Catalin V Buhusi

Catalin V Buhusi
Utah State University | USU · PhD Program in Neuroscience and PhD Program in Psychology (“Brain and Cognition” specialization)

MEng. MA. PhD. Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience

About

89
Publications
17,124
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Introduction
Dr. Buhusi received a MEng in Computer Engineering from Technical University of Iasi, Romania, and a PhD in Psychology from Duke University, USA. After a postdoc in Neurosciences, he received a faculty position at Duke University, to study the neurobiology of attentional processing of time. In 2006, he accepted an Associate Professor position in the Neurosciences Dept. at Medical University of South Carolina to study animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders in which interval timing is disregulated, and the genetic regulation of brain circuits involved in time perception. In 2012 he moved to Utah State University where he is a Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience in the USTAR BioInnovations Center, studying the neurobiology of timing, learning, memory, attention, and decision making.

Publications

Publications (89)
Article
Full-text available
Interval timing is crucial for decision-making and motor control and is impaired in many neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia — a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic compo- nent. Several gene mutations, polymorphisms or rare copy number variants have been associated with schizophrenia. L1 cell adhesion molecules (L1CAMs...
Preprint
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Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which impaired decision-making and goal-directed behaviors are core features. One of the genes associated with schizophrenia is the Close Homolog of L1 (CHL1); CHL1-deficient mice are considered a model of schizophrenia-like deficits, including sensorimotor gating, interval timing and spatial memory...
Preprint
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Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal processing of information and attentional deficits. Schizophrenia has a high genetic component but is precipitated by environmental factors, as proposed by the ‘two-hit’ theory of schizophrenia. Here we compared latent inhibition as a measure of learning and attention, in CHL1...
Article
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Decision making, rate calculation, and planning are examples of daily tasks we perform. They require accurate timing and involve many cortical areas such as the prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and the hippocampus. Although the neurobiological origin and the mechanisms of interval timing are largely unknown, we developed increasingly accurate mathe...
Article
Full-text available
Motor sequence learning, planning and execution of goal-directed behaviors, and decision making rely on accurate time estimation and production of durations in the seconds-to-minutes range. The pathways involved in planning and execution of goal-directed behaviors include cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry modulated by dopaminergic inputs....
Article
The Striatal Beat Frequency (SBF) model of interval timing uses many neural oscillators, presumably located in the frontal cortex (FC), to produce beats at a specific criterion time T c . The coincidence detection produces the beats in the basal ganglia spiny neurons by comparing the current state of the FC neural oscillators against the long-term...
Article
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Many species, including humans, show both accurate timing − appropriate time estimation in the seconds to minutes range − and scalar timing − time estimation error varies linearly with estimated duration. Behavioral paradigms aimed at investigating interval timing are expected to evaluate these dissociable characteristics of timing. However, when e...
Article
The behavioral and neural mechanisms by which distracters delay interval timing behavior are currently unclear. Distracters delay timing in a considerable dynamic range: Some distracters have no effect on timing ("run"), whereas others seem to "stop" timing; some distracters restart ("reset") the entire timing mechanisms at their offset, whereas ot...
Article
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Accurate decisions about whether to trust someone are critical for adaptive social behavior. Previous research into trustworthiness decisions about face stimuli have focused on individuals. Here, decisions about groups of people are made cumulatively on the basis of sequences of faces. Participants chose to either increase or withdraw an initial in...
Article
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Time perception is fundamental for decision-making, adaptation, and survival. In the peak-interval (PI) paradigm, one of the critical features of time perception is its scale invariance, i.e., the error in time estimation increases linearly with the to-be-timed interval. Brain lesions can profoundly alter time perception, but do they also change it...
Article
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Emotionally charged distracters delay timing behavior. Increasing catecholamine levels within the prelimbic cortex has beneficial effects on timing by decreasing the delay after aversive distracters. Here we examined whether increasing catecholamine levels within the prelimbic cortex also protects against the deleterious timing delays caused by nov...
Article
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The neural circuit linking the basal ganglia, the cerebellum and the cortex through the thalamus plays an essential role in motor and cognitive functions. However, how such functions are realized by multiple loop circuits with neurons of multiple types is still unknown. In order to investigate the dynamic nature of the whole-brain network, we built...
Article
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Recent findings from the laboratory of May-Britt and Edvard Moser (Tsao et al. in Nature 561, 57–62, 2018) suggest that episodic time is integrated from experience by a neural population in lateral entorhinal cortex that encodes events in a when–where–what trajectory at multiple time scales. While they provide a window into how the brain represents...
Article
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Previous research has shown that schizophrenia (SZ) patients exhibit impairments in interval timing. The cause of timing impairments in SZ remains unknown but may be explained by a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal circuits. Although the current literature includes extensive behavioral data on timing impairments, there is limited focus on the neur...
Article
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Spatial and temporal dimensions are fundamental for orientation, adaptation, and survival of organisms. Hippocampus has been identified as the main neuroanatomical structure involved both in space and time perception and their internal representation. Dorsal hippocampus lesions showed a leftward shift (toward shorter durations) in peak-interval pro...
Preprint
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Impulsive decision-making is common in addiction-related disorders, with some research suggesting it plays a causal role in their development. Therefore, reducing impulsive decision-making may prevent or reduce addiction-related behaviors. Recent research shows that prolonged experience with response-contingent delayed reward (delay exposure [DE] t...
Article
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Increased reactivity to stress is maladaptive and linked to abnormal behaviors and psychopathology. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) alters catecholaminergic neurotransmission and remodels neuronal circuits involved in learning, attention and decision making. Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is essential for the physiology and survival of...
Article
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Memory decline during aging or accompanying neurodegenerative diseases, represents a major health problem. Neurotrophins have long been considered relevant to the mechanisms of aging-associated cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Mature Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and its precursor (proBDNF) can both be secreted in response to neu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Interval timing is crucial for decision-making and motor control and is impaired in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Previous studies examined timing in various strains or genetically-altered mice, but not in parallel in male and female mice in the same experimental setting. We investigated timing and attention to time in male and female C57Bl/6J m...
Article
Full-text available
Maladaptive reactivity to stress is linked to improper decision making, impulsivity, and discounting of delayed rewards. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) alters dopaminergic function, re-shapes dopaminergic circuits in key areas involved in decision making, and impairs prefrontal-cortex dependent response inhibition and working memory. Glial-deri...
Article
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The many existent models of timing rely on vastly different mechanisms to track temporal information. Here we examine these differences, and identify coincidence detection in its most general form as a common mechanism that many apparently different timing models share, as well as a common mechanism of biological circadian, millisecond and interval...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive processes, such as decision making, rate calculation and planning, are strongly affected by the ability of subjects to perceive durations in the seconds-to hours range (interval timing) [1]. A classic interval timing paradigm is the peak interval (PI) procedure which consists of interspersed reinforced and probe trials. During the reinfor...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive processes such as decision-making, rate calculation and planning require an accurate estimation of durations in the supra-second range—interval timing. In addition to being accurate, interval timing is scale invariant: the time-estimation errors are proportional to the estimated duration.The origin and mechanisms of this fundamental prope...
Data
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As time passes by, our own understanding of time is close to the truth. The brain is an efficient machine in orchestrating temporal information across a wide range of time scales. Remarkably, circadian and interval timing processes are shared phenomena across many species and behaviours. Moreover, timing is a pivotal biological function that suppor...
Article
Full-text available
Time perception in the second-to-minutes range is crucial for fundamental cognitive processes like decision making, rate calculation, and planning. We used a striatal beat frequency (SBF) computational model to predict the response of an interval timing network to intruders, such as gaps in conditioning stimulus (CS), or distracters presented durin...
Article
Full-text available
Interruptions and unfamiliar events (distracters) during a timed signal disrupt (delay) timing in humans and other animals. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to a stimulus may reduce its subsequent time-disrupting properties. To test this hypothesis rats were trained in a reversed peak-interval (RPI) procedure, in which dark timing trials were...
Article
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The ability to estimate durations in the seconds-to-minutes range - interval timing - is essential for survival, adaptation and its impairment leads to severe cognitive and/or motor dysfunctions. The response rate near a memorized duration has a Gaussian shape centered on the to-be-timed interval (criterion time). The width of the Gaussian-like dis...
Article
Full-text available
Time perception in the suprasecond range is crucial for fundamental cognitive processes such as decision making, rate calculation, and planning. In the vast majority of species, behavioral manipulations, and neurophysiological manipulations, interval timing is scale invariant: the time-estimation errors are proportional to the estimated duration. T...
Article
Full-text available
In most species, interval timing is time-scale invariant: errors in time estimation scale up linearly with the estimated duration. In mammals, time-scale invariance is ubiquitous over behavioral, lesion, and pharmacological manipulations. For example, dopaminergic drugs induce an immediate, whereas cholinergic drugs induce a gradual, scalar change...
Article
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Emotional distracters impair cognitive function. Emotional processing is dysregulated in affective disorders such as depression, phobias, schizophrenia, and PTSD. Among the processes impaired by emotional distracters, and whose dysregulation is documented in affective disorders, is the ability to time in the seconds-to-minutes range, i.e. interval...
Article
Full-text available
Interruptions (gaps) and unfamiliar events (distracters) during a timed signal delay the timed response of humans and other animals. To explore this phenomenon, we manipulate the intensity of auditory distracters (Experiment 1), and we dissociate the role of distracter intensity, distracter similarity with the intertrial interval, and dissimilarity...
Article
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When dancing, one follows the rhythm without much conscious control, while also singing, entertaining a conversation, planning intricate sequences of steps, or estimating the time until the end of the song. Processing of rapid beats, in the sub-second range seems to be done automatically and doesn't appear to interfere with timekeeping in the range...
Article
Full-text available
In most species, the capability of perceiving and using the passage of time in the seconds-to-minutes range (interval timing) is not only accurate but also scalar: errors in time estimation are linearly related to the estimated duration. The ubiquity of scalar timing extends over behavioral, lesion, and pharmacological manipulations. For example, i...
Article
Full-text available
The capability of performing interval timing is essential for survival, adaptation and its impairment leads to sever cognitive and/or motor dysfunctions. Although the localization of brain regions essential for interval timing is not yet clear, some progress has been made. For example, both temporal production and temporal perception are strongly c...
Article
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Humans and lower animals time as if using a stopwatch that can be "stopped" or "reset" on command. This view is challenged by data from the peak-interval procedure with gaps: Unexpected retention intervals (gaps) delay the response function in a seemingly continuous fashion, from stop to reset. We evaluated whether these results are an artifact of...
Chapter
Full-text available
Timing behavior refers to the capacity of subjects to perceive, estimate, and discriminate time intervals (e.g., durations of and between events), to emit (or avoid emitting) behavioral responses at appropriate time intervals, and more generally, to modulate their behavior in time (Buhusi and Meck 2005; Gibbon et al. 1997). Timing behavior includes...
Article
Full-text available
In many species, interval timing behavior is accurate-appropriate estimated durations-and scalar-errors vary linearly with estimated durations. Whereas accuracy has been previously examined, scalar timing has not been clearly demonstrated in house mice (Mus musculus), raising concerns about mouse models of human disease. The authors estimated timin...
Article
Individuals time as if using a stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here, we review behavioural and neurobiological data supporting the time-sharing hypothesis that perceived time depends on the attentional and memory resources allocated to the timing process. Neuroimaging studies in humans suggest that timekeeping tasks engage brain...
Article
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Current theories of interval timing assume that humans and other animals time as if using a single, absolute stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here we evaluate the alternative view that psychological time is represented by multiple clocks, and that these clocks create separate temporal contexts by which duration is judged in a rela...
Article
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The effects of prenatal choline availability on contextual processing in a 30-s peak-interval (PI) procedure with gaps (1, 5, 10, and 15 s) were assessed in adult male rats. Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline affected baseline timing performance in the PI procedure. However, prenatal choline availability significantly alter...
Article
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Previous research indicates that dopamine controls both the speed of an internal clock [Maricq, A.V., Church, R.M., 1983. The differential effects of haloperidol and methamphetamine on time estimation in the rat. Psychopharmacology 79, 10-15] and sharing of resources between the timer and other cognitive processes [Buhusi, C.V., 2003. Dopaminergic...
Article
Gaps and distracters were presented during the timed signal to examine whether the stop/reset mechanism is activated by (a) changes in the timed signal (switch hypothesis), (b) ITI-like events (ambiguity hypothesis), or (c) processes concurrent with the timing process (time-sharing hypothesis). While the switch and ambiguity hypotheses predict that...
Article
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Four hypotheses (switch, instructional-ambiguity, memory decay, and time sharing) were evaluated in a reversed peak-interval procedure with gaps by presenting distracter stimuli during the uninterrupted timed signal. The switch, instructional-ambiguity, and memory-decay hypotheses predict that subjects should time through the distracter and delay r...
Article
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Previous data suggest that in a peak-interval procedure with gaps, memory for the pre-gap interval varies with the discriminability of the gap from the to-be-timed signal. Here we extend this finding by manipulating the pre-gap and gap intervals as well as the visual contrast between the gap and the to-be-timed signal. The delay in response functio...
Article
Time is a fundamental dimension of life. It is crucial for decisions about quantity, speed of movement and rate of return, as well as for motor control in walking, speech, playing or appreciating music, and participating in sports. Traditionally, the way in which time is perceived, represented and estimated has been explained using a pacemaker-accu...
Article
The authors hypothesized that during a gap in a timed signal, the time accumulated during the pregap interval decays at a rate proportional to the perceived salience of the gap, influenced by sensory acuity and signal intensity. When timing visual signals, albino (Sprague-Dawley) rats, which have poor visual acuity, stopped timing irrespective of g...
Chapter
Full-text available
Humans and other animals process temporal information as if they use an internal stopwatch that can be stopped and reset, and whose speed of ticking is adjustable (Church, 1978). Support for this idea comes from data in bees, fish, turtles, birds, rodents, monkeys, and human infants and adults (e.g., Bateson and Kacelnik, 1997, 1998; Brannon et al....
Article
Full-text available
Interval timing in operant conditioning is the learned covariation of a temporal dependent measure such as wait time with a temporal independent variable such as fixed-interval duration. The dominant theories of interval timing all incorporate an explicit internal clock, or "pacemaker," despite its lack of independent evidence. The authors propose...
Article
Previous data suggest that rats (Rattus norvegicus) and pigeons (Columba livia) use different interval-timing strategies when a gap interrupts a to-be-timed signal: Rats stop timing during the gap, and pigeons reset their timing mechanism after the gap. To examine whether the response rule is controlled by an attentional mechanism dependent on the...
Article
Interval timing in operant conditioning is the learned covariation of a temporal dependent measure such as wait time with a temporal independent variable such as fixed-interval duration. The dominant theories of interval timing all incorporate an explicit internal clock, or "pacemaker," despite its lack of independent evidence. The authors propose...
Article
Previous data suggest that rats (Rattus norvegicus) and pigeons (Columba livia) use different intervaltiming strategies when a gap interrupts a to-be-timed signal: Rats stop timing during the gap, and pigeons reset their timing mechanism after the gap. To examine whether the response rule is controlled by an attentional mechanism dependent on the c...
Article
Humans and animals process temporal information as if they were using an internal stopwatch that can be stopped and reset, and whose speed is adjustable. Previous data suggest that dopaminergic drugs affect the speed of this internal stopwatch. Using a paradigm in which rats have to filter out the gaps that (sometimes) interrupted timing, the autho...
Article
Contrary to data showing sensitivity to nontemporal properties of timed signals, current theories of interval timing assume that animals can use the presence or absence of a signal as equally valid cues as long as duration is the most predictive feature. Consequently, the authors examined rats' behavior when timing the absence of a visual or audito...
Article
Full-text available
Contrary to data showing sensitivity to nontemporal properties of timed signals, current theories of interval timing assume that animals can use the presence or absence of a signal as equally valid cues as long as duration is the most predictive feature. Consequently, the authors examined rats' behavior when timing the absence of a visual or audito...
Article
Full-text available
This article discusses a Fuzzy Logic (FL)-based model of neural coding and integration, proposed to be a formal extension of the Across-Fiber Pattern (AFP) theory. FL integration is conceptually similar to Bayesian reasoning, thus providing close-to-optimal decisions, and is also robust in that it does not require complete information. As a formal...
Article
Full-text available
We present a neural network model of Pavlovian conditioning in which a timing mechanism, by which a CS can predict when the US is presented, activates an architecture in which a stimulus acts as a simple CS and/or as an occasion setter. In the model, stimuli evoke multiple traces of different duration and amplitude, peaking at different times after...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter discusses a natural expression of fuzzy logic in the function of the brain. We start (Section 1) with a historical account of the fuzzy perspective in neuroscience, and support this perspective with recent neurophysiological data (Section 2). Next, we use the activity of taste neurons as an example of a biological fuzzy membership func...
Article
Full-text available
A neural network model of classical conditioning is applied to the description of some aspects of the psychopharmacology of latent inhibition (LI). According to the model, LI is manifested because preexposure of the conditioned stimulus (CS) reduces Novelty, defined as proportional to the sum of the mismatches between predicted and observed events,...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental data indicate that hippocampal lesions might impair, spare, or even facilitate latent inhibition (LI). Furthermore, when LI is impaired by the lesions, it might be reinstated by haloperidol administration. The present article applies a neural network model of classical conditioning (N. A. Schmajuk, Y. W. Lam, & J. A. Gray, 1996) to inv...