution, allowing a future efficient detection of neuronal activity. For that pu...
Article
The superconducting (SC) fault current limiter (FCL) is very attractive to enhance the security and the power quality of the electricity grid, so its great interest throughout the world. Most of SC FCL uses the quench of a SC element and the thermal phenomena are fundamental. We study them with two approaches: experiments and calculations. For the...
Article
Our project is based on the elaboration of in vitro neuron networks as simplified models to explore the relation between neuronal architecture and biological function. Beyond a control of soma and neurite position, our first goal was to achieve in-vitro axonal differentiation of embryonic E18 hippocampal mice neurons by the mean of geometrical grow...
Article
By applying nanosecond current pulses to narrow superconducting Nb strips, we have observed the induced resistive states expected for quasi 1-D transport, namely localized phase-slip centres (PSC) and hot spots (HS). The current-controlled drive discriminates stable-in-time PSC structures near T c from expanding HS at lower temperatures. HS-PSC exc...
Article
Full-text available
When bicuculline an antagonist of inhibitory connections is introduced in the nutritive solution of an in vivo preparation containing neural networks, a synchronous activity of the neural network is observed. Observation of this activity with micro electrodes arrays presents signals containing periodic bursts of activity. The aim of this study is t...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we compare the neural activity of a population of neurons recorded with a MEA to simulations of equivalent networks obtained on a computer when bicuculline, an antagonist of inhibitory connections, is introduced into the nutritive solution. The aim of this study is to obtain a model producing extra-cellular data that match the synchro...
Article
Full-text available
The electrode impedance Z is an important parameter for the MEA detection of neural activity. Beside the commonly admitted fact that a low Z at 1 kHz increases the signal to noise ratio, the knowledge of the Z(f) variation inside a larger frequency range is essential to simulate realistic extra-cellular data suitable for validation of spike sorting...
Article
Full-text available
In order to simulate the spiking activity of in-vitro neuron networks recorded by MEA, the engine SIMONE (Statistical sIMulation Of Neuronal networks Engine) has been updated and used. SIMONE has been originally designed to produce realistic extracellular signals used as input data for the validation of spike detection and sorting algorithms. The a...
Article
The reversible change of critical current Ic as a function of strain in RE-123 coated conductors (where RE represent rare earth) is studied in association with critical temperature (Tc) measurements. In Y-123 based coated conductors, the positive strain dependence of the critical temperature determines the critical current variation Ic(). The origi...
Article
Full-text available
Within the context of the electric power market liberalization, DC networks have many interests compared to AC ones. New energy landscapes open the way of a diversified production. Innovative interconnection diagrams, in particular using DC buses, are under development. In this case it is not possible to defer the fault current interruption in the...
Article
A recently developed magneto-optical (MO) imaging setup for investigations on superconductors is reported. The main originality of our setup is its ability to combine both strain and transport measurements in the temperature range of 6-300 K with magneto-optical observations. We give here some theoretical considerations on the cryostat conception,...