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Cataldo De Blasio

Cataldo De Blasio
Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland · Faculty of Science and Engineering

Dr. Sc. (Tech.)

About

95
Publications
18,792
Reads
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552
Citations
Citations since 2017
54 Research Items
491 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Aalto University
Position
  • Responsible Teacher: Power Generation From Biomass I
January 2012 - present
Aalto University
Position
  • Responsible Teacher: Power Generation From Biomass IIA
January 2012 - present
Aalto University
Position
  • Responsible Teacher: Power Generation From Biomass IIb
Education
April 2006 - December 2010
Åbo Akademi University
Field of study
  • Chemical Engineering

Publications

Publications (95)
Article
Electricity production from the burning of fossil fuels, is one of the main sources of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions. Therefore, it is necessary to find alternatives to mitigate CO2 emissions. Having as alternative the implementation of CO2 Capture and Storage plants (CCS). Highlighting post-combustion technologies with chemical absorption and mon...
Article
Full-text available
Digestate, a nutrient-rich substance, is a potential resource of income in biogas plants. It can be utilized as a soil amendment and solid biofuel due to containing inorganic and organic compounds. However, concerning the environmental regulations, there is a requirement for further processes, including hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). Regarding t...
Article
The agitated slurry tank is widely used, given its versatility and relative ease of installation. This contribution explores the influence of agitation on the motion of solid aggregates that can be formed in a nickel oxide slurry suspended in iso-octane under bubbling nitrogen gas. Motion features of a relatively big particle, representing solid ag...
Article
Full-text available
This work is focused on optimising a low-temperature delignification as holocellulose purification pretreatment of Platanus acerifolia leaf waste for second-bioethanol production. Delignification was accomplished by acid-oxidative digestion using green reagents: acetic acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide 1:1. The effect of reaction time (30–90 min), tem...
Article
The potential of artificial neural networks as a tool to classify and identify a change in the flow regime of a three-phase fluidized bed is studied. Particularly, the suitability of self-organizing maps, unsupervised neural networks that visualize the data in a lower dimension, is evaluated. Statistical features of experimental time series determi...
Chapter
Global warming is one of the main environmental problems affecting the world. The continuous emissions of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere have generated a critical environmental situation worldwide. It is reported that 70% of CO2 emissions are related to electricity production. For this reason, if there is an increase in energy de...
Article
Full-text available
Biomass is often referred to as a carbon–neutral energy source, and it has a role in reducing fossil fuel depletion. In addition, biomass can be converted efficiently into various forms of biofuels. The biomass conversion processes involve several thermochemical, biochemical, and hydrothermal methods for biomass treatment integration. The most comm...
Article
Liquid–solid fluidized beds (LSFB) modeling validation is crucial for establishing design rules and monitoring tools. However, it generally relies on comparing global variables, which overlook dynamic features that influence reaction outputs. This work aims to implement time series analysis tools to compare Radioactive Particle Tracking data with a...
Article
Supercritical Water Gasification of glycerol is carried out on a continuous tubular reactor at 25 MPa and 610 °C. A design of experiments is performed at three levels of glycerol concentration (2.5; 5; and 10%) and three levels of inflow rate (125; 250; and 375 mL/min). The process outputs are the molar production of H2; CH4; CO2; CO; and C2H6. The...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, various industrial processes are carried out in fluidized bed reactors. Knowing its internal dynamics is fundamental for the intensification of these processes. This work assesses the motion of fluidized calcium alginate spheres under the influence of an upward fluid flow within a 1.2 m high and 0.1 m inner diameter acrylic column. The l...
Preprint
Currently, various industrial processes are carried out in fluidized bed reactors, such as fermentation, water treatment, and algae growth. Knowing its internal dynamics is fundamental for the intensification of these processes. This work assesses the motion of fluidized calcium alginate spheres under the influence of an upward fluid flow within a...
Article
The information obtained by one-dimensional Radioactive Particle Tracking is used to make an industrially relevant description of the macroscopic mixing of a three-phase bubble column. The objective is to characterize and compare the solid motion of granular activated carbon (dp = 1 mm) and calcium alginate beads (dp = 5 mm), widely used as adsorbe...
Article
Full-text available
Biomass with a large amount of moisture is well-suited to be processed by supercritical water gasification, SCWG. The precipitation of inorganics, together with char formation and re-polymerization, can cause reactor plugging and stop the process operations. When plugging occurs, sudden injections of relatively large mass quantities take place, inf...
Poster
Full-text available
Se le aplicó un pretratamiento de hidrólisis oxidativa a muestras de residuos de poda (lignocelulósicos). Dichos experimentos se organizaron mediante un diseño de experimento tipo Box-Behnken y las respuestas (deslignificación, rendimiento de fracción sólida) fueron analizadas y estudiadas mediante superficies de respuesta. Finalmente, se estudió a...
Article
Full-text available
Supercritical water gasification is potentially suitable for wet biomass; however, commercializing this process requires comprehensive analysis of process conditions and addressing the plugging issue. The objectives of this study are to illustrate a step-wise injection method addressing solid deposition and plugging in the lab-scale tubular reactor...
Article
The objective of this study is to investigate the techno-economic feasibility of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of black liquor integrated to a Kraft pulp mill. The process simulations have been performed through Aspen Plus software. The assessment includes five integration scenarios: stainless steel 316 or Inconel 625 as the reactor mater...
Book
This book explores the use of biomass as an energy source and its application in energy conversion technologies. Focusing on the challenges of, and technologies related to, biomass conversion, the book is divided into three parts. The first part underlines the fundamental concepts that form the basis of biomass production, its feasibility valuatio...
Chapter
In this small chapter, the author wanted to point out some derivations which concern the Gauss function. The chapter’s aim is to support the reader with additional information on the useful function and its many applications. After introducing the function, some derivations are shown on its mean value.
Chapter
This is the last section of the third part of this book. Additional data and some notions are given in relation to the oxidation and reduction states of atoms and ionization potential. Electronegativity values for diverse atoms are given in reference to data commonly found in the literature. The electrochemical potential values at standard conditio...
Chapter
Biomass and biofuels can be of different types, and they can be utilized in different ways. For instance, we can think of producing energy crops and then use the produced biomass in a biomass-fired power plant, or we could gasify the biomass to produce syngas. Another way could be to feed biomass feedstock to microorganisms and let them produce bio...
Chapter
In this chapter, a more detailed analysis of the photosynthetic process is given to cover some of the most important concepts underlined in the previous sections. The main role of the reaction centers is described along with the different electron donors and acceptors. After the oxidation of water molecules, an accumulation of hydrogen ions is taki...
Chapter
In this chapter, the production processes of bioethanol from diverse sources are described with some attention on the pretreatment of the raw material available. The production of bioethanol from sugarcane is described following the main production steps and some data are given on the process conditions and operations without going into the theoret...
Chapter
In this section, the mass balances are focused on the actual microorganisms and their growth/decay. The case in which by means of microbial fermentation (as an example), the microorganisms are reproducing themselves is considered here. The approach is very similar to the one used for the enzymes, and however, there are diverse models for microbial...
Chapter
The section is centered on the explanation of the entropy concept. The author starts by analyzing the mixing of two gases at the same temperature and pressure, and then, the meaning of what is a function of state is explained in reference to the entropy. The focus of this chapter is on the statistical derivation of the concept of entropy; this is d...
Chapter
Some theory of the thermodynamics in chemical engineering is given in this section. The chapter starts with an explanation of the reaction rate and its dependence on temperature followed by the derivation of the van’t Hoff equation and Arrhenius equation. A detailed formulation of the chemical potential is then derived and statistical implications...
Chapter
Biodiesel production is increasing worldwide, and it is considered to be a renewable source of energy since it is produced from biomass feedstock. The principles of biodiesel production and the main reactions involved are described here with some emphasis on the chemistry involved. The formation of the necessary esters is reported along with the di...
Chapter
After some background information on our star, the sun, the theory of radiation is explained briefly. One alternative derivation of the Stefan–Boltzmann law is presented here and obtained by means of dimensional analysis. The concept of solid angle, its derivation, and its implications on the energy balances is done here with the purpose of introdu...
Chapter
Following the concepts illustrated within the previous chapter, an analogy is presented here between the working mechanisms of galvanic cells and biological redox reactions. These processes are explained here to underline the working principle of power conversion within biomass generation and to provide students with clear information on the reacti...
Chapter
The Fischer–Tropsch synthesis of long-chain hydrocarbons is described here along with the process involved. Catalysis plays a fundamental role within this method, and therefore information on the diverse catalysts used is given here. Different kinds of reactors and configurations are also used, and a description of the solutions used is provided to...
Chapter
Examples of results from tests done on gas chromatography and elemental analysis are reported here and explained with some details. The tests reported in this section refer to experiments done on supercritical water gasification of biomass and the related analyses of the obtained product gases. The authors have reported information on the actual in...
Chapter
When the goal is the production of biodiesel, it is beneficial to have some knowledge of the chemical analyses necessary for the determination of free fatty acids and the so-called acid number along with other kind of analyses required to assess the iodine number, the saponification of fats and oils. The biodiesel’s main characteristics and propert...
Chapter
The main parameters of some kinds of biomass feedstock are given here as reference to simple energy balances where they can be utilized. The chapter presents data from diverse sources and starts by giving the properties of biomass in terms of its physical parameters. The evaluation of the calorific values (treated more extensively in the first part...
Chapter
Chromatography is among the most important methods used to assess the composition of gaseous and liquid species. The basic principles of this method are explained in this chapter with particular focus on gas chromatography and, in addition, the analysis of the main parameters of chromatography is given. The results of the analysis are expressed by...
Chapter
After giving preliminary notions on the biomass gasification process and the various steps involved, some examples of the main reactions taking place during gasification of biomass are listed with thermodynamic data. The main focus of this chapter is on the supercritical water gasification of biomass, a process where the author of this manuscript h...
Chapter
This chapter is one of the central parts in this manuscript. Here, the main reactor configurations are explained in details and some of the derivations are given here in full for pedagogical reasons. There are also some derivations which differ from some of the most used textbooks worldwide. Equations are repeated in this chapter when needed to all...
Chapter
With knowledge of some properties of biomass given in Chap. 5, the focus of this chapter is on describing some of the most common types of physical and chemical analyses performed. This is done to assess the quality and the suitability of the feedstock at hand. In the case we are dealing with microorganisms, one of the central questions is the dete...
Chapter
The concept of biorefinery is illustrated here with some industrial example involving the production of biodiesel. Some general cases are given in regard to the production of ethanol. This is an introductory chapter where the focus is concentrated on some of the biggest Finnish companies working in this field and on process integration of different...
Chapter
The goal of this third part of the manuscript is to give explanations of some preliminary notions of thermodynamics. Selected arguments are considered here since they are acknowledged to be useful in consideration to the concepts treated in the previous parts of the manuscript. In the first chapter, some of the elementary notions of molecular weigh...
Chapter
The detailed description of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is given here. This type of analysis gives much information on the biomass at hand and its utilization in conversion processes. The most important TGA configurations are shown here with the most common procedure of analysis. For instance, positive or negative variation of mass, thermal an...
Chapter
In line with the topics of the previous chapter, the kinetics of product formation in enzyme catalyzed biological processes is given here with reference to diverse models. The enzymes will be treated first since it is supposed here that enzymes are not consumed during the process and therefore the modeling of their reaction kinetics is simpler in c...
Chapter
The chapter focuses on the general explanation of how microorganisms produce biofuels. After giving classifications of microorganisms with respect to their functioning, the author of this chapter gives examples and many references on the subject. The common biological pathways are also reported together with the explanation of the main energy carri...
Chapter
The overall energetic efficiency of a biomass power plant is explained here in a simple manner. The section starts with mass balances and continues with the evaluation of the thermal performance and efficiency. Incomplete combustion is considered, and the steps to evaluate the overall efficiency are given.
Chapter
This is an introductory chapter to the second part of the manuscript. The author describes here the importance and convenience of using liquid fuels and introduces the reader to the concept of biorefinery with particular focus on the Finnish pulp and paper industry. There is here mentioned of biodiesel production with reference to some industrial e...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this work is to assess the application of ultrasonic power to the reactive dissolution of limestone particles in an acidic environment; this would represent a novel method for improving wet Flue Gas Desulfurization industrial systems. In this study a stepwise titration method is utilized; experiments were done by using different particl...
Article
Full-text available
Kraft Black Liquor (KBL) is an aqueous solution of lignin residues, hemicelluloses and inorganic chemicals produced during the pulping process. It is sometimes classified as waste even if this definition is wrong in most of the cases where the BL is reutilized (recovered) by using it as fuel in recovery boilers. In this process, the pulping chemicals...
Conference Paper
The scope of this work was to provide an assessment of weak black liquor conversion into bio-syngas by means of SCWG process. At this aim, a continuous fed system operating at 250 bar and in the temperature range 600-750°C has been used. These temperatures are higher than the usual temperature range of SCWG, which involves additional interest in th...
Chapter
It is becoming clearer that alternative forms of energy should be investigated in order to face the increasing world energy consumption. Additionally, process integration of different technologies represents an important step for energy savings. Supercritical water gasification (SCWG), of biomass and organic by-products and waste from the process i...
Article
Stricter emission regulations require the improvement of SO2 scrubbing efficiency and energy usage. In this work, the dissolution of two very pure limestone samples under the effect of ultrasound (US) was compared to their dissolution in silent conditions. The aim of this work was to assess experimentally whether this method could be adopted as a p...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a summary of the main findings from a collaborative research project between Aalto University in Finland and partner universities. A comparative process synthesis, modelling and thermal assessment was conducted for the production of Bio-synthetic natural gas (SNG) and hydrogen from supercritical water refining of a lipid extra...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of black liquor integrated to a pulp mill. SCWG has potential as an alternative treatment for black liquor, thus enabling the conversion of pulp mills to multiproduct biorefinery plants. The current literature has investigated the yields and effic...
Article
In this work, liquid mixing in a solid–liquid baffled stirred tank is investigated experimentally by Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT). Since the technique works non-intrusively in opaque systems, the limitations of the most widespread experimental methods for the mixing time estimations are overcame. Whole-field data on the homogenization dyn...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND This study presents Supercritical Water Gasification (SCWG) as an alternative treatment process for black liquor: investigating the impacts of black liquor constituents, temperature and catalyst. The preliminary experiments include SCWG of sucrose and isoeugenol in stainless steel reactor, as model compounds of sugars and lignin. Then, t...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this paper was to present a new law of mass action based rate expression for mass transfer limited reversible reactions. A simple reaction model was derived for parallel oxidation of silicon, chromium and carbon under conditions relevant to the argon-oxygen decarburization (AOD) process. Our hypothesis is that when the forward rate...
Poster
Full-text available
The gasification of biomass in supercritical water is an emerging technology which offers the opportunity to produce methane and hydrogen from high-moisture biomass and waste streams. The obstacles of the technology owe to an early development stage but can also be attributed to the mechanically and chemically challenging process conditions (>375 °...
Article
Full-text available
Carbonate rocks are commonly utilized in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization, WFGD, because of their capability to release calcium ions and precipitate as solid gypsum in an acidic environment. Studies on the reactivity of carbonate rocks and dissolution models can be employed for optimizing the WFGD process. The correct evaluation of limestone reactivity...
Article
An existing model of the CAS-OB process has been optimized for online use by carefully selecting state variables, removal of implicit algebraic equations, and reformulating the system as a set of ordinary differential equations. The revised model has been validated with the previous model as well as with process measurements. Further, the model has...
Conference Paper
Biomass conversion in supercritical water represents one of the emerging areas of the reaction engineering. Additionally, Supercritical Water Gasification, SCWG, offers great possibilities for new ways of reactors design and operations. Reactive separation processes represent the future in this sense. In our studies experiments were done on SCWG of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Supercritical water as a process medium for hydrothermal treatment of carbonaceous material has shown an advantageous nature for energetic valorisation. The thermo-physical properties of water around the acute conditions of 22.09 MPa and 374.29˚C (critical point of water) vary significantly and a mixture of both compressible liquid-and gas-like beh...
Article
Dissolution rates of two very pure limestone samples were measured experimentally by means of the pH-stat method under conditions where mechanical stirring did not affect the rates considerably. The experimental results were modeled mathematically by considering the surface areas of the particles changing dynamically through the reaction; moreover,...
Conference Paper
Hydrothermal processing of biomass, and in particular supercritical water gasification, SCWG, has illustrated the potential to counter technical barriers that continue to face the wide deployment of biomass based energy systems. A conceptual plant flow sheet for SCWG of spirulina algae feedstock is developed on Aspen plus® for synthetic natural gas...
Article
Background Stricter SO2 emission regulations for power plants and maritime transport encourage for a better understanding of the phenomena involved in wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) where limestone dissolution is regarded as one of the rate determining steps.ResultsThe dissolution kinetics of two limestone samples was studied in the industrial...
Article
Limestone dissolution has been widely studied because of its importance in different fields, a common assumption has been to consider that the roles of mass transport and chemical reaction change as a function of pH. Furthermore, a commonly accepted model for the kinetics has not been presented thus far for a wide pH range. A model which considers...
Article
The objective of this paper is to test Raoult's law for calculating the boiling point elevation and the vapor pressure of black liquor. The vapor pressure of black liquor is an essential variable in black liquor evaporation, spraying and black liquor droplet drying during combustion. Typically only the boiling point elevation at the atmospheric pre...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this work was to develop a process model for the CAS-OB (Composition Adjustment by Sealed argon bubbling-Oxygen Blowing). The CAS-OB is designed to homogenize and control the steel composition and temperature before the casting. In the heating mode (OB) studied here, a refractory bell is lowered and submerged 30 cm below the liquid...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
CAS-OB process is a process designed for controlling the steel composition and temperature before casting. In our previous work, a novel numerical model was proposed for the heat-up stage of the CAS-OB process. This model considers all the main phenomena observed in the process, including reactions between gas jet and steel bath, reactions between...
Conference Paper
One of the major advantages of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of biomass is the possibility to process feedstock with high water content without the need of drying. Regarding the industrial application of the SCWG technology it is clear that heat-recovery and -integration will play a crucial role, as will the applied heat conversion techno...
Conference Paper
The gasification of biomass in supercritical water is an emerging technology which offers the opportunity to produce methane and hydrogen from high-moisture biomass and waste streams. The obstacles of the technology owe to an early development stage but can also be attributed to the mechanically and chemically challenging process con-ditions. The s...
Article
In the present study a generalized approach is given for the description of acquisition procedures with a particular focus on the knowledge acquisition process. The learning progression is given as an example here letting the theory to be applied to different situations. An analytical approach is performed starting from the generalized fundamental...
Article
Full-text available
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is one of the pollutant gases that result from energy conversion by coal and oil combustion. Limestone slurries are widely utilized in wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) processes. The evaluation of the reagent's reactivity is fundamental for process design and plant operation. The comparison of different limestone and dolomit...
Article
Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2) is principally the product of energy conversion through combustion of fossil fuel sources. This pollutant causes acidic rain and can also be harmful for human health. Many means for controlling sulfur dioxide emission are available in the market and have been extensively applied. Among these techniques, wet flue g...
Article
Full-text available
Different environmental processes utilize calcium carbonate and sedimentary rocks, for instance sedimentary rocks are used for water purification as filters and utilized also for acid remediation of process waters before being discarded. Additionally sedimentary rocks are used in another very important environmental process, wet Flue Gas Desulfuriz...
Article
Full-text available
9 Different environmental processes utilize calcium carbonate and sedimentary rocks, for instance sedimentary 10 rocks are used for water purification as filters and utilized also for acid remediation of process waters before 11 being discarded. Additionally sedimentary rocks are used in another very important environmental process, wet 12 Flue Gas...
Article
Every year a significant amount of Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2) is discarded in the atmosphere. SO 2 can cause indirect ozone depletion, it leads to the formation of acidic rains and a large number of diseases are provoked by contact with sulfur dioxide. Limestone (CaCO 3) is widely utilized in Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) processes because of its abili...
Article
Full-text available
Sedimentary rocks, such as limestone, are widely utilized in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes because of their ability to form sulfur compounds. The most common system adopted for FGD is the wet scrubbing process, in which the dissolution rate of sedimentary rocks represents one of the most important factors. Evaluation of the dissolution a...
Article
Sulfur is present in coal and oil and during combustion it is oxidized to sulfur dioxide (SO 2). Limestone, constituted mainly by calcium carbonate, is widely utilized in Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) processes because of the ability to capture the sulfur as sulfate salts. The evaluation of limestone reactivity is therefore a key aspect for FGD pr...