Catharine Evers

Catharine Evers
Utrecht University | UU · Social Health and Organizational Psychology

PhD

About

87
Publications
64,611
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3,372
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2006 - present
Utrecht University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (87)
Preprint
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BACKGROUND Economic costs of mental disorders for society are huge. Internet-based interventions are often coined as cost-effective alternative to usual care, but evidence is mixed. OBJECTIVE The aim was to review the literature on cost-effectiveness of eHealth interventions for mental disorders compared to usual care and to provide an estimate of...
Article
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Background Few studies have assessed the use of dietary supplements, anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARM) in male gym users. The comparison of physical appearance with others on social media and the exposure to fitness-related content on social media (i.e., image-centric social media use) may have a p...
Article
Objective Giving in to food temptations is typically labeled as self‐regulation failure. However, when indulgence stems from self‐licensing processes, i.e., relying on reasons to justify diet deviations, these instances might actually promote successful goal striving. This research aimed to theoretically define and test under what conditions self‐l...
Article
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Objective: Research on self-licensing, i.e. employing justifications to give into temptation, largely consists of studies examining dichotomous food choices (healthy vs. unhealthy), while evidence for its effects on how much (unhealthy) food is consumed remains scarce. The present studies aimed to demonstrate self-licensing effects on caloric consu...
Article
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Background: Nudging interventions have lately been widely adopted by policy makers to increase the welfare of society and to help citizens make better choices. Hence, it has become important to understand the conditions under which they are approved. While most research has looked into whether professionals approve of nudging interventions, surpri...
Article
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Objective: Previous research has shown that people consume less food in the dark compared to normal vision conditions. While this effect is commonly attributed to increased attention to internal cues, it could also be caused by increased difficulty to maneuver in a dark setting. This study investigated this potential alternative explanation. Desi...
Article
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149763417309272 Whether emotions affect eating, and in whom, has remained unclear. This meta-analysis assessed the effect of emotions on eating in both healthy and eating disordered individuals. Fifty-six experimental studies investigating the causal effect of emotions on eating behavior were sel...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the relationship between affect and eating behavior from two points of view – how affect shapes eating behavior and how eating behavior generates affect – arguing that in order to appreciate how affect influences eating behavior we must understand in what way eating generates affect. We first discuss biological and social-cul...
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Self-licensing, employing reasons to justify indulgence, may help resolve the conflict between immediate temptations and long-term goals in favor of the former. It was hypothesized that this conflict-resolving potential of self-licensing may benefit self-regulation over time. With a momentary assessment design, we examined how self-licensing affect...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the relationship between affect and eating behavior from two points of view-how affect shapes eating behavior and how eating behavior generates affect-arguing that appreciating how affect influences eating behavior depends on understanding in what way eating generates affect. It first discusses biological and social-cultural...
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Objective: To discuss healthy diet from a psychological perspective by considering definitions of healthy diet in terms of consumer understanding; the health effects of specific dietary elements in terms of overweight and (chronic) illness; the prevalence of healthy diet; the psychological and environmental determinants of healthy diet; and the ps...
Article
Background: Previous studies have mainly examined the immediate effects of self-licensing on self-regulation failure. The present vignette studies examined what happens when a second self-regulation dilemma is encountered. Methods: In Studies 1 (N = 52) and 2 (N = 166), participants read a vignette in which the protagonist chooses to buy a treat...
Article
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Objects, such as food, in the environment automatically activate and facilitate affordances, the possibilities for motoric movements in interaction with the objects. Previous research has shown that affordance activation is contingent upon the distance of the object with only proximal objects activating potential movements. However, the effect of a...
Article
The present study aims to examine the influence of negative affect on decision making in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) compared to healthy control women and, secondly, to assess differences between the restrictive (ANR) and binge-purge (ANBP) subtypes. One hundred four women (32 with ANR, 32 with ANBP, and 40 healthy controls) participated. All...
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Objective: Visually attending to unhealthy food creates a desire to consume the food. To resist the temptation people have to employ self-regulation strategies, such as visual avoidance. Past research has shown that self-regulatory skills develop throughout childhood and adolescence, suggesting adults' superior self-regulation skills compared to c...
Article
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It is often assumed that there are substantial sex differences in eating behaviour (e.g. women are more likely to be dieters or emotional eaters than men). The present study investigates this assumption in a large representative community sample while incorporating a comprehensive set of psychological eating-related variables. A community sample wa...
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Whereas hedonic consumption is often labeled as impulsive, findings from self-licensing research suggest that people sometimes rely on reasons to justify hedonic consumption. Although the concept of self-licensing assumes the involvement of reasoning processes, this has not been demonstrated explicitly. Two studies investigated whether people indee...
Article
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Three experimental studies examined the counterintuitive hypothesis that hunger improves strategic decision making, arguing that people in a hot state are better able to make favorable decisions involving uncertain outcomes. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that participants with more hunger or greater appetite made more advantageous choices in the Iow...
Article
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Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Data from a represent...
Article
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Background: Procrastination is a prevalent and problematic phenomenon that has mostly been studied in the domain of academic behavior. The current study shows that procrastination may also lead to harmful outcomes in the area of health behavior, introducing bedtime procrastination as an important factor related to getting insufficient sleep and con...
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Dieting is generally not effective in establishing weight loss and research has focused on documenting these negative consequences of dieting. Much less is known about why people diet. The present study employed a large and representative community sample to determine the demographic and psychological correlates of dieting and to examine the hypoth...
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Numerous studies have been conducted to demonstrate that behaviours are frequently activated unconsciously. The present studies investigate the downstream psychological consequences of such unconscious behaviour activation, building on work on the explanatory vacuum and post-priming misattribution. It was hypothesized that unconsciously activated b...
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Proximal objects provide affordances that activate the motor information involved in interacting with the objects. This effect has previously been shown for artifacts but not for natural objects, such as food. This study examined whether the sight of proximal food, compared to distant food activates eating-related information. In two experiments re...
Article
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Self-regulation failure is often explained as being overwhelmed by impulse. The present article proposes a novel pathway, presenting a theoretical framework and empirical review of a justification-based account of self-regulation failure. With justification we refer to making excuses for one's discrepant behavior, so that when experiencing a self-r...
Article
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Performing under high pressure is an emotional experience. Hence, the use of emotion regulation strategies may prove to be highly effective in preventing choking under pressure. Using a golf putting task, we investigated the role of arousal on declined sport performance under pressure (pilot study) and the effectiveness of emotion regulation strate...
Article
As people are relatively incompetent in assessing the impact of visceral states on their behavior, two studies tested the hypothesis that hunger affects the extent to which people assess themselves as external eaters. In Study 1 participants' current self-reported hunger states were linked to their scores on an external eating scale. Hungrier parti...
Article
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Objective: While high levels of dietary restraint do not appear to reflect actual caloric restraint, it has been found to be a risk factor for a wide array of maladaptive eating patterns. These findings raise the question what, if not caloric restriction, dietary restraint entails. We propose that the very finding that restrained eaters do not eat...
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Research suggests that individuals with binge eating pathology (e.g., bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorders (BED)) have decision making impairments and particularly act impulsively in response to negative affect. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of negative affect on choice behavior in women with BN and BED. Ninety women...
Article
To examine the influence of emotional eating and lack of cognitive reappraisal on eating pathology in women with binge-purge and restricting type eating disorders. Women with a diagnosis of anorexia or bulimia nervosa according to the DSM-IV-tr (n = 50) and non-clinical women without eating disorders (n = 52) were asked about emotional eating tende...
Article
Previous research has shown that people tend to consume less from foods they consider more tempting. However, the underlying mechanism for these counterintuitive findings is still unknown. The current paper is the first to test the theoretically implied suggestion that the effect of food temptation strength on consumption is indirect and can be exp...
Article
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Low body esteem poses a risk for the development of eating disorder symptomatology. Appearance-motivated exercise, as opposed to health-motivated exercise, has been associated with both low body esteem and eating disorder symptomatology. The aim of this study was to investigate the mediating role of appearance-motivated exercise in the link between...
Article
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The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) is a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Research has provided evidence of the reliability and validity of this scale in non-clinical populations. Our study is the first to examine the psychometric features of the EDDS in a clinical populat...
Article
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Hedonic overconsumption is often considered to be caused by impulsive factors. The current paper investigates whether self-licensing, relying on reasons to justify subsequent gratification, can also be included as a significant contributor to hedonic consumption. Two studies were conducted to investigate whether self-licensing can account for an in...
Article
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Objective: Although increasing evidence shows the importance of habits in explaining health behaviour, many studies still rely solely on predictors that emphasize the role of conscious intentions. The present study was designed to test the importance of habit strength in explaining unhealthy snacking behaviour in a large representative community s...
Article
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Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between expressive suppression and depressive symptoms. These results have been interpreted as reflecting the impact of emotion regulation efforts on depression. However, it is also possible that depression may alter emotion regulation tendencies. The goal of the present study was to prospec...
Chapter
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Men and women differ in the regulation of their anger expressions. As the regulation of anger expressions often occurs in social interactions, where the pressure for emotion regulation is high, the social context can be considered as important in explaining these gender differences. In the present chapter, the association between the social context...
Article
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On the basis of Social Role Theory and a social functional view of emotions, we argue that gender differences in anger experiences and expression are related to men’s and women’s relationship context. We hypothesized that women in traditional relationship contexts would express their anger less directly, and would suppress their anger more, due to...
Article
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Contrary to lay intuition, counteractive control theory posits that tempting food cues can help individuals to act in accordance with their long-term dieting goal. However, studies have shown that temptations trigger goal-directed behavior only in successful but not in unsuccessful self-regulators. The aim of the present study was to test whether i...
Article
As people are relatively incompetent in assessing the impact of visceral states on their behavior, two studies tested the hypothesis that hunger affects the extent to which people assess themselves as external eaters. In Study 1 participants' current self-reported hunger states were linked to their scores on an external eating scale. Hungrier parti...
Article
This series of studies examined the effect of temptation strength on self-regulation processes in the context of eating behavior. Based on the critical level model, it was hypothesized that weak, rather than strong, temptations yield the most unfavorable conditions for effective self-regulation, because the negative consequences of the former are u...
Article
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The present studies tested the effectiveness of implementation intentions with an "if [situation], then not [habitual response]" structure. Based on ironic process theory and the literature on the processing of negations, it was expected that these "negation implementation intentions" would, ironically, strengthen the habit (situation-response asso...
Chapter
The simple picture of the angry male and the friendly female may be appealing, but it is oversimplified. Anger is an emotion that is experienced equally frequently by men and women because of goals that are blocked and other persons that transgress social rules. However, gender role practices and expectancies do affect the way in which men and wome...
Article
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Responds to the comments by T. van Strien (see record 2010-14873-003) on the current authors' original article, "Assessing yourself as an emotional eater: Mission impossible?" (see record 2009-20990-009). In her commentary, van Strien suggests that it may not be "impossible" to self assess for emotional eating, as a close inspection of the results...
Article
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The process by which emotions affect eating behavior emerges as one of the central unresolved questions in the field of emotional eating. The present studies address the hypothesis that the regulation strategies people use to deal with these emotions are responsible for increased eating. Negative emotions were induced and intake of comfort food and...
Article
This article examines the extent to which self-reported emotional eating is a predictor of unhealthy snack consumption or, alternatively, an expression of beliefs about the relation between emotions and eating derived from concerns about eating behaviour. Three studies were conducted. Study 1 (N = 151) and Study 2 (N = 184) investigated the predict...
Article
The extent to which individuals are emotional eaters has typically been assessed by people's self-reported desire to eat when they experience negative emotions. Elevated scores on these emotional eater scales have been associated with eating pathology and obesity. However, evidence that individuals scoring high on these scales truly increase their...
Article
In the Western rich food environment, people are constantly confronted with palatable but unhealthy food products. For those who would like to watch their weight, the appeal of immediate satisfaction is in conflict with their long-term weight watching goal, constituting a classic self-control dilemma. The current studies were designed to test the e...
Article
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People frequently have to control their emotions to function in life. However, mounting evidence suggests that deliberate emotion regulation often is costly. This presents a dilemma: Is it better to let emotions go or to pay the price of exerting costly control? In two studies, the authors explore whether emotion regulatory processes associated wit...
Article
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The central objective of this study was to investigate the role of social appraisal in sex differences in anger expression. Anger expression was inferred from the amount of hot sauce given to the person who induced anger. Participants were randomly assigned to a social condition, in which they expected to meet this person, or to a nonsocial conditi...
Article
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Emotions are the building blocks of social relations. This implies not only that our own emotional behavior affects others, but also that others' emotions have an impact on how we feel. In this paper, we report two studies that examine the impact of others' emotional reactions on one's own emotions. We argue that individuals who are exposed to the...
Article
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To compare prescribed daily doses (PDDs) of psychotropic drugs in several European centres. A one-day census of psychotropic drug prescriptions to 613 patients in 39 acute psychiatric wards in ten countries. Patients in Spain were on most drugs; patients in Germany were on the fewest. Chlorpromazine equivalents in Denmark, England, Germany and Spai...
Article
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In the Netherlands, it is considered good medical practice to offer patients with gender identity disorder the option to undergo hormonal and surgical sex reassignment therapy. A liberalization of treatment guidelines now allows for such treatment to be started at puberty or prepuberty. The question arises as to what extent gender identity disorder...
Article
In The Netherlands it has recently become possible for transsexual patients to receive hormonal treatment from the onset of puberty to prevent pubertal development. From 16 years of age onwards, gender adjustment can be initiated by administration of hormones of the opposite sex. Surgical treatment can be offered once the patient reaches 18 years o...
Article
The present study evaluates the accuracy of clinical and archival predictors of patients' aggressive behaviour on a locked admissions ward. Over a 9-month period, staff members estimated the likelihood that patients would become aggressive during their stay in the ward. These unaided clinical assessments were obtained with Visual Analogue Scales (V...
Article
In the Netherlands it has recently become possible for transsexual patients to receive hormonal treatment from the onset of puberty. Until the age of 16, pubertal development can be prevented with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists. From 16 years of age onwards, gender adjustment can be initiated by administration of hormones of...