Catherine A. Salmon

Catherine A. Salmon
University of Redlands · College of Arts and Sciences

PhD Psychology

About

81
Publications
99,748
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1,338
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2003 - June 2018
University of Redlands
Position
  • Professor
September 2003 - present
University of Redlands
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 1999 - May 2003
Simon Fraser University
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (81)
Article
The target article raises important questions about the applicability of experimental social psychology research on topics with policy implications. This commentary focuses on the importance of attending to a variety of factors to improve ecological validity as well as considering the ultimate factors shaping behavior and the role of natural catego...
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The purpose of this study was to examine how attitudes toward different nonhuman animal species (including emotional empathy, cognitive empathy, and harm avoidance) are shaped by the coevolutionary histories between the ancestors of contemporary humans and these different nonhuman animal species. We compared the explanatory power of alternative cat...
Article
The #MeToo movement has drawn attention to sexual harassment in the workplace. Using an adaptationist approach, two studies were designed to investigate sex differences in perceptions of a sexually ambiguous comment and individual differences that may explain variation in those perceptions. Study 1 (n = 179) was a within-subjects study to investiga...
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The debate over pornography has drawn attention to sex differences not only in the frequency of pornography consumption but also in the different ways males and females may perceive sexually explicit images and respond to them. Some of these differences may be due to sex differences in a variety of factors including sexual strategies and disgust, i...
Chapter
The image of mother and child as a harmonious unit with mother willing to sacrifice all for the well-being of her child is ubiquitous. At the same time, it is certainly not always accurate. From an evolutionary perspective, offspring are the vehicle of parental fitness and as such parent-child interactions can be highly cooperative, but they can al...
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While a great deal of psychological research has been conducted on sex-specific mate choice preferences, relatively little attention has been directed toward how heterosexual men and women solicit short-term sexual partners, and which acts are perceived to be the most effective. The present research relied on an act nomination methodology with the...
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While siblings can be close allies, they can also be significant competitors. They are also family members that are typically with us for most of our lives. Research has raised questions about the factors shaping sibling relationships, and an adaptationist perspective would predict a role for a number of factors including sex, genetic relatedness,...
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When FA occurred during middle childhood, males exhibited faster LH strategies, whereas when FA occurred during adolescence, females exhibited faster LH strategies.
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Objective A substantial body of research has investigated the effects of early family environments on sexual maturity and behavior, focusing mostly on effects on females. The purpose of the current study was to test the assumption that physiological maturation and casual sexual behavior are similarly influenced by early environmental stressors such...
Chapter
The popularity of the bromance genre in television and film has attracted the attention of the general public as well as those interested in popular culture. Originally aimed at a male audience and with roots in ancestral male bonding, it has also attracted the attention of a female audience interested in the romanticization of the bond between two...
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Recently, much attention has been focused on understanding casual sex, or hooking up, among college students. The current study uses an adaptationist approach to go beyond sex differences in casual sex behavior, examining predictors of emotional reactions and including a community sample (39 females, 84 males) in addition to a typical college sampl...
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Research on sexual behavior often characterizes rough sex as sexual aggression and as violent or abusive in nature. In a sample of 734 male and female undergraduates, we examined the extent of rough sexual acts in romantic relationships, the triggers for those acts, and how rough sex differs from “typical” sex. Participants were asked their definit...
Article
There are a number of questions concerning human sexual psychology where pornography consumption may be particularly informative, yet evolutionary psychologists have been slow to incorporate it into research designs. This study examines the relationships between pornography preferences, individual's sex, proxies for short-term mating strategies (e....
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A substantial body of research has investigated the effects of early family environments on the sexual maturity and behavior of adolescents and young adults. Most of this research has focused primarily on (i) early childhood environments, (ii) these effects in females with much less attention devoted to males’ sexual maturity and behavior, and (iii...
Article
Utilizing an evolutionary perspective has proven fruitful in a number of areas of interest outside of the standard psychological or anthropological topics. This includes a wide range of fields from applied disciplines such as law, criminology, medicine, and marketing, to the study of the imagined worlds found in art and literature, the domains of t...
Article
This study examines the relationship between 2D:4D, a proxy for levels of prenatal testosterone, and rating oneself as a “tomboy” as well as the relationship between Fisher's hormone-based temperament factors and tomboyism. Salmon (2015) reported a relationship between female erotic fiction preferences and lower 2D:4D ratios in addition to a link b...
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How far has the Darwinian revolution come? To what extent have evolutionary ideas penetrated into the social sciences and humanities? Are the “science wars” over? Or do whole blocs of disciplines face off over an unbridgeable epistemic gap? To answer questions like these, contributors to top journals in 22 disciplines were surveyed on their beliefs...
Article
Psychology has a long history of interest in the study of romantic and sexual relationships. The introduction of evolutionary perspectives to this area has broadened and clarified our understanding of mating desires and behaviors. This article will review some of the contributions of evolutionarily informed research to our understanding of long-ter...
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Full-text available
How far has the Darwinian revolution come? To what extent have evolutionary ideas penetrated into the social sciences and humanities? Are the “science wars” over? Or do whole blocs of disciplines face off over an unbridgeable epistemic gap? To answer questions like these, contributors to top journals in 22 disciplines were surveyed on their beliefs...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, much attention has been focused on understanding casual sex, or hooking up, among college students. The current study uses an adaptationist approach to investigate sex differences in casual sex behavior, emotional reactions, and the influence of father absence. If males and females possess different emotional mechanisms designed to evalua...
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Full-text available
Much of the research on birth order has focused on individual differences in personality traits, with relatively few studies focused on aspects of social behavior other than sibling conflict. However, one would predict that the differences in parental investment and niche differentiation that shape personality differences between siblings would als...
Chapter
Not all species engage in parental care. As researchers have noted, investment by parents in offspring is investment that cannot be directed elsewhere, into either somatic effort or other mating opportunities. Which parental and offspring factors influence the degree of parental investment is one of the focuses of this chapter. An additional focus...
Chapter
From the parental perspective, each individual's overall reproductive effort is a combination of mating effort and parental effort or investment. There are numerous factors that can have an impact on the amount of parental resources invested in any particular child. The potential for conflict exists between parents over how much parental investment...
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This study examines the possible connection between prenatal levels of testosterone and adult female interest in erotica, in particular, the genre known as slash fiction. Slash stories focus on the romantic and sexual relationships between (generally) heterosexual males, fictional characters from TV and film, such as Star Trek’s Kirk and Spock or S...
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Our siblings can be our closest allies and yet are often our first rivals. What factors influence the nature of these relationships, and are there certain aspects that make our siblings more likely to be a source of conflict rather than solidarity? From an adaptationist perspective, sibling conflict should vary in frequency and intensity as a funct...
Chapter
Kinship has been a central organizing principle in evolutionary explorations of social behavior ever since Hamilton (J Theor Biol 7:1–52, 1964) extended the concept of Darwinian fitness benefits to include actions that benefit not only own offspring but also collateral kin. This insight into humans as nepotistic strategists has fueled an extensive...
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Many studies focus on the role of parents in the selection of mates, with most showing that parents have influence, albeit variable, in this process. Within Western societies, individuals often present a potential mate to their parents. This meeting represents a turning point, signifying that one is serious about the potential mate becoming a long-...
Chapter
Full-text available
Our siblings can be our closest allies and yet are often our first rivals. What factors influence the nature of these relationships, and are there certain aspects that make our sib-lings more likely to be a source of conflict rather than solidar-ity? From an adaptationist perspective, sibling conflict should vary in frequency and intensity as a fun...
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Pornography and romance, at first glance they seem to be two genres that are almost polar opposites. Yet both are the products of our evolved human sexuality and both have been the subjects of a variety of authors and researchers. Particularly in the case of pornography, some have argued strongly against its very existence, charging it, its creator...
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There are many aspects of our modern environment and our behavior that are best understood under the light of an evolutionary perspective. By using evolution to inform our scholarly endeavors, we arrive at a far more satisfying and comprehensive understanding, This special issue by no means addresses all the ways in which evolutionary psychology an...
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This study focuses on the relative frequencies of various sexual activities and the ways in which those activities are portrayed in homosexual and heterosexual pornographic films. Many anti-pornography arguments are based on the alleged oppression and degradation of women in pornography. Others (Salmon & Symons, 2001) have suggested that the main f...
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Many studies have examined factors that influence discriminative parental solicitude. Sex, birth order, and age of the mother are a few factors demonstrated to influence levels of parental investment (especially as measured by offspring self-report). One indicator of a high level of parental investment is being a parental favorite. Using self-repor...
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The family is a key human evolutionary adaptation. The extent and duration of offspring care is extraordinary, and unique in the huge informational transfer via language. Kin relationships are bilateral, complex, variable, multi-generational, and inter-group. Mating relationships are also variable, and influenced by kin in traditional cultures. The...
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Kinship has been central to evolutionary biological analyses of social behavior since Hamilton (1964) extended the concept of Darwinian fitness to include an individual's actions that benefit not only direct descendents but also collateral kin. No longer were organisms simply reproductive strategists, they also were nepotistic strategists. This con...
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Familial relationships cannot be properly understood outside of an evolutionary framework. Pseudoscientific and traditional modes of thought have steered us away from an accurate account of ourselves and our kin. Recent theoretical and empirical advancements in the evolutionary sciences, such as the theories of inclusive fitness, parental investmen...
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Sibling conflict is common across a wide variety of species, including humans. It is an expected process because offspring compete for dominance as well as food resources (most common in nonhuman species) and also for parental attention, money, and other personal resources in the case of human children. While most conflict in humans has no long las...
Article
At first glance, the relationship between parent and offspring seems to begin in perfect harmony. In particular, the image of human parents' devotion to their infant is one that has been depicted in art for thousands of years. It often seems to stand in sharp contrast to the modern image of the typical adolescent-parent relationship, usually portra...
Article
Much of the research on conflict and competition in humans has focused on males. Males competing for mates, status, or resources have often been in the spotlight. Less attention has focused on competition between females, although some research has examined topics such as female derogation of rivals in competition for quality males and status compe...
Article
This chapter begins by highlighting the sociological, macrolevel focus of previous work on the determinants of child support payments. We then highlight the value of addressing these issues from a psychological perspective. We argue that research and policy will benefit by embracing an explicitly evolutionary psychological perspective. We present s...
Article
Much writing on sexual conflict in both animals and humans is done in the context of Darwin's theory of sexual selection. There is considerable conflict in male-female reproductive relationships, and sexual selection theory is very useful in understanding it. However, there is also much cooperation, such as that seen in family functioning that has...
Book
Full-text available
The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Family Psychology focuses on the reasons underlying family behavior and how a greater understanding of these factors can help us to better understand our own family behaviors. Relationships with family are important to our emotional health and can play a significant role in our social success. We need our familie...
Chapter
The relationships between birth order, personality, and behavior are ones that have received a great deal of attention from researchers. Much recent progress into understanding the impact birth order has in shaping personality and behavior has been made by taking a Darwinian family niche perspective on birth order. There are a number of documented...
Article
Full-text available
Familial relationships cannot be properly understood outside of an evolutionary framework. Pseudoscientific and traditional modes of thought have steered us away from an accurate account of ourselves and our kin. Recent theoretical and empirical advances in the evolutionary sciences, such as the theories of inclusive fitness, parental investment, a...
Article
Full-text available
Prostitution, sometimes referred to as the world's oldest profession, arouses strong sentiment. It is defined as "the act or practice of engaging in sexual activity for money or its equivalent." From a cross-cultural perspective, this definition can be problematic in that gift giving, of goods or money, often occurs in the context of courtship, ext...
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A sample of female undergraduates completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of the Arizona Life History Battery, a modified version of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Behavioral Regulation scales from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and two measures of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness that distinguished between comp...
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It is commonly assumed that the desire for a thin female physique and its pathological expression in eating disorders result from a social pressure for thinness. However, such widespread behavior may be better understood not merely as the result of arbitrary social pressure, but as an exaggerated expression of behavior that may have once been adapt...
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The FCST (Female-Female Competition Stress Test) was constructed to assess stress from adolescent female-female competition. Such stress is particularly relevant to the Reproductive Suppression Hypothesis that has been suggested as one possible explanation for the development of anorexic type behavior in young women. A series of items generated an...
Chapter
Full-text available
At first glance, the relationship between parent and child seems to begin in perfect harmony. The image of parents' devotion to their infant is one that has been depicted in art for thousands of years. It often seems like a sharp contrast to the modern image of the typical adolescent-parent relationship, usually portrayed as full of strife. But are...
Book
Full-text available
Kinship ties - the close relationships found within the family - have been a central focus of evolutionary biological analyses of social behavior ever since biologist William Hamilton extended the concept of Darwinian fitness to include an individual's actions benefiting not only his own offspring, but also collateral kin. Evolutionary biologists c...
Article
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Should you be allowed to choose the sex of your child? Even before the advent of modern reproductive technologies, people have expressed interest in producing a child of a specific sex, trying everything from herbal treatments to sexual positions that have been claimed to produce a male or female child. Modern technologies such as flow cytometry ma...
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Using data collected from people with at least one brother and one sister, and consistent with an evolutionary perspective, we find that older men and women (a) are more upset by a brother’s partner’s sexual infidelity than by her emotional infidelity and (b) are more upset by a sister’s partner’s emotional infidelity than by his sexual infidelity....
Chapter
When Don Symons and I wrote our book, Warrior Lovers: Erotic Fiction, Evolution, and Female Sexuality, we were asked to choose a phrase from it to go on the dust jacket. We chose, "To encounter erotica designed to appeal to the other sex is to gaze into the psychological abyss that separates the sexes."1 At times, it seems that an even greater gulf...
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The stark contrasts between romance novels and pornography, both multibillion dollar global industries, underscore how different male and female erotic fantasies actually are. These differences reflect the different selection pressures males and females faced over human evolutionary history and highlight the utility of using unobtrusive measures to...
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There appears to be a common belief among evolutionary psychologists that academic positions may be difficult to obtain. Similar to many contemporary students involved in Evolutionary Psychology (EP), we were concerned as to our academic job prospects. This worry seems to be frequently shared by academic supervisors, as a training in EP may make a...
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Previous studies (Salmon 1999; Salmon and Daly 1998) have found that sex and birth order are strong predictors of familial sentiments. Middleborns tend to be less family-oriented than firstborns or lastborns, while sex differences seem to focus on the utility of kin in certain domains. If this is a reflection of middleborns receiving a lesser degre...
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A greater understanding of psychopathology will be found in the integration of genetic and evolutionary perspectives on adaptation and function. Evolutionary theory proposes that adaptive traits are reproduced more successfully than maladaptive ones. However, some traits, while contributing to fitness in the ancestral environment, may contribute to...
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This article uses samples of siblicide from Canada, Great Britain, Japan, and Chicago to explore the possible relevance of seniority in siblicide. The tendency for the killer to be the younger party was especially true of cases in which victim and killer were same-sex adults and, especially, brothers close in age. The older party was much more like...
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Full-text available
Previous research indicates that birth order is a strong predictor of familial sentiments, with middleborns less family-oriented than first- or last-borns. In this research, effects of sex and birth order on the actual frequency of contact with maternal and paternal kin were examined in two studies. In Study 1, one hundred and forty undergraduates...
Article
Effects of birth order on several aspects of family relations and self-identity were examined in three studies. In Study 1, first and lastborn undergraduates were more likely than middleborns to refer to kinship in characterizing themselves. In Study 2, subjects were asked to whom they would turn under two scenarios of duress. First and lastborns w...
Article
Effects of birth order on several aspects of family relations and self-identity were examined in three studies. In Study 1, first and lastborn undergraduates were more likely than middleborns to refer to kinship in characterizing themselves. In Study 2, subjects were asked to whom they would turn under two scenarios of duress. First and lastborns w...
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Full-text available
Kin terms such as "brothers," "sisters," and "motherland" are frequently used in both political and patriotic speech. Johnson (1986, 1987) has argued that this use of kin terms in patriotic or rhetorical speech can be predicted on the basis of evolutionary psychology. He has suggested that the human inclination toward nepotistic behavior can be cal...
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This thesis presents research on the nature of human kin relations, with an emphasis on the impact of sex and birth order on familial sentiment. This aspect of human kinship is viewed from the perspective of evolutionary psychology and a brief explanation of what this entails is given in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 examines sex differences in the salience...
Article
Sex differences in the salience and meaning of kin relations for contemporary Canadians were examined in two studies. In study 1, 24 opposite-sex adult sibling pairs were asked to reconstruct their kindreds as fully as possible, following a computerized menu. Sisters almost invariably recalled more relatives than did their brothers, especially livi...
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In 2004, Fisher, Kruger, Platek, and Salmon published an article describing their experiences as recent graduate students and newly hired faculty with strong interests in Evolutionary Psychology. Part of the intent was to offer guidance to students and their supervisors on how to become established in the field. Five years have past since the initi...
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--McMaster University, 1997. Includes bibliographical references.

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Projects (2)
Project
Synthesizing evolutionary biology, the evolutionary social sciences, and evolutionary literary study, here defined as including dramas in popular culture. Some of the articles in this project are theoretical; some are instances of practical literary criticism; some are review essays on broad themes such as the adaptive function of the arts or evolved human sociality. Contributors include Joseph Carroll and people with whom he has collaborated, but many of the articles in the list do not include Carroll as a co-author. Some contributors have not collaborated with Carroll but are collaborators with scholars or scientists who have collaborated with Carroll.