Catherine S Berkey

Catherine S Berkey
Harvard Medical School | HMS · Department of Medicine

ScD (Doctor of Science in Biostatistics)
Retired

About

138
Publications
34,927
Reads
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18,824
Citations
Citations since 2016
9 Research Items
4551 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
20162017201820192020202120220200400600
Additional affiliations
June 1994 - present
Harvard Medical School
Position
  • Lecturer in Medicine (Biostatistics)
June 1994 - present
Brigham and Women's Hospital
Position
  • Biostatistician (Research Associate)
July 1991 - June 2001
Harvard School of Public Health
Position
  • Lecturer in Biostatistics
Education
September 1976 - May 1980
Harvard University
Field of study
  • Biostatistics
September 1974 - May 1975
Boston University
Field of study
  • Mathematics
September 1969 - June 1973
Miami University
Field of study
  • Mathematics

Publications

Publications (138)
Article
Full-text available
Adolescent drinking is associated with higher risks of proliferative benign breast disease (BBD) and invasive breast cancer (BC). Furthermore, adolescent nut and fiber consumptions are associated with lower risks of benign lesions and premenopausal BC. We hypothesize that diet (nuts, fiber) may mitigate the elevated BBD risk associated with alcohol...
Article
Mammographic breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. We comprehensively investigated the associations of body mass index (BMI) change from ages 10, 18, and 30 to age at mammogram with mammographic breast density in postmenopausal women. We used multivariable linear regressions, adjusted for confounders, to investigate the associat...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Nutritional factors during different periods in life impact breast cancer risk. Because benign breast disease (BBD) is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer, we investigated childhood nutrition from birth through age 14 year and subsequent BBD. Methods A prospective cohort study of 9031 females, 9–15 year at baseline, completed...
Article
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Purpose To begin to explore the possible roles of childhood diet and growth in prostate cancer (PCa) development, we investigated these exposures in relation to two known/suspected PCa risk factors, earlier pubertal timing and greater attained height, in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Health and Development. Methods We used biannual/annual heig...
Article
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Although childhood adiposity is inversely associated with breast cancer risk, the association of childhood adiposity with mammographic density in premenopausal women has not been adequately studied. We analyzed data from 365 premenopausal women who came in for screening mammography at Washington University in St. Louis from 2015 to 2016. Body size...
Article
Background: Higher mammographic breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Early-life factors may influence breast development and subsequent breast density in adulthood. Although childhood adiposity is inversely associated with breast cancer risk, the association of childhood adiposity with mammographic breast density in premenopaus...
Article
Background: Although accumulating evidence from different disciplines supports an early-life contribution to prostate cancer (PCa) risk, few studies have focused on this life stage. One major reason for this dearth of research is the decades-long span of time between early-life exposures and PCa onset, making traditional epidemiologic study designs...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Body size, from birth throughout adulthood, is associated with breast cancer risk, but few studies have investigated early-life body size and benign breast disease (BBD), a well-established breast cancer risk factor. We consider whether prenatal factors and size at birth, 10, 18 year, and intervening growth, are related to BBD risk. Meth...
Article
Obesity is a well-established cause of postmenopausal breast cancer. However, early life adiposity is inversely associated with breast cancer incidence. To understand these conflicting relations, we use validated measures to assess adiposity in childhood and late adolescence, as well as weight change, in relation to total invasive breast cancer inc...
Article
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Benign breast disease (BBD) is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer, but little work has considered a girl's early life and her risk for BBD in adulthood. We investigated factors, from pre-conception through infant feeding practices, in relation to subsequent BBD risk in young women. The Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) includes 9032 femal...
Article
Vitamin D may reduce cell proliferation and tumor growth in breast tissue, and exposure may be most important during adolescence when breast tissue is developing. In the Nurses' Health Study II, higher recalled adolescent vitamin D intake was associated with a lower risk of benign breast disease (BBD). Our study aimed to assess adolescent vitamin D...
Article
In previous investigations of adolescent activity recalled in adulthood, modest reductions in risk of benign breast disease (BBD) and premenopausal breast cancer were seen with moderate-strenuous activity during high school. We therefore investigated physical activity, walking, and recreational inactivity (watching TV-videos, playing computer-video...
Article
Nearly one in four breast cancers is diagnosed before the age of 50, and many early-stage premalignant lesions are present but not yet diagnosed. Therefore, we review evidence to support the strategy that breast cancer prevention efforts must begin early in life. This study follows the literature review methods and format. Exposures during childhoo...
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Carotenoids may reduce risk of benign breast disease (BBD), an independent risk factor for breast cancer, through antioxidative or antiproliferative mechanisms. Exposure to carotenoids may be most important during adolescence when breast tissue is still developing. We examined adolescent carotenoid intake in relation to BBD in young women. In 6593...
Article
Previous investigations, of adolescent diet recalled in adulthood, found lower risk for benign breast disease (BBD) with higher intakes of vegetable fat and nuts during high school. We investigate whether vegetable protein and fat, derived from diets reported during pre-adolescence and adolescence, are associated with subsequent risk for BBD in you...
Article
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Adult alcohol consumption during the previous year is related to breast cancer risk. Breast tissue is particularly susceptible to carcinogens between menarche and first full-term pregnancy. No study has characterized the contribution of alcohol consumption during this interval to risks of proliferative benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer....
Article
Previous investigations found high dairy intakes in girls associated with rapid height growth and excess weight gain, which had opposite relationships with benign breast disease (BBD) in young women. We use data from the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) to investigate whether dairy intakes, in older children/adolescents, are associated wi...
Article
Breast cancer (BC) patients wonder how their daughters might reduce their risk. The authors investigated childhood/adolescent risk factors for benign breast disease (BBD), a well-documented risk factor for BC, among girls with a family history. GUTS (the Growing Up Today Study) includes females, aged 9 to 15 years in 1996, who completed annual ques...
Article
Full-text available
Vitamin D and calcium have been shown to have protective effects against breast cancer development in animal studies. Vitamin D and calcium play important anticarcinogenic roles in animal studies. Exposures between menarche and first birth may be important in breast development and future breast cancer risk. However, the relations between adolescen...
Article
Full-text available
To examine the combined effect of alcohol and folate intake during adolescence on the risk of proliferative benign breast disease (BBD). We used data from 29 117 women in the Nurses' Health Study II who completed both adolescent alcohol consumption questions in 1989 and an adolescent diet questionnaire in 1998. A total of 659 women with proliferati...
Article
169 Background: Given the importance of exposure between menarche and first childbirth in breast cancer risk, adolescent alcohol consumption may influence the risk of proliferative benign breast disease (BBD). Folate may modify the adverse effect of alcohol on breast cancer. Methods: We used data from 29,329 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II who...
Article
In adult women with retrospective data, childhood adiposity, pubertal growth and development were associated with benign breast disease (BBD) and/or breast cancer. The authors prospectively evaluated these childhood/adolescent characteristics and BBD risk. The Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) included females, aged 9-15 years in 1996, who completed an...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate prospectively, using alcoholic beverage consumption data collected in real time, the association between adolescent drinking and risk of biopsy-confirmed benign breast disease (BBD) in young women. The Growing Up Today Study is a prospective cohort study of US girls, aged 9 to 15 years at baseline, with annual questionnaires from 199...
Article
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Because of its nutrients and anabolic hormones, cow's milk may promote height growth, which in turn has been related to breast cancer risk. We prospectively investigated associations between dairy intakes and height growth. A cohort of 5,101 girls from throughout the United States completed annual surveys (1996-2001, 2003), providing height, weight...
Article
To examine whether excessive recreational Internet time, insufficient sleep, regular coffee consumption, or alcoholic beverages promote weight gain. A longitudinal cohort of >5000 girls (Growing Up Today Study), from all over the United States and aged 14 to 21 years, returned surveys in 2001 reporting typical past-year recreational Internet time,...
Article
We sought to examine the association between dietary dairy intake and teenaged acne among boys. This was a prospective cohort study. We studied 4273 boys, members of a prospective cohort study of youths and of lifestyle factors, who reported dietary intake on up to 3 food frequency questionnaires from 1996 to 1998 and teenaged acne in 1999. We comp...
Article
To determine whether subjective social standing in school predicts a change in body mass index (BMI) in adolescent girls during a 2-year period. Prospective cohort study. Self-report questionnaires from a community-based population of adolescent girls living across the United States from 1999 to 2001. Of 5723 girls aged 12 to 18 years participating...
Article
To determine whether change in physical activity level impacts adolescents' self-perceptions. Using questionnaire responses from the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) in 1997 and 1999, we evaluated data from 5260 girls and 3410 boys. Physical activity changes were compared to changes in perceived competence in three domains (social, athletic, and schol...
Article
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The goal was to examine the longitudinal associations of changes in television viewing and other sources of sedentary behavior with changes in leisure-time moderate/vigorous physical activity in adolescence. We studied a cohort of 6369 girls and 4487 boys who were 10 to 15 years of age in 1997. During each of 4 years of follow-up assessments, parti...
Article
Our purpose was to design and evaluate a shorter version of our 126-item food frequency questionnaire (long FFQ) for use with adolescents. A shorter FFQ is needed that can reliably rank research subjects according to their intakes of energy, macronutrients and selected micronutrients. Dietary data were collected annually, for 3 years, using the ful...
Article
Longitudinal epidemiologic studies often relate adiposity changes to suspected causal factors. In growing adolescents, this becomes complicated. Many investigators use within-child change in body mass index (BMI) z scores (Delta z) from sex- and age-specific BMI charts developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These charts,...
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There has been a remarkable paucity of evidence for an association between diet and acne. Our previous studies suggest that there is an association between milk intake and teenage acne. This is a prospective cohort study to evaluate that relationship. We studied 6,094 girls, aged 9-15 years in 1996, who reported dietary intake on up to three food f...
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Previous reports have found associations between having been breast-fed and a reduced risk of being overweight. These associations may be confounded by sociocultural determinants of both breast-feeding and obesity. We addressed this possibility by assessing the association of breast-feeding duration with adolescent obesity within sibling sets. We s...
Article
Background: Previous reports have found associations between having been breast-fed and a reduced risk of being overweight. These associations may be confounded by sociocultural determinants of both breast-feeding and obesity. We addressed this possibility by assessing the association of breast-feeding duration with adolescent obesity within siblin...
Article
In replyWe appreciate the comments of Dr Lappe on our longitudinal study of milk consumption and weight gain in adolescents.1 To clarify a point in her letter, our earlier (2004) study of sugar-added beverages and weight gain was a longitudinal study as well.2 The cross-sectional association she cited was from baseline data and not the major focus...
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Rates of overweight have increased dramatically among children in the United States. Although an increase in consumption of food prepared away from home has paralleled overweight trends, few data exist relating food prepared away from home to change in BMI in children. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal...
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In many countries, the protease inhibitor (SERPINA1) PI*S allele is more common than PI*Z, the allele responsible for most cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. However, the risk of COPD due to the PI*S allele is not clear. The current authors located studies that addressed the risk of C...
Article
Milk is promoted as a healthy beverage for children, but some researchers believe that estrone and whey protein in dairy products may cause weight gain. Others claim that dairy calcium promotes weight loss. To assess the associations between milk, calcium from foods and beverages, dairy fat, and weight change over time.Design, Subjects, and Outcome...
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The purpose of this study was to examine both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between frequency of family dinner and overweight status in a large sample of 9- to 14-year-old children. We studied a cohort of 7784 girls and 6647 boys, 9 to 14 years of age at baseline in 1996, participating in the Growing Up Today Study. From annual mail...
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Severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency, usually related to homozygosity for the protease inhibitor (PI) Z allele, is a proven genetic risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The risk of COPD in PI MZ heterozygous individuals is controversial. A search of MEDLINE from January 1966 to May 2003 identified studies that examined th...
Article
To examine prospectively the association between beverage consumption (fruit juice, fruit drinks, milk, soda, and diet soda) and changes in weight and body mass index among preschool children. A prospective cohort study that collected dietary, anthropometric, and sociodemographic data.Subjects/Setting The study population included 1,345 children ag...
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The increase in consumption of sugar-added beverages over recent decades may be partly responsible for the obesity epidemic among U.S. adolescents. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between BMI changes and intakes of sugar-added beverages, milk, fruit juices, and diet soda. Our prospective cohort study included >10,000 boys and girls partici...
Article
An epidemic rise in asthma has occurred concurrently with a rise in overweight among United States children, but it is unclear whether body weight affects the risk of incident childhood asthma. We studied the prospective relation of body-mass index (BMI) to incident asthma in a longitudinal study of 9,828 children aged 6-14 years, examined annually...
Article
The obesity epidemic, the increasing occurrence of adult diseases in childhood, and the growing awareness of a connection between adult diseases and the diet of children and adolescents have led to increased interest in what our youth are eating. Designing an instrument to evaluate adolescents' eating habits requires addressing not only the typical...
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Full-text available
Several cross-sectional studies reported that heavier children eat breakfast less often. However, no longitudinal studies have addressed whether skipping breakfast leads to excessive weight gain. To investigate whether skipping breakfast was prospectively associated with changes in body fatness. A cohort of >14000 boys and girls from all over the U...
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To examine the relation between dietary composition and weight change among children. We tested several hypotheses considering intake of nutrients (total fat and fiber) and predefined food groups (breads and grains, "fat foods," fruits, and vegetables) used in the North Dakota Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children...
Article
Cross-sectional studies have suggested that children who were less physically active and children who watched more television (TV) had more excess body weight, but no large nationwide longitudinal studies have addressed whether children who change their personal levels of activity or inactivity, from one year to the next, experience changes in adip...
Article
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Obesity increases risk of many adverse outcomes, but its early origins are obscure. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) reflects a metabolically altered fetal environment associated with high birth weight, itself associated with later obesity. Previous studies of GDM and offspring obesity, however, have been few and conflicting. The objectives of t...
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Background: Many components are involved in an assessment of diet and health among youth. To address these issues and document the major contributions of fat, fiber, vitamins, and minerals to the diet, we analyzed baseline cross-sectional data from a cohort of 16,882 youth. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on the Growing Up Today...
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Overweight during adolescence predicts short- and long-term morbidity as well as obesity in adulthood. The prevalence of overweight among adolescents is high and continues to increase. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms and preliminary epidemiologic data suggest that breastfeeding could lower the risk of subsequent obesity in adolescence. To e...
Article
In large cohort studies of older children, self-report is the only practical way to assess physical activity. Assessing usual activity over the entire year is desirable, but children and adolescents may overestimate activities with high seasonal variability. Use of questionnaires in which individuals report each activity by season may improve accur...
Article
To assess prospectively the influence of peers, parents, and the media on the development of weight concerns and frequent dieting. Prospective cohort study. Questionnaires mailed annually to participants throughout the United States. One-year follow-up of 6770 girls and 5287 boys who completed questionnaires in 1996 and 1997 and were between 9 and...
Article
Adolescent growth and development may be affected by factors such as dietary intake and body size from much earlier in childhood. In a longitudinal study of 67 Caucasian girls in Boston, Massachusetts, data were collected prospectively from birth during the 1930s and 1940s. Heights and weights were measured semiannually, and dietary history intervi...
Article
To derive combined estimates of visual resolution acuity differences between healthy preterm infants consuming different compositions and ratios of essential fatty acids (EFAs) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA). Electronic biomedical reference database (Medline and Health Star from 1965...
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To examine the role of physical activity, inactivity, and dietary patterns on annual weight changes among preadolescents and adolescents, taking growth and development into account. We studied a cohort of 6149 girls and 4620 boys from all over the United States who were 9 to 14 years old in 1996. All returned questionnaires in the fall of 1996 and...
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The proportion of children eating dinner with their families declines with age and has decreased over time. Few data exist concerning the nutritional effect of eating family dinner. To examine the associations between frequency of eating dinner with family and measures of diet quality. Cross-sectional. A national convenience sample. There were 8677...
Article
Biologically active neural tissue is rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA). We conducted a systematic review to examine the nature of discordant results from studies designed to test the hypothesis that dietary DHA leads to better performance on visually-based tasks in healthy, fullterm infant...
Article
To assess prospectively the relation of peer and media influences on the risk of development of purging behaviors. Prospective cohort study. One year follow-up of 6982 girls aged 9 to 14 years in 1996 who completed questionnaires in 1996 and 1997 and reported in 1996 that they did not use vomiting or laxatives to control weight. Self-report of usin...
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To examine the cross-sectional relationships between weight concerns, weight control behaviors, and initiation of tobacco use among youths. Smoking status, weight concerns, and weight control behaviors were assessed in a cross-sectional sample of 16 862 children, 9 to 14 years of age, in 1996. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationshi...
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We assessed the reproducibility and validity of a questionnaire that asks mothers to recall pregnancy-related events from thirty or more years ago. Among 146 women who completed the questionnaire twice, responses were highly reproducible for pre-pregnancy height and weight (r = 0.95), pregnancy complications (r = 0.74), substance use (r = 0.80), pr...
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To assess the prevalence rates and correlates of overweight, concern with weight, and bulimic behaviors. A survey was completed by a population-based sample of 16,114 boys and girls aged 9 to 14 years. Although fewer girls (19%) than boys (26%) were overweight, more girls (25% versus 22%) perceived themselves as overweight (p < .001). The proportio...
Article
Breast carcinoma risk may be modified by early life factors, including physical growth and development, diet, and life-style factors of preadolescence and adolescence, as well as genetic factors. The authors tested their hypothesis that adolescent growth and development are related to breast carcinoma incidence by evaluating 65,140 women who partic...
Article
BACKGROUND Breast carcinoma risk may be modified by early life factors, including physical growth and development, diet, and life-style factors of preadolescence and adolescence, as well as genetic factors.METHODS The authors tested their hypothesis that adolescent growth and development are related to breast carcinoma incidence by evaluating 65,14...